Table of content

Medical Journal of Babylon

مجلة بابل الطبية

ISSN: 1812156X 23126760
Publisher: Babylon University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Medical Journal of Babylon (MJB) is a quarterly medical journal concerned with clinical and basic medical researches. MJB follows the Publication Ethics Statements suggested by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

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العنوان البريدي: العراق-محافظة بابل- الحلة –ص ب 473 جامعة بابل –كلية الطب – مجلة بابل الطبية
عنوان البريد الالكتروني medjbabylon2004@gmail.com

Table of content: 2015 volume:12 issue:1

Article
Molecular Detection of Enterotoxin A and B and Biofilm Gene of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Nasal Carriers

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Abstract

In this study, (100) clinical samples were obtained from nasal passage from healty individuals in Hilla city who work in restaurants in Hilla province, during a period of three months (from November 2013 to January 2014) . A total of (100) samples only twenty – six of S.aureus were isolates from nasal passage . Molecular detection of Enterotoxin A and B was also studied by using specific markers . It was seen that Enterotoxin A was positive in (9) isolates where Enterotoxin B was detected in ( 5 ) isolates . On the other hand, molecular detection of bap gene by PCR technique showed that (4) S.aureus isolates (50 %) gave positive results for this marker only in the plasmid but non was seen in the chromosomal DNA .


Article
Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Iraqi Patients with Newly Diagnosed Acute Leukemia

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Acute leukemia is an aggressive disorder which need a new therapeutic approaches to improve the response to treatment. Angiogenesis seems to be important both for leukemogenesis and susceptibility to intensive chemotherapy, and antiangiogenic strategies may therefore be considered for the treatment of acute leukemia. This study aim to assess serum VEGF levels in Iraqi patients with a newly diagnosed acute leukemias and to find the relation between VEGF levels and other hematological parameters. This case-control study included 96 subjects who attended Marjan Teaching Hospital in Babil/Iraq during the period from Nov 2013 to Aug 2014.They divided into two groups; patient group included 48 patients newly diagnosed with acute leukemia (32 of them had AML and 16 had ALL) and control group included 48 normal volunteers. Complete blood count and serum VEGF (ELISA) were done for all while bone marrow examination was done for patients only. Mean serum VEGF was significantly higher in patients than controls (643.8 ±121.1 ng/dl vs. 203.4 ±51.8 ng/dl respectively and P-value < 0.001) and a higher levels were found in patients with ALL compared to AML and in males compared to females. No statistically significant age differences were found between patients and controls, while majority of patients (61.9%) and controls (63.4%) were males. Mean PCV was significantly lower in patients than controls (P-value < 0.01), Mean WBC count was significantly higher in patients than controls (P-value < 0.01) and mean platelets count was significantly lower in patients than controls (P-value < 0.01). This study concluded that serum VEGF in patients with acute leukemia was high compared to controls and a significant correlation was found between serum VEGF levels and both PCV and gender.


Article
Adverse Effects and Rebound Increase in Bilirubin Level: Comparison between Conventional Versus Intensive Phototherapy

Authors: Shamil Abd-Alzahra Sharba
Pages: 17-23
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Phototherapy is the mainstay of treatment of hyperbilirubinemia. The efficacy of phototherapy depended on the light spectrum (wavelength), flux of light, and surface area of the infant exposed to phototherapy. A rebound in the total serum bilirubin level of 1 to 2 mg per deciliter and occasionally more, can occur after phototherapy is discontinued. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the possible side effects and rebound increase in bilirubin level in the use of conventional and intensive phototherapy. A total 80 neonates present with significant jaundice and need phototherapy were included in the study, they were term and near term. The patients are divided it tow group : - group 1 (40 patients) who receive intensive phototherapy and group 2 (40 patients) who receive conventional phototherapy. The side effects and rebound increase were observed in both groups. It was found that the complications of conventional phototherapy compared with intensive phototherapy was dehydration (2.5%) for each, skin rash by intensive phototherapy 50%, while in conventional phototherapy 25% (p=0. 018), frequent bowel motion by intensive phototherapy 20%, while in conventional phototherapy 7.5% that the rebound increase in the level of bilirubin was more in an intensive phototherapy group than the conventional phototherapy group. This study concluded that increasing the surface area of phototherapy associated with the shorter term adverse effect and more rebound increase of bilirubin level than conventional phototherapy.


