Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2014 volume:15 issue:4

Article
Comparison between Electroplating and Electroless on Plastic Surface

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Abstract

We report a method of converting non-conductive plastic surfaces into conductive by plating either copper electroless or copper electroplating -carbon black containing bending Agent onto Perspex plastics . Various approaches have been studied in order to comparing properties of the plated copper for two methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM),thickness, roughness, porosity, tensile Strength and elongation. The results show that the surface of electroplating was uniform, compact, and continuous and it had an obvious metallic sheen, while the surface of plated copper for electroless for it had many pores. Also observed that the coating was composed of small cells. These cells have been deposited together closely. Thick copper layer was deposited a(38μm ) electroplating while (5μm) for electroless plating tensile strength and elongation of copper electroplating became greater compared with copper electroless, whereas the roughness and Porosity became smaller. The electroplating copper deposition process developed in this study may open up a new route of plating on plastics (POP) for printed circuit boards, electromagnetic interference shielding, and many other applications


Article
Naphtha desulfurization by prepare Cu-Ni-zeolite adsorbent

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Abstract

For desulfurization of naphtha, NaY zeolite was prepared from Dewekhala kaolin clay (Al-Anbar region). For the prepared zeolite adsorbent, x-ray diffraction, sodium content, silica to alumina ratio, surface area, bulk density and crushing strength were determined. From the x-ray diffraction of the prepared NaY zeolite and by a comparison with the standard NaY zeolite, it was found that the prepared adsorbent in this work has approximately the same crystal structure as the standard. Adsorption process was done in a laboratory unit at 25 ᵒC and 4.1 h-1 LHSV. The experimental results show that the promoted adsorbent gives higher percentage of sulfur removal (82.15%) after 10 minute and reaching 40.15% after 120 minute. The adsorption capacity is equal 0.167 mmole "S"/ g after 10 minute while it reached up to 0.77 and 0.98 mmole "S"/g at 50 and 120 minute, respectively


Article
Electrofacies Characterization of an Iraqi Carbonate Reservoir

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Abstract

Predicting peterophysical parameters and doing accurate geological modeling which are an active research area in petroleum industry cannot be done accurately unless the reservoir formations are classified into sub-groups. Also, getting core samples from all wells and characterize them by geologists are very expensive way; therefore, we used the Electro-Facies characterization which is a simple and cost-effective approach to classify one of Iraqi heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs using commonly available well logs. The main goal of this work is to identify the optimum E-Facies units based on principal components analysis (PCA) and model based cluster analysis(MCA) depending on available well logs data for four wells from an Iraqi carbonate oil field. The optimum E-Facies units came from comparing them with geologist classification units for these four wells. Also, we conclude that the value of permeability is not important to get the optimum E-Facies units. Several runs have been tried each with different number of units using the Electro-Facies approach. The results of the techniques show very good match of the tops for various units with the actual ones. This application also shows the power and versatility of electrofacies characterization in improving reservoir descriptions in complex carbonate reservoirs


Article
Removal of SO2 over Modified Activated Carbon in Fixed Bed Reactor: I, Effect of Metal Oxide Loadings and Acid Treatment

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Abstract

The removal of SO2 from simulated gas stream (SO2 + air) in a fixed bed reactor using Modified Activated Carbon (MAC) catalysts was investigated. All the experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure, initial SO2 concentration of 2500 ppm and bed temperature of 90oC. MAC was prepared by loading a series of nickel and copper oxides 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 wt% on AC. In some of the experimental runs, the original activated carbon was pretreated with two different concentrations of nitric acid 10 and 45 wt%. The results showed that the SO2 removal efficiency, breakthrough time (τ0.05) and sorption capacity increase with increasing metal oxides loadings up to a value of 7 wt% beyond which the desulfurization performance decreases. The pretreatment of the original AC with HNO3 enhanced the removal efficiency of SO2. The copper supported catalysts showed higher flue gas desulfurization activity as compared to the nickel supported catalysts


Article
Performance Evaluation of Three Phase Spray Direct Contact Heat Exchanger

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Abstract

The present investigation deals with experimental study of three-phase direct-contact heat exchanger, for water-Freon R11 system, where water is the continuous phase (liquid) and Freon R11 (liquid-gas) is the dispersed phase. The test section consisted of a cylindrical Perspex column with inner diameter 8cm and 1.2m long, in which, water was to be confined. Liquid Freon R11 drops were injected into the hot water filled column, through a special design of distributors at the bottom of the column. The liquid Freon R11 drops rose on their way up and evaporated into two-phase bubbles at atmospheric pressure. The study was devoted to express the effect of process variables such as column height, Freon R11 mass flow rate and initial temperature of water on the average percentage holdup, heat transfer rate, volumetric heat transfer coefficient and effectiveness. The obtained experimental results showed that the average percentage holdup increased with increasing in the process variables. The heat transfer rate increased clearly with increasing in mass flow rate of Freon R11 while it increased very little when column height and initial temperature of water increased, it increased two times when increase the mass flow rate from 1.8 to 5.4 kg/hr. The volumetric heat transfer coefficient was found to decrease with increasing in column height and initial temperature of water, while it was increased with increasing in mass flow rate of Freon R11. The effectiveness was found to increase (maximum 90%) with increasing in column height and decreasing in the mass flow rate of Freon R11 and initial temperature of water. A statistical analysis was performed to get general correlations for the average percentage holdup, heat transfer rate, volumetric heat transfer coefficient and effectiveness as a function of the studied parameters


Article
Coagulation/ Flocculation, Microfiltration and Nanofiltration for Water Treatment of Main Outfall Drain for Injection in Nasiriyah Oil Field

