Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics

المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية

ISSN: 18132065 23091673
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques
Faculty:
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics (IJAP) is a peer reviewed journal of high quality devoted to the publication of original research papers from applied physics and their broad range of applications. IJAP publishes quality original research papers, comprehensive review articles, survey articles, book reviews, dissertation abstracts in physics and its applications in the broadest sense. It is intended that the journal may act as an interdisciplinary forum for Physics and its applications. Innovative applications and material that brings together diverse areas of Physics are particularly welcome. Review articles in selected areas are published from time to time. It aims to disseminate knowledge; provide a learned reference in the field; and establish channels of communication between academic and research experts, policy makers and executives in industry, commerce and investment institutions. IJAP is a quarterly specialized periodical dedicated to publishing original papers, letters and reviews in: Applied & Nonlinear Optics, Applied Mechanics & Thermodynamics, Digital & Optical Communications, Electronic Materials & Devices, Laser Physics & Applications, Plasma Physics & Applications, Quantum Physics & Spectroscopy, Semiconductors & Optoelectronics, Solid State Physics & Applications, Alternative and Renewable Energy, Computers Networks and Applications.

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Contact info

P. O. Box 55259,
Baghdad 12001,
Iraq
Website: www.iraqiphysicsjournal.com
Email: admin@iraqiphysicsjournal.com
Email: editor_ijap@yahoo.co.uk

Table of content: 2014 volume:10 issue:3

Article
Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics
المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية

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Abstract

The Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics (IJAP) is a peer reviewed journal of high quality devoted to the publication of original research papers from applied physics and their broad range of applications. IJAP publishes quality original research papers, comprehensive review articles, survey articles, book reviews, dissertation abstracts in physics and its applications in the broadest sense. It is intended that the journal may act as an interdisciplinary forum for Physics and its applications. Innovative applications and material that brings together diverse areas of Physics are particularly welcome. Review articles in selected areas are published from time to time. It aims to disseminate knowledge; provide a learned reference in the field; and establish channels of communication between academic and research experts, policy makers and executives in industry, commerce and investment institutions. IJAP is a quarterly specialized periodical dedicated to publishing original papers, letters and reviews in: Applied & Nonlinear Optics, Applied Mechanics & Thermodynamics, Digital & Optical Communications, Electronic Materials & Devices, Laser Physics & Applications, Plasma Physics & Applications, Quantum Physics & Spectroscopy, Semiconductors & Optoelectronics, Solid State Physics & Applications, and Computers and Networks.


Article
A Novel Secure Digital Watermark Generation from Public Share by Using Visual Cryptography and MAC Techniques

Authors: Bashar S. Mahdi --- Alia K. Abdul Hassan
Pages: 3-9
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Abstract

Digital image watermarking is a technique in which a secret watermark is embedded into the original image to make an assertion about the image ownership and discouraging unauthorized copying. In this paper, a novel watermark was generated from public share using proposed visual cryptography scheme with Message Authentication Code (MAC) which is applied into a secret image (logo binary image). The proposed work was applied to provide the copyright protection and authentication of a digital image. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed scheme has maintained the original pixel expansion, achieved a reduction of the watermark size, and allowed high security, high capacity, good feasibility, imperceptibility and robustness against several types of attacks.


Article
Characterizations of Hydroxyapatite Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis on Titanium Substrates for Bone Implant Applications

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Abstract

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) synthesis was accomplished by spray pyrolysis to coat titanium bone implant with a thin film of this material. Thin films of HAp were prepared under different deposition temperatures and spraying time. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffractrometer (XRD), and Vickers’s hardness measurements were employed to characterize the synthesized films. The results indicated titanium surfaces coated by 224.1 HV, 8.59 nm thick carbonated hydroxyapatite films of 1.33 nm surface roughness.


Article
Nickel Doping and Annealing Effects on the Structural and Optical Properties of Iron Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Nidhal N. Jandow
Pages: 17-22
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Abstract

In this paper, we studied the effect of Ni doped Iron Oxide (Fe2O3: Ni) with two different concentrations (0.8:0.2) and (0.9:0.1) thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis method on glass substrates and also the annealing effect on the structural and optical properties of the deposited films. The crystal quality and surface morphology of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), while the optical properties were studied calculated from transmission and absorption spectra. XRD results showed that -Fe2O3 (Hematite) is the most abundant phase with strong peak [110] shown at 2=33.15o-33.17o with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of (0.446-0.27) degree for the three samples before annealing; and 2= 33.155o-33.175o with a FWHM of (0.37-0.23) degree after annealing at temperature 300oC. The band gap of the samples obtained from transmittance spectra was found to vary from 2.14 to 2.43 eV for pure Fe2O3 and Fe2O3: Ni with two different concentrations thin films before annealing; and from 2.33 eV to 2.64 eV after annealing. The results revealed that the structural and optical properties of the samples improved by increasing the Ni concentration and also after annealing.