Article
Relationship between Passive Smoking and Oral Mucosal Pigmentations Among Children in Iraqi (Hilla) City Samples

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Melanin is an endogenous pigment responsible for human tissue coloration of the skin, mucosa, hair, eyes and parts of the brain. Melanin pigmentation in the oral mucosa occurs as a result of several reasons one of which is smoking. Cigarette smoke induces different side effects in the people who do not smoke, but in the same environment. to find the relation between parents who smoke and oral pigmentations in their children, for this reason , our research was done. These samples were selected randomly for samples of children in Babylon city- Iraq, in period from April 2013 to July 2014. Oral photographs of 155 children, aged 6- 16 years were selected randomly from the children. All these samples were examined for the presence of macules of melanin pigmentation on the gingiva and the pigmentation pattern and localization were registered. The Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. In this research, 155 children, with 6-16 years of age were examined in two groups of samples. The age of the two groups was similar. Ninety six children (who served as experimental group), had oral pigments with parents who smoker), another 59 children (control group) had oral pigments whom parents were non- smoker). (61.9% of children that parents who smoke had oral pigments) and (38.0% of children that parents who non- smoking had oral pigments as normal racial pigmentation). Passive smoking may induce gingival pigmentation in children.


Article
War Colonic Injuries-Management and Complication

Authors: Dheyaa Ali Hussain Al Sultani
Pages: 31-40
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Abstract

This prospective study comprises (64) patients with preoperative diagnosis as colonic injuries. These cases where collected over a period of 3 years at Baghdad teaching hospital. In our study all caused by bullet and blast injuries. The Right colonic injuries where (32) cases, transverse colon (6) cases & left colon and rectum (26) cases. Intraoperative assessment and grading were done. (13) Cases was Grad I (40) cases Grad II &(11) Cases III. Out of (64) cacae (55) caces had associated abdominal organs injuries all assessed and reported in (55) cases. (40) Cases admitted with hypovolemic shock. Other (24) patients were maintaining normal Blood pressure. Treatment was either Diverting colostomy (DC) in (44) cases. And primary repair (PR) in (20) cases. Mortality rate was in (4) 6.25% patients all presented with irreversible shock. Morbidity was in (44)68% cases. (10) Cases developed complication like (fistula, Intraperitoneal sepsis….etc) and (18) cases developed (mild wound infection).


Article
Antibacterial Pattern of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Streptococcus Mutans Isolates from Dental Caries

Authors: Abduloma Baraka Ali
Pages: 41-46
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Several approaches have been taken in the prevention of dental caries; the main approach is to render enamel surface more resistance to attack of acidogenic bacteria. In this study one hundred dental plague samples with 20-30 mg of plagues were collected. These patient's samples were collected during March to May 2014 from Baghdad dental clinics. Culturing of dental plagues was inoculated on different selective, enrichment and diagnostic media to be obtain pure culture of Strep. mutans. Streptococcus mutans is considered the main cause of destruction of dental tissues, with the incidence 13%. The inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus gasseri against Streptococcus mutans isolates was studied by well-diffusion method on solid media. The results showed that the Lactobacillus gasseri has a highly effects of inhibition zone on the Strep. mutans growth (92.30%) and the inhibition diameters zone were more than 12 mm. Also this effect compared with other antibacterial drugs, which were showed that the isolates had different responses of resistance to Ampicillin (AM) 5(38.4%), Azithromcin (AZM) and Lincomycin (LN) 2(15.4%) for each, Gentamycin (CN) 4(30.7%), so that the Cefotaxim (CTX) antibacterial recorded lowest resistance 1(7.6). Hence, this study reveals the potential of Lactobacillus gasseri as an alternative and complementary treatment medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutans. Also these results may provide a basis for alternative therapies to prevent or treatment of dental caries.


Article
The Effect of Metal Surface Treatment before Reporcelainization for Ceramic Repair After Adhesive Fracture of Ceramo-Metallic Restoration

Authors: Suhayla Reda Albanai
Pages: 47-65
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The high cost of the precious metals has simulated interest in less expensive alloys for the casting of Crown & Bridge. Several non precious metal alloys based on Nickel and/or Cobalt Chromium alloys have become commercially available for the use with fusing porcelain (ceramic). The purpose of the present work was two folds: 1- To investigate the effect of different metal surface treatment (sandblasting, grinding and grinding followed by sandblasting) before reprocelainization (reapplication of porcelain after adhesive fracture) of the bare metal on the bond strength. 2- To give some light on the mechanism of metal ceramic bonding through the use of metallographic microscopic study. Two non-precious dental casting alloys Nickel- Chromium and Cobalt- Chromium alloys and one type of dental ceramic were used in this study. The conclusions from the study weresandblasting increases the bond strength of metal/ceramic interface for both the investigated alloys, and the Cobalt- Chromium alloy showed better bond strength with sandblasting than the Nickel- Chromium.