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Abstract

The present work aims to study the efficiency of coagulation/ flocculation as 1st stage, natural gravity water filter or microfiltration (MF) as 2nd stage and nanofiltration (NF) technology as final stage for treatment of water of main outfall drain (MOD) for injection in Nasiriyah oil field. Effects of operating parameters such as coagulant dosage, speed and time of slow mixing step and settling time in the 1st stage were studied. Also feed turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) in the 2nd stage were studied. Also feed concentration, temperature and operating time, in the final stage were studied. The results showed that the optimum dosage for alum was 35, 40 and 50 ppm. While, for ferric chloride it was 15, 20 and 30 ppm and for polyelectrolyte 4, 8 and 10 ppm for 11.8, 30 and 100 NTU initial turbidity respectively. The optimum speed for the 2nd step was 25 rpm for each of alum 35 ppm, ferric chloride 15 ppm and polyelectrolyte 4 ppm. While the optimum time for the 2nd step was 30 min for each of alum 35 ppm, ferric chloride 15 ppm and polyelectrolyte 4 ppm and settling time was 30 min for each of alum 35 ppm, ferric chloride 15 ppm and polyelectrolyte 4 ppm. It was found that turbidity and TSS increases by increasing the inlet turbidity and TSS. Also it was found that salts concentration in product increases by increasing feed concentration and temperature. Rejection percentages were (94.475 – 95.631 %), (88.088 – 90.714 %), (83.33 – 93.2 %), (85.116 – 92.727 %) and (65.385 – 72.727 %) for sulphate, total hardness (TH), Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- respectively and recovery percentage of product water was (11.429 – 38.143 %) for polyamide membrane (TFC). In the case of concentrate recirculation, feed concentration, permeate concentration and volume of permeate increases with increasing in operating time and 12.69 liter of water valid for injection in oil field was recovered from 25 liter feed after 180 minute

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Article
Influences of Operating Variables on Hydrodynamic Performance of Plunging Water Jet Downflow Bubble Column

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Abstract

The hydrodynamics of a co-current down flow bubble column has been investigated with air – water system. A Perspex bubble column of 5cm in diameter and 1.5m height is used as a test contactor using nozzles of 7, 8 and 9 mm diameter for air-water distributing. The column is provided with three electro-resistivity needle probes for bubble detection. Experimental work is carried out with air flow rates from 0.09 to 0.45 m3/hr and liquid flow rates from 0.65 to 1.1m3/hr in order to study the effects of superficial gas velocity, nozzle diameter and liquid flow rate on the characteristics of hydrodynamic interactions viz. gas hold up, bubble diameter and bubble velocity by using two technical methods, direct height measurements for air-water mixture in the column and resistivity probe techniques. Gas hold up is found to be progressively increased with increasing superficial gas velocity and with decreasing liquid flow rate. Lower gas hold up is obtained with smaller nozzle diameter. However, gas hold up in two-phase zone is considerably higher than the corresponding value in mixing zone. The mean bubble velocity is increased with increasing superficial gas velocity, liquid flow rate and nozzle diameter for both mixing and two phase zones. Experimental data are found to be fairly fitted with the Drift Flux model of Zuber and Findly. The bubble diameter is considerably increased with increasing superficial gas velocity and with decreasing liquid flow rate, whereas it is slightly influenced by nozzle diameter. However, the bubbles in two-phase zone are relatively bigger than those observed in mixing zone. Finally, mathematical correlations have been developed from the experimental data to describe the gas hold up and bubble velocity in the uniform two-phase zone


Article
PREPARATION OF PVC HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANE USING (DMAC/ACETONE)

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Abstract

Membrane manufacturing system was operated using dry/wet phase inversion process. A sample of hollow fiber membrane was prepared using (17% wt PVC) polyvinyl chloride as membrane material and N, N Dimethylacetamide (DMAC) as solvent in the first run and the second run was made using (DMAC/Acetone) of ratio 3.4 w/w. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to predict the structure and dimensions of hollow fiber membranes prepared. The ultrafiltration experiments were performed using soluble polymeric solute poly ethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight (20000 Dalton) 800 ppm solution 25 °C temperature and 1 bar pressure. The experimental results show that pure water permeation increased from 25.7 to 32.2 (L/m2.h.bar) by adding acetone to the dope solution, while rejection decreased from 91.8 to 63.2%.


Article
Heat Transfer Efficiency of Different Composite Insulators

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Abstract

This research aims to investigate the thermal performance of different thermal composite insulators, wrapped around a closed-loop copper pipe (CLP). To achieve this aim a system was designed and manufactured. It is consisted of closed water tank insulated by Rock Wool, and supplied with two electric heaters, two thermostat, a flow meter, a water pump, digital temperature scales, and four series of (CLP). Six insulators were prepared namely; composites of Impregnated Fiberglass with Elastoclad and foaming Rubber (FER), Impregnated Fiberglass with Elastoclad resin and Polymeric Membrane (FEM), Impregnated Fiberglass with Polyurethane thermoset resin and Foaming Rubber (FUR), Impregnated Fiberglass with Polyurethane thermoset resin and Polymeric Membrane (FUM), Fiberglass woven tape (F) , and foaming rubber tape (R). Thermal conductivities of all composite specimens were measured by Lee's Disc device and their thermal performances were evaluated by measuring inlet and outlet temperature ΔTw at different flow rates. It was found from all test results that ΔTw decreased as flow rate increased. The optimum result was obtained for the (FER) insulator at flow rate 8 L/min where ΔTw = 0.8 oC (efficiency η = 99 %). Thermal efficiency of the prepared insulators was according to the following sequence: FER > FEM > FUR > FUM >R > F

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