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Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2015 volume:16 issue:1

Article
Performance of Corrosion Inhibitors Blend for Simulated Industrial Cooling Waters under Dynamic Conditions

Authors: Abeer A. Al-Khasab --- Qasim J.M.Slaiman
Pages: 1-12
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Abstract

The inhibitive action of a blend of sodium nitrite/sodium hexametaphosphate (SN+SHMP) on corrosion of carbon steel in simulated cooling water systems (CWS) has been investigated by weight loss and electrochemical polarization technique. The effect of temperature, velocity, and salts concentrations on corrosion of carbon steel were studied in the absence and presence of mixed inhibiting blend. Also the effect of inhibitors blend concentrations (SN+SHMP), temperatures, and rotational velocity, i.e., Reynolds number (Re) on corrosion rate of carbon steel were investigated using Second-order Rotatable Design (Box-Wilson Design) in performing weight loss and corrosion potential approach. Electrochemical polarization measurements were used to study the behavior of carbon steel in different salts concentrations of (CWS) with pH = 7.5 in absence and presence of the inhibiting blend. The results show that the regression model (Box-Wilson Design) that has been developed using experimental data was used to verify that the interaction term of temperature with inhibitors blend and the square term of inhibitors blend are significant for corrosion rate in 0.05 N NaCl solution while the main variables are not pronounced. Also, it is found that the corrosion rate of carbon steel is increased with increasing temperature, rotational velocity, and NaCl salts concentration in uninhibited and inhibited solutions. Inhibition performance of NaNO2+ Na(PO3)6 was found to increase with its concentration up to 800 ppm inhibitors blend, and the corrosion potential is shifted to more positive direction with increasing rotational velocity, and inhibitor blend concentration.


Article
Electrochemical removal of copper from synthetic wastewater using rotating cylinder electrode

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Abstract

The performance of a batch undivided electrochemical reactor with a rotating cylinder electrode of woven-wire (60 mesh size), stainless steel 316, is examined for the removal of copper from synthetic solution of o.5 M sodium chloride containing 125 ppm at pH ≈ 3.5. The effect of total applied current, rotation speed on the figures of merit of the reactor is analyzed. For an applied current of 300 mA at 100 rpm, the copper concentration decreased from 125 to <0.07 mg l-1 after 60 min of electrolysis with a specific energy consumption of 1.75 kWh kg-1 and a normalized space velocity of 1.62 h-1. The change in concentration was higher when the total applied currents were increased because of the turbulence-promoting action of the hydrogen evolution. The results suggest that the applied current must represent a compromise between the increase in space time yield or normalized space velocity and the increase in the specific energy consumption.


Article
Production and Evaluation of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel from Thermal Pyrolysis of Virgin Polyethylene Plastics

Authors: Fahmi Abuelgasim Mohamed --- Ammar S. Abbas
Pages: 21-33
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Abstract

Pyrolysis of virgin polyethylene plastics was studied in order to produce hydrocarbon liquid fuel. The pyrolysis process carried out for low and high-density polyethylene plastics in open system batch reactor in temperature range of 370 to 450°C. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of the virgin plastics showed that the degradation ranges were between 326 and 495 °C. The results showed that the optimum temperature range of pyrolysis of polyethylene plastics that gives highest liquid yield (with specific gravity between 0.7844 and 0.7865) was 390 to 410 °C with reaction time of about 35 minutes. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy gave a quite evidence that the produced hydrocarbon liquid fuel consisted mainly alkanes and the x-ray diffraction showed no sulfur in the produced hydrocarbon liquids.


Article
Reduction of Sulfur Compounds from Petroleum Fraction Using Oxidation-Adsorption Technique

Authors: Ban Jaber Ibrahem --- Nada Sadoon.Ahmedzeki
Pages: 35-48
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Abstract

Oxidation of sulfur compounds in fuel followed by an adsorption process were studied using two modes of operation, batch mode and continuous mode (fixed bed). In batch experiment oxidation process of kerosene with sulfur content 2360 ppm was achieved to study the effect of amount of hydrogen peroxide(2.5, 4, 6 and 10) ml at different temperature(40, 60 and 70)°C. Also the effect of amount acetic acid was studied at the optimal conditions of the oxidation step(4ml H2O2 and 60 °C).Besides, the role of acetic acid different temperatures(40, 60, 70) °C and 4ml H2O2, effect of reaction time(5, 30, 60, 120, 300) minutes at temperatures(40,60) °C, 4ml H2O2 and 1 mlHAC) and effect of reaction temperature were studied. The results showed that the percentage removal of sulfur compounds increases with the increasing amount of hydrogen peroxide and amount of acetic acid also the percentage removal of sulfur compounds increases by addition acetic acid, reaction time up to 300 minutes and reaction temperature. In the fixed bed adsorption process, the oxidized kerosene having sulfur content being reduced to 939.28 ppm, was let to flow through a bed of 10Ni/γ-Al2O3. The results showed that a sulfur removal of 95.38% was obtained. By this the total sulfur removal of 98.38% was obtained from the two consecutive processes. The resultant fuel had only 43.47 ppm. Also a study of the capability of the same bed to desulfurize raw feed of kerosene of 2360 ppm of sulfur compounds was investigated. 43.3% removal of sulfur compounds was achieved which reflects the catalytic properties of the adsorbent which could act as an oxidative adsorptive material. The results showed that by increasing feed flow rate, the breakthrough curve becomes steeper. Also the maximum removal of sulfur compounds was obtained in the case of bed height 20 cm and flow rate 0.3 l/hr.