Article
Patterns of Clinically Isolated Syndrome in Patients Attending Multiple Sclerosis Clinic in Baghdad Teaching Hospital

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Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) "is the first demyelinating event that is suggestive of multiple sclerosis and that makes patients at risk for further relapses". Eighty five percent of patients with multiple sclerosis, their onset is with (CIS). It is difficult to predict whether a given individual will develop multiple sclerosis following a (CIS). To determine pattern of (CIS) presentation among Iraqi patients and study factors associated with risk for conversion to clinical definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS). A record base study of thirty five patients labeled as (CIS) attending multiple sclerosis clinic in Baghdad Teaching Hospital was conducted during the period from 1/1/2011 to 1/12/2011. For each patient a study protocol sheet was done and filled from the database in the multiple sclerosis clinic, each patient was assessed clinically at least one time .The following information were studied: Patients gender , age at presentation , pattern of presentation , residual deficit after their 1st attack , disability depending on Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), duration to convert to (CDMS) if they develop another attack after their diagnosis as (CIS), and their baseline MRI (1Tesla). The mean age for the studied sample is (34.20±8.38), with (9 male) and (26 female). A (28.6%) of the patients have multifocal and (71.4%) have monofocal presentation. Fifteen patients (42.9%) have residual deficit after their 1st attack , eleven patients (31.4%) converted to (CDMS), the mean time for conversion to definite multiple sclerosis is (23±15) months, six patients (17.14%) have normal brain MRI at their 1st presentation while the remainder have abnormal MRI. Conversion to (CDMS) is more in patient with multifocal presentation, residual deficit after 1st episode and positive baseline MRI findings.


Article
Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of IRS-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Patients with UTI in Iraq

Authors: Alaa H. Al-Charrakh --- Aliaa Z. AL-Tememy
Pages: 80-95
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The aim of this work was to analyze the current of IRT β-lactamases in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Isolates were prospectively collected in our hospital (2013 and 2014) from urine of hospitalized patients (100%). From a total of 60 E. coli isolates recovered during the study period, 22 showed reduced susceptibility to Beta lactam Beta lactamase inhibitor (BLBLI) combination antibiotics, with 17 of them producing IRT enzymes. These were mostly recovered from urine (100%). A high degree of IRT was detected (TEM-2, CTX-M, bla-SHV, SHV-2, TEM-1,OXA-1, and AMPC). The results of this study are recorded for the first time in Iraq.


Article
Severe Urinary Tract Infection in Men Caused by Enterobacter cloacae

Authors: Mohammed Kadum Al-Araji
Pages: 96-106
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A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a simple cystitis (a bladder infection) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as pyelonephritis (a kidney infection). Urinary catheterization increases the risk for urinary tract infections. The risk of an associated infection can be decreased by catheterizing only when necessary, using aseptic technique for insertion, and maintaining unobstructed closed drainage of the catheter. 60 urine samples from male patients suffering from UTI were examined. 25 of them were a catheter samples of urine and 35 of them were asymptomatic, showed Enterobacter cloacae were isolated.


Article
Asymptomatic Hypoglycemia After Hemodialysis in Non-Diabetic Patients with Use of Glucose- Free Dialysate Solutions

