Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2014 volume:15 issue:2

Article
Ethanol-Water Separation by Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA)

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Abstract

Single long spiral tube column pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit, 25 mm diameter, and 6 m length was constructed to study the separation of water from ethanol at azeotropic concentration of 95 wt%. The first three meters of the column length acted as a vaporizer and the remaining length acted as an adsorber filled by commercial 3A zeolite. The effect of pressure, temperature and feed flow rate on the product ethanol purity, process recovery and productivity were studied. The results showed that ethanol purity increased with temperature and pressure and decreased with feed flow rate. The purity decreased with increasing productivity. The purity range was 98.9 % to 99.6 %, the recovery range was 0.82 to 0.92 and the productivity range was 0.3 to 1.05 kg ethanol/kg zeolite.h.


Article
Using Sonic Log to Predict Abnormal Pressure Zones in Selected Oil Wells (Western of Iraq)

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Abstract

Two oil wells were tested to find the abnormal pressure zones using sonic log technique. We found that well Abu-Jir-3 and Abu-Jir-5 had an abnormal pressure zones from depth 4340 to 4520 feet and 4200 to 4600 feet, respectively. The maximum difference between obtained results and the field measured results did not exceed 2.4%. In this paper, the formation pressures were expressed in terms of pressure gradient which sometimes reached up to twice the normal pressure gradient. Drilling and developing such formations were dangerous and expensive. The plotted figures showed a clear derivation from the normal trend which confirmed the existence of abnormal pressure zones.


Article
Study the Performance of Low Cost Material (Peanut Hulls) for Dye Adsorption Using Inverse Fluidized Bed

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Abstract

The present study dealt with the removal of methylene blue from wastewater by using peanut hulls (PNH) as adsorbent. Two modes of operation were used in the present work, batch mode and inverse fluidized bed mode. In batch experiment, the effect of peanut hulls doses 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 g, with constant initial pH =5.6, concentration 20 mg/L and particle size 2-3.35 mm were studied. The results showed that the percent removal of methylene blue increased with the increase of peanut hulls dose. Batch kinetics experiments showed that equilibrium time was about 3 hours, isotherm models (Langmuir and Freundlich) were used to correlate these results. The results showed that the (Freundlich) model gave the best fitting for adsorption capacity. Different size ranges of peanut hulls (PNH) were fluidized by a downward flow of an methylene blue dye dissolved in water in an inverse fluidization mode. In the inverse fluidized bed experiments, the hydrodynamics characteristics, the effect of initial methylene blue concentration Co 5, 10 and 20 mg/L, particle size 1.18-2, 2-3.35 and 3.35-4 mm, mass of adsorbent 25, 60 and 80 g, superficial fluid velocity 0.016, 0.019 and 0.027 m/s and effect of chemical modification were studied. The optimum conditions of adsorption in inverse fluidized bed were initial concentration was 5 mg/L, particle size was 1.18-2 mm size, mass of PNH is 80 g and superficial fluid velocity was 0.019 m/s. Also the adsorption capacity of PNH increased after modification by Nitric acid. UV-Spectrophotometer was used to determine the methylene blue concentration.


Article
Research Octane Number Improvement of Iraqi Gasoline by Adsorption of n-Paraffins Using Zeolite Molecular Sieves

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Abstract

This study focused on the improvement of the quality of gasoline and enhancing its octane number by the reduction of n-paraffins using zeolite 5A. This study was made using batch and continuous mode. The parameters which affected the n-paraffin removal efficiency for each mode were studied. Temperature (30 and 40 ˚C) and mixing time up to 120 min for different amounts of zeolite ranging (10-60 g) were investigated in a batch mode. A maximum removal efficiency of 64% was obtained using 60 g of zeolite at 30 ˚C after a mixing time 120 min. The effect of feed flow rate (0.3-0.8 l/hr) and bed height (10-20 cm) were also studied in a continuous mode. The equilibrium isotherm study was made using different amounts of zeolite (2-20 g) and then simulated for n-hexane and n- heptane using Langmuir, Freundlich isotherms. Kinetic of the adsorption of n-hexane and n-heptane was investigated using pseudo first order, pseudo second order and intra particle model. The Research octane number (RON) for some selected samples was measured to show the effect of the removal on the quality improvement of gasoline. Results showed an increase of 5.5 units in RON using 40 g zeolite at 40 ˚C and after 120 ˚C min. also an increase in 7 units was obtained in the continuous mode after 30 min using flow rate of o.3 l/hr and bed height of 10cm. Experimental data for n-hexane and n-heptane was found to fit Langmuir isotherm with correlation coefficient of 92.7% and 88.8% for n-C7 and n-C6, respectively. Adsorption of n-hexane and n-heptane was found to follow second order kinetics with correlation coefficient of 99.9% and 99.8% for n-C7and n-C6 respectively. This study revealed a favorable adsorption of n-paraffins on zeolite 5A as indicated by the separating factor of 0.6 and 0.44 for n-C7and n-C6, respectively.