Article
Structural, Electronic and Gas Sensing Properties of Cu-Doped ZrO2-TiO2

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Abstract

The study of ZrO2-TiO2 doped with Cu is motivated by its applications as a solid state gas sensor material. Cu2x(Zr0.5Ti0.5)2-xO4 ceramic system was prepared with (x=0,0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8) by using standard chemical solid reaction technique. The X-ray diffraction studies reveal the formation of orthorhombic phase with the space group Pbcn. The crystallite size was found to decrease with Cu2+ ion addition. The lattice parameters a, b and c were calculated. The charge carrier concentration increased with Cu2+ addition and charge mobility increased with Cu2+ ion content till x=0.4. Conduction mechanism was noticed to change from n-type to p-type at x=0.6. The DC conductivity increased with Cu2+ content up to x=0.6 and then decreased at x=0.8. The conduction mechanism in CuO/ZrO2/TiO2 system is due to oxygen-ion conduction and hopping of charge carriers. AC resistivity decreased with frequency and increased with Cu2+ additions. The dielectric constant decreased with frequency and increased with Cu2+ content. The decrease in dielectric loss tangent with frequency agrees well with Deby’s type relaxation process. The dielectric loss tangent did not change significantly with Cu2+ addition up to x=0.6 but increased slightly at x=0.8. The samples with x= 0.4 and 0.8 were selected to measure CO2 gas sensing at room temperature. The sample with x=0.4 showed stable and higher sensitivity at both CO2 gas exposure and evacuation. The active region of sensitivity of the bulk sensor was reached after 30 s of exposure to CO2 gas. The sample with x=0.8 was selected to measure NO2 gas sensing at room temperature. It showed relatively lower sensitivity for NO2 gas than that of CO2 gas.

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Article
Influence of Functionalization MWCNTs Using Acid Treatment on Gram Negative and Gram Positive Bacteria

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Abstract

In this work, the effect of chemical acids (like, mixture of H2SO4, HNO3 and H2O2) on the surface functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNTs) is illustrated. This effect leads to create functional groups like carboxyl (-COOH) and hydroxyl groups on the surface as well on the side walls of MWCNTs. The degree of covalent functionalization was examined by using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which proved the formation of oxygen containing groups such as C=O and COOH. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) used to characterize the morphological of surface modification on the MWCNTs structure due to oxidation by acid treatment during functionalization process. The antibacterial action of functionalized F-MWCNTs are tested for their efficiency in destroying the pathogenic bacteria, Gram negative (E. coli ) and Gram positive (S. aureus) bacteria, in addition to evaluate of bacterial adsorption on F-MWCNTs that are attributed to their fibrous shape with high aspect ratio. The results obtained indicate that modified F-MWCNTs were able to remove from 80-90% of E. coli at large exposure times while a higher removal of bacteria (up to 100%) of S. aureus was achieved when F-MWCNTs was used under the same conditions and improved antibacterial action of F-MWCNTs for the removal of Bacteria from water using modified F-MWCNTs.


Article
Correlation Between Kinematics, Optical and Structural Properties of Size Quantized PbS Nano Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis

Authors: Ali M. Mousa
Pages: 35-39
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Abstract

We report the synthesis and microstructural properties of nanostructured lead sulphide films grown on glass substrates using spray pyrolysis techniques. The obtained PbS nanostructured films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Experiments confirmed that the thin films grown by this technique had good crystalline cubic structures. Lattice parameter, crystallite size, average internal stress and micro strain of the film were calculated and correlated with molarities of the solutions. Both; size and strain were found to contribute in the broadening of X-ray diffraction line. The values of the average grain size and strain obtained were within the range 4–7 nm and 0.0178 - 0.0625 respectively. The best film was prepared at 250°C and 0.06M.


Article
Structural Properties of Semiconducting Nanostructures Prepared by DC Plasma Reactive Sputtering Method

Authors: Noor I. Naji
Pages: 41-44
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Abstract

In this work, semiconducting nickel oxide (NiO) nanostructures were prepared by reactive dc plasma sputtering method. Magnetron was employed at the cathode to prepare these nanostructures and show the advantage of such device in the production of highly pure nanostructures. The sputtered nickel atoms were sputtered and oxidized in presence of oxygen in the Ar:O2 gas mixture of 4:1 ratio. Employment of magnetron results in formation of NiO only in the final samples according to the XRD analysis, increase the roughness and hence surface area of the produced NiO nanostructures, and finally decrease the particle size of NiO nanoparticles lower than 100nm. These improvements in the structural properties of the produced NiO make these nanostructures good candidates for specific applications, such as photodetectors, solar cells and electrochromic smart windows.

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