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Hypoglycemia (HG) has been demonstrated during chronic hemodialysis (HD). These events may become more frequent with the current use of glucose-free bicarbonate dialysis solution, the standard formula in most dialysis units in our hospitals. The Aim of study is to evaluate the occurrence of HG in non-diabetic (NDM) end-stage renal failure patients during HD using dialytic solution without glucose. In Merjan teaching hospital from January to September 2013. A hospital-based cross-sectional study design has been carried out on fifty non-diabetic patients with chronic renal failure randomly selected from the dialysis unit of Merjan Teaching Hospital after their setting for HD session of the glucose- free bicarbonate solution. Serum glucose has been measured at zero hour before dialysis session and 30 minutes after dialysis session. The study duration was from January to September 2013 Categorical variables were presented as frequencies and percentages. Continuous variables were presented as means with their 95% confidence interval (CI) and standard deviation. The Pearson's chi-square test (x2) was used to determine the associations between categorical variables. Independent sample t-test was used to compare between two means. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Data were expressed No patient presented any clinical evidence of HG.40 patients(74.8%) of fifty patients express serum sugar levels changes before and after HD ,serum sugar levels after HD was <80mg/dl ,which is statistically significant P value <0.01. Asymptomatic HG was frequent during HD when glucose-free dialysis solution was used. Glucose added dialysis solution at 90 mg/dl significantly reduced the number and severity of HG episodes and although it caused higher mean glycaemia in DM patients during HD, its use seems advisable in all patients.


Article
Effects of Fenugreek on Lung Cancer / In Vitro Study

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Lung cancer is the leading cause (account for 18%) of cancer death in both men and women world-wide.The overall 5-year survival rate for all stages combined is disappointing (15%). The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible cytotoxic effects of fenugreek on lung cancer cell line and to determine its IC50 alone and in combination with cisplatin. And to study the effects of fenugreek on the expression of each of p53 and EGFR QU-DB lung cancer cells were cultured in Eagle's MEM culture media supplemented with 5% FBS and antibiotics. The cells were seeded in 96 well plate and the cytotoxic effects of each of cisplatin [25-0.195 µl/ml (or µg/ml)] and fenugreek [300-1.1719 µl/ml (each one µl is extracted from 25 µg of dried seed)] was determined using neutral red uptake (NRU) assay for 24, 48, and 72 hours in comparison with their corresponding control groups. Combined effect of each of fenugreek and cisplatin was determined also using NRU assay. Cytotoxicity was further assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay at IC50 of each agent for 48 hours duration. Immunocytochemistry assay was performed also to detect EGFR and p53 expression. Cisplatin induced a directly proportional, dose-dependent and time-dependant cytotoxic effect with an IC50 of 8.5 µg/ml and 7.3 µg/ml after 48 hrs and 72 hrs of exposure respectively. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in optic density of cisplatin group from that of the control for all tested concentrations. Fenugreek extract also induced a directly proportional, dose-dependent and time-dependant cytotoxic effect in experiments with 48 hrs and 72 hrs of exposure with an IC50 of 88.25 µl/ml and 125 µl/ml respectively (each one µl is extracted from 25 µg of dried seed). While it produces a growth enhancing effect in 24 hrs exposure experiment. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in optic density of fenugreek from that of the control at concentrations of 37.5 µl/ml and above. Fenugreek produces an antagonistic action when combined with cisplatin, combination index (CI) >1.3. Cisplatin highly significantly (p<0.005) increased EGFR expression at different concentrations. While fenugreek extract highly significantly (p<0.005) reduced EGFR expression at 300 µl/ml (each one µl is extracted from 25 µg of dried seed). Cisplatinand fenugreek highly significantly (p<0.005) decreased the expression of P53. Monotherapy of fenugreek have anticancer effect on lung cancer cell line, but an antagonizing effect to cisplatin when combined with it. Fenugreek may have a beneficial therapeutic effect in decreasing EGFR expression and decreasing mutant p53 expression. Further study is recommended to explore the effect of fenugreek on other cell cycle proteins and to study their potential beneficial therapeutic effects in vivo.

Keywords

Fenugreek --- Lung Cancer


Article
Assessment of Endogenous Erythropoietin Level in Sera Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

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A stroke is the loss of brain function due to a disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. Ischemic type is the most common type of stroke in older adults, caused by either blockage of a blood vessel via thrombosis or arterial embolism, or by cerebral hypoperfusion. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production. This study aimed to explore the EPO level in serum of ischemic stroke patients during the acute phase. This study was included 40 subjects, 20 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 20 apparently healthy persons act as a control group. Five milliliters of blood were collected in plane tube without anticoagulants for measuring EPO level in sera of patients and control by ELISA technique. In comparison with the control group, the patients with acute ischemic stroke showed a significant increase in EPO level (P ˂ 0.002). our data revealed that increase circulating endogenous EPO as a response to hypoxia and thereby increase oxygen supply by inducing erythropoiesis and/or other stimulatory factors that contribute the ischemic tolerance.


Article
Histopathological and Serological Study of Goitre

Authors: Talib Mohsin
Pages: 139-143
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The correlation of histopathology and serology results in patient with goiter. Accurate detection of thyroid autoantibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay technique namely thyroglobulin antibody, thyroid peroxidase antibody is crucial in the differentiation of autoimmune thyroid disorders from other form of thyroid diseases. Evaluation of the detection of thyroglobulin antibody and thyroid peroxidase antibody in different thyroid diseases using enzyme linked immunosorbant assay technique. Eighty patients admitted to Surgical Units of Al-Zahraa Teaching Hospital in Al-Kut from the period between august 2010 to August 2012 they were waiting to do thyroidectomy. They were chosen nonselective for serological evaluation of above autoantibodies, and correlation of the results with histopathological diagnosis. Colloid goiter is known cause of hyperthyroidism (5 were colloid goiter out of 10 total hyperthyroid patients) (50%), and still common thyroid surgery (60 were colloid goiterout of 80 thyroid surgery) (75%). 58 cases (72.5%) had colloid goiter, 11 patients had Graves' disease (13.75%), and 3 had lymphocytic thyroiditis (3.75%), 8 had thyroid neoplasia (both benign and malignant) (10%). The serological results; Antibodies results were positive in 7 patients (11%) in colloid goiter (p-> 0.05), 6 patients (66.6%) and 1 patient (33.3%) for Grave’s disease, and lymphocytic thyroiditis respectively (P-< 0.05)., while its all were negative in thyroid neoplasia. Serum thyroid autoantibodies determination is valuable test in clinical practice of autoimmune thyroid diseases.


Article
Influence of Sperm Concentration, Morphology, and Motility on The Result of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection

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Defective Sperm parameters was suggested to play an important role in determining fertility and was proven to be closely related to fertilization and pregnancy rates in the natural fertilization process as well as in ART. To evaluate the influence of defective sperm parameters including concentration, morphology and motility on intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome represented by fertilization rate, cleavage rate, embryo quality and pregnancy rate. This a cohort study included 60 infertile couple attended the clinics of infertility treatment center Al-Sadder teaching hospital and underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection. They are classified into three groups according to their spermiogram and ICSI outcome evaluated for each group and compared with each other. The main results of this study showed no significant difference in fertilization rate,cleavage rate ,embryo quality and pregnancy rate among studied groups i.e., no significant difference in ICSI outcome between normozoospermic group and those with defective spermiogram. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes represented by fertilization rate, cleavage rate embryo quality and pregnancy rate were identical with no significant differences between couples with defective sperm parameters and those with normal spermiogram.


Article
Molecular Detection of CTX-M Genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Different Clinical Samples in Baghdad City

Authors: Ahmed Salim Mohammed
Pages: 152-160
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CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae have been reported to be an important nosocomial infections. A total of 50 K. pneumonia isolates were isolated from different clinical samples in some public hospitals in Baghdad city during the period from October to December 2013. Bacterial identification was done using conventional cultural & chemical methods &and VITEK 2 cards (GN) for identification, while the antimicrobial drug susceptibility of K. pneumoniae was performed by disk diffusion test and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing was performed using VITEK 2 automated system (bioMérieux, France). ESBL production was phenotypically detected by double disk synergy test according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI) guidelines. The presence of bla-gene encoded CTX-M was detected by conventional PCR technique. Out of 50 K. Pneumonia isolates,13 (26%) were ESBL producer by CDT, the minimum inhibatory concentration (MIC) of different antibiotics was performed on these 13(26%) isolates using VITEK2 AST-GN30 showed that 13 (100%) isolates were Ceftazidime,Ceftraiaxone and Cefepime resistant with MIC ≥16- ≥64 µg/ml,and 8(61.53%) of ESBL producing isolates were carbapenem sensitive 8 (61.53%) with MIC <=0.25 µg/ml. PCR assay revealed that 4 (30.76%) of the ESBL producing isolates harbored blaCTX-M gene. Extended spectrum beta lactamase mediated resistance in K. pneumonia is a cause for concern in the therapy of critically ill patients. The ESBL producing K. pneumoniae isolates were more resistant to various antimicrobial agents. This suggests that ESBL producing isolates in hospitals may cause serious infections that illustrated when these strains were responsible for a nosocomial outbreak.The findings strongly suggest that there is a need to track the detection of ESBL producers and that judicious use of carbapenems is necessary to prevent the further spread of these organisms. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae isolates especially ESBL producing bacteria was increased in Baghdad city .Phenotypic and molecular characterization of ESBL provide information about the prevalence of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae in Baghdad. The blaCTX-M was one of the predominant ESBL genes in K. pneumoniae in this study.


Article
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenic Patients

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Metabolic syndrome (MS) & other cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in schizophrenic patients. Patients are at risk for premature mortality & overall have limited access to physical health care. To date there have been scarce studies that provide estimates of MS in schizophrenic patients in Iraq. The aim of the study is to examine the prevalence of MS & related factors in schizophrenic patients. By using a case-control design we recruited100 patients out of 118 with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were attending outpatient department of Al-Diwaniya Teaching Hospital during the period between1st March to 15th December 2013,. The MS prevalence was assessed based on National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Comparative analysis was performed between patients & 100 participants as representative of general population. the study revealed that the overall prevalence of MS in schizophrenic patients was (27%). It is significantly higher with obesity, smoking, family history of obesity. Waist circumference, low High Density Lipoprotein & raised blood pressure showing a significant difference between both groups. The anti-psychotic medication having a high association with metabolic syndrome is Olanzapine. Schizophrenic patients on antipsychotic medications had high prevalence of MS compared to the general population & this emphasize the need for regular monitoring of various metabolic parameters in patients on antipsychotics.


Article
Sperm Chromatin Maturity Assay by Aniline Blue Dye and It’s Correlation with The Result of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection

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Immature chromatin condensation is a type of DNA damage in human spermatozoa may adversely affect reproductive outcomes. To assess sperm chromatin maturity in infertile men and to evaluate the relationship between sperm chromatin status and ICSI outcome. Fifty six infertile couple attending the clinics of fertility center in Al-sader teaching hospital were included in this study .Male partner were classified according to their spermiogram ,their semen sample tested by AB for chromatin maturity . The percentage of positive AB stain is significantly higher in patients with abnormal spermiogram than normozoospermic group. No significant difference in ICSI outcomes between patients with high proportion of abnormal chromatin and apposite group. Male with abnormal spermiogram show high percent of sperm chromatin immaturity which have no significant influence on the result of ICSI procedure.


Article
Study of Advanced Glycation End Products in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy

Authors: Zahid M. Mohyee Al-Deen --- Ihsan A. Ajeena
Pages: 182-191
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Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). The study included 138 type 2 diabetic patients with DPN with age group 45-65 years matched to 50 diabetic without neuropathy and 50 normal healthy control. The study found that there is higher incidence of DPN in elderly age group than younger while the incidence is equal in male and female. Also its found that level of advanced glycation end products (AGE) is higher in patients with DPN compared to those without and healthy controls. Also the study found that AGE level is correlated with duration of DM and not correlate with glycosylated Hb level. Hyperglycemia and subsequent metabolic derangement results in accumulation of advanced glycation end products in peripheral nerves with subsequent nerve injury.


Article
Study of Total Antioxidant Capacity in Patients with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

Authors: Zahid M. Mohyee Al-Deen --- Ihsan A. Ajeena
Pages: 192-201
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Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). The study included 138 type 2 diabetic patients with DPN with age group 45-65 years matched to 50 diabetic without neuropathy and 50 normal healthy control. The study found that there is lower level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in patients with DPN compared to those without and healthy controls. Also the study found that TAC level is correlated with duration of DM and not correlate with glycosylated Hb level. Hyperglycaemia and accompanying consequences result in depletion of antioxidant defense which expose the body to the injurious effects of reactive oxygen species.


Article
Er :YAG Laser Skin Resurfacing for Perioral Wrinkles

Authors: Bahir Sabah Abood Allawi
Pages: 202-214
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During the last decade, resurfacing lasers advanced from relative obscurity to the forefront of cosmetic and aesthetic surgery, and many surveys revealed that most plastic surgeons performing aesthetic surgical procedures incorporated laser resurfacing in their practices. The introduction of short-duration Er:YAG lasers in the mid-1990s offered another option for resurfacing, The objective of this study Was to evaluate the use of 2940nm Er:YAG laser system for the rejuvination of perioral wrinkles.. A total of 20 patients with perioral wrinkles were selected for Er:Yag 2940 nm (Contour, Sciton Inc., St Palo Alto, CA) Laser resurfacing. The erbium square scan was used, with 30 to 50 percent pattern overlap at 15 to 20 J/cm2 , if wrinkles are still apparent, use a single 3-mm spot, at 7 J/cm2 and 5 Hz, to further decrease the wrinkle shoulders. The results was The range of the average grades of the wrinkles before treatment was between 4-2.1 while after treatment was between 1.2-2.7. There was 1.5 total average grade improvement in the perioral wrinkles after Er:Yag laser skin resurfacing. The Erbium:YAG laser is safe and effective it can be recommended for perioral skin resurfacing, with noticeable improvement in wrinkles, it causes tissue ablation with minimal tissue desiccation and minimal residual thermal damage. The Erbium:YAG laser associated with a shorter duration of posttreatment erythema than with carbon dioxide laser.


Article
The Effects of Green Tea Extract on Liver and Kidney Functions in The Sprague–Dawley Male Rats Treated with Lead Nitrate

Authors: Ekhlass H. AL-Alasde --- Hameda Abd-Al Mahdi G
Pages: 215-224
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Green tea has become a subject of interest because of its beneficial effects on human health, health hazards from increased Pb exposure as a result of industrial and environmental pollution are recognized. In this study, the effect of green tea extract (GTE) on lead nitrate induced toxicity was conducted to investigate the biochemical and histopathological effects on liver and kidney in Sprague–Dawley rats. Four groups of rats were used in this study, 6 animals in each group. First group was given distilled water, second group was given green tea, third group was given lead and forth group was given Lead and GTE orally to the rats with drinking water for 8 weeks, blood sample were collected and then animals sacrificed for histological test. Liver enzymes ALT, AST and ALP, and creatinin , urea for the kidney in the serum, determinations indicated the protective effects of green tea extract. Histopathological studies of liver and kidney revealed that supplementation of green tea extract resulted in mild tissue damage, decrease the inflammation, an enhanced Immunological reaction and regenerative capacity of the cells.


Article
Role of Transthoracic Echocardiography in Pre-Intervention Sizing of ASD Secundum and Interventional Guidance for Transcatheter Closure of ASD Secundum

Authors: Muhannad Kudyer Shukur
Pages: 225-232
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Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect secundum become an alternative method for surgery, sizing of defect with device closure is routinely done under transesophageal echocardiography which are expensive technique and not easily affordable in many center, some center start to using of transthoracic echocardiography with limitation for age ,weight and size complexity of defect To determine the role transthoracic echocardiography in pre-intervention sizing of ASD secundum and guidance during transcatheter closure of ASD secundum together with fluoroscopy in cardiac catheterization laboratory. In order to reduce the cost and simplify the procedure One hundred eight patients with ASD secundum were selected by TTE for transcatheter closure with ASO in Iraqi center for heart disease in Baghdad city of them 64% female and 36%male ,age was rang form (1-65) yrs mean +/- SD(20.41-14.68) years and weight range from (9-103)kg mean (45.08-27.04) Defect size range from (7-35) mm mean (19.76-8-24) and ASO occluder size range (10.5-40) mm mean (23.53-9.07), the success rate was 94.5%. In 13% of cases were complex cases either complex type of defect or complex anatomy of heart and we use procedure that help to increase the success rate of occluder implantation in 19 case (17.59%) like balloon assistance or dilator method, we found positive relationship between size of defect and size of device There was no significance for gender, age or weight in success or failure of procedure but the only significance is the size of defect and device The TTE is good way for detect the accurate sizing of ASD secundum and guiding the ASD intervention procedure with no limitation for age weight of patient or defect size or complexity of defect.


Article
Immunological Study on Genital Wart Patients in Babylon Province-Iraq

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to immune estimation of cytokine profile including serum concentration of each (IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ andTNF-α) in genital wart patientsin Babylon Province-Iraq. This work was applied on (40) genital wart patients who admitted to the outpatient department of Dermatology and Venereology in Merjan Medical City, Hilla-Iraq and private clinicsduring the period from November (2013) to March (2014). A total of 40 patients (16 males and 24 females) were investigated with their age ranged from 2-48 years, in addition to 20 apparently healthy males and females be used as control with an age range approximately matched to genital wart patients. Blood samples were collected from both patients and control to estimate the serum levels of the immune parameters Interleukine-6 (IL-6), Interlukine-10 (IL-10), Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by ELISA (Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay) method. The cytokine profile showed that there is a significant decrease (P< 0.05) in the mean serum concentration of each (IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α) between study groups, indicated a decreasing in