Article
Viscosity Reduction of Sharqi Baghdad Heavy Crude Oil Using Different Polar Hydrocarbons, Oxygenated Solvents

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Abstract

This work studied the facilitation of the transportation of Sharqi Baghdad heavy crude oil characterized with high viscosity 51.6 cSt at 40 °C, low API 18.8, and high asphaltenes content 7.1 wt.%, by reducing its viscosity from break down asphaltene agglomerates using different types of hydrocarbon and oxygenated polar solvents such as toluene, methanol, mix xylenes, and reformate. The best results are obtained by using methanol because it owns a high efficiency to reduce viscosity of crude oil to 21.1 cSt at 40 °C. Toluene, xylenes and reformate decreased viscosity to 25.3, 27.5 and 28,4 cSt at 40 °C, respectively. Asphaltenes content decreased to 4.2 wt. % by using toluene at 110 °C. And best improvement in API of the heavy crude oil is 26.1 at 40 °C by using xylenes.


Article
Experimental Determination of the Elastic and Viscous Behavior of Polycarbonate Melts at Different Temperatures and Their Relationship to the Steady State Viscosity via the Cox-Merz Rule

Authors: Shatha K. Muallah شذى كاظم
Pages: 49-59
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Abstract

Rheological instrument is one of the basic analytical measurements for diagnosing the properties of polymers fluids to be used in any industry. In this research polycarbonate was chosen because of its importance in many areas and possesses several distinct properties. Two kinds of rheometers devices were used at different range of temperatures from 220 ˚C-300 ˚C to characterize the rheological technique of melted polycarbonate (Makrolon 2805) by a combination of different investigating techniques. We compared the results of the linear (oscillatory) method with the non-linear (steady-state) method; the former method provided the storage and the loss modulus of melted polycarbonate, and presented the Cox-Merz model as well. One of the major problems in measuring the viscosity of polycarbonate at high shear rates, especially at the extremes of temperatures, was that during the use of the capillary rheometer, long molecule chains led to high viscosity.


Article
Formulation of New Equation to Estimate Productivity Index of Horizontal Wells

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Abstract

Significant advances in horizontal well drilling technology have been made in recent years. The conventional productivity equations for single phase flowing at steady state conditions have been used and solved using Microsoft Excel for various reservoir properties and different horizontal well lengths. The deviation between the actual field data, and that obtained by the software based on conventional equations have been adjusted to introduce some parameters inserted in the conventional equation. The new formula for calculating flow efficiency was derived and applied with the best proposed values of coefficients ψ=0.7 and ω= 1.4. The simulated results fitted the field data. Various reservoir and field parameters including lateral horizontal length of the horizontal well (L), Skin factor (S), ratio of the vertical to horizontal permeability of the formation (KV/KH), and the vertical thickness of the productive zone (h) were studied and verified to generalize the suggested equation to estimate the horizontal well productivity indices for various reservoir kinds. This led to creating a new formula of flow efficiency equation that could be applied in AHDEB field.


Article
Kinetic of Alkaloids Extraction from Plant by Batch Pertraction in Rotating Discs Contactor

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Abstract

A liquid membrane process of Alkaloids extraction from Datura Innoxia solution was studied applying pertraction process in rotating discs contactor (RDC). Decane as a liquid membrane and dilute sulphuric acid as stripping solution were used. The effect of the fundamental parameters influencing the transport process, e.g. type of solvent used, effect of disks speed, amount of liquid membrane and effect of pH for feed and strip solution. The transport of alkaloids was analysed on the basis of kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first order reactions. Thus, the kinetic parameters (k1, k1, R_m^max, tmax, J_F^maxand J_S^max) for the transport of alkaloids were determined. The effect of organic membrane type on percentage of Alkaloids transport was found to be in the order (n-decane> n-heptane> n-hexane> ethyl ether). The results showed that the highest alkaloids extraction was obtained when using two stages, (10 rpm) discs speed, (pH=9.5) of feed solution and (pH=2) of acceptor solution in n-decane. Observation showed that the membrane entrance rate constant k1 and percentage of alkaloids transported in strip phase increased with increasing numbers of stages but the exit rate constant k2 decreased. The alkaloids extraction ratio increased with increasing the disks speed from 5 to 10 rpm but decreased at 15 rpm and decreased when increasing the volume of membrane. Also pH of feed and strip solution affected the extraction ratio and rate constants.

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