Article
Desulfurization of gas oil using a solar photocatalytic microreactor

Authors: Mohammad Fadhil Abid
Pages: 49-62
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Abstract

The present work is devoted to investigate the performance of a homemade Y-shape catalytic microreactor for degradation of dibenzothiophene (DBT), as a model of sulphur compounds including in gas oil, utilizing solar incident energy. The microchannel was coated with TiO2 nanoparticles which were used as a photocatalyst. Performance of the microreactor was investigated using different conditions (e.g., DBT concentration, LHSV, operating temperature, and (H2O2/DBT) ratio). Our experiments show that, in the absence of UV light, no reaction takes place. The results revealed that outlet concentration of DBT decreases as the mean residence time in the microreactor increases. Also, it was noted that operating temperature showed a positive impact on the degradation rate of DBT while LHSV showed a different image. The results reported an optimum (H2O2/DBT) ratio which gave maximum conversion of DBT which vary with initial concentration. Kinetic study was carried out which confirmed that desulfurization of DBT followed a pseudo-first order reaction at 30 and 50oC, respectively. However deviation from linearity was observed at 60oC. Comparison between microreactor´s performance and performance of batch reactors from published literature were illustrated. The Comparison confirmed the unique characteristics of the microreactor.


Article
Corrosion of Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESP) In South Rumaila Oil Field

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Abstract

Rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) is used . in weight loss technique , the salinity is 200000 p.p.m, temperatures are (30,5060,7080Co) . the velocity of (RCE) are (500,1500,3000 r.p.m). the water cut (30% , 50%). The corrosion rate of carbon steel increase with increasing rotating cylinder velocity. In single phase flow, an increase im rotational velocity from 500 to 1500 r.p.m, the corrosion rate increase from 6.88258 mm/y to 10.11563 mm/y respectively. In multiphase flow, an increase in (RCE) from 500 to 1500 r.p.m leads to increase in corrosion rate from 0.786153 to 0.910327 mm/y respectively. Increasing brine concentration leads to increase in corrosion rate at water cut 30%.


Article
Formation Evaluation for Nasiriyah Oil Field Based on The Non-Conventional Techniques

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Abstract

The unconventional techniques called “the quick look techniques”, have been developed to present well log data calculations, so that they may be scanned easily to identify the zones that warrant a more detailed analysis, these techniques have been generated by service companies at the well site which are among the useful, they provide the elements of information needed for making decisions quickly when time is of essence. The techniques used in this paper are: • Apparent resistivity Rwa technique. • Rxo /Rt method. The above two methods had been used to evaluate Nasiriyah oil field formations (well-NS-3) to discover the hydrocarbon bearing formations. A computer program had used to represent CPI results for the two mentioned methods, the results of interpretation indicate to hydrocarbon zones in.


Article
Extraction of Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Lube Oil Using Different Co-Solvent

Authors: Ibtehal k. Shakir --- Muslim A. Qasim
Pages: 79-90
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Abstract

An investigation was conducted effect of addition co- solvent on solvent extraction process for two types of a lubricating oil fraction (spindle) and (SAE-30) obtained from vacuum distillation unit of lube oil plant of Daura Refinery. In this study two types of co-solvents ( formamide and N-methyl, 2, pyrrolidone) were blended with furfural to extract aromatic hydrocarbons which are the undesirable materials in raw lubricating oil, in order to improve the viscosity index, viscosity and yield of produced lubricating oil. The studied operating condition are extraction temperature range from 70 to 110 °C for formamide and 80 to 120 °C for N-methyl, 2, pyrrolidone, solvent to oil ratio range from 1:1 to 2:1 (wt./wt.) for furfural with formamide extraction and 1:1 to 3:1 (wt./wt.) for furfural with NMP extraction. The results of the investigation show that the viscosity index of lubricating oil fraction increases while viscosity and percentage yield of raffinate decreases with increasing extraction temperature, the solvent to oil ratio and co-solvent to furfural ratio. For formamide the best temperature were 90 °C, furfural to co-solvent ratio (60:40) and solvent to lube oil ratio (1.5:1) to get best value of viscosity index 102, viscosity 3.01 cst and 69.23 % yield. While for NMP co-solvent 110 °C extraction temperature, (2:1) solvent to lube oil ratio and (60:40) furfural to co-solvent ratio, to produce lube oil with 96 viscosity index, 9.10 cst viscosity and 68.50 yield.


Article
Biosorption of Lead, Cadmium, and Zinc onto Sunflower Shell: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Studies

Authors: Ahmed A. Mohammed
Pages: 91-105
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Abstract

The present study deals with the application of an a bundant low cost biosorbent sunflower shell for metal ions removal. Lead, Cadmium and Zinc were chosen as model sorbates. The influences of initial pH, sorbent dosage, contact time, temperature and initial metal ions concentration on the removal efficiency were examined. The single ion equilibrium sorption data were fitted to the non-competitive Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Freundlich model represents the equilibrium data better than the Langmuir model. In single, binary and ternary component systems,Pb+2 ions was the most favorable component rather than Cd+2 and Zn+2 ions. The biosorption kinetics for the three metal ions followed the pseudo-second order kinetics indicating that the chemical sorption was the rate-limiting step. The thermodynamic parameters including free energy (∆G0), enthalpy and entropy changes for Pb2+,Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions indicated that the sorption process was feasible,spontaneous,and endothermic in the temperature range 20-50 0 C .Desorption of the three metals ions from the biosorbent was effectively achieved in a 0.2 mol L-1 HCl solution.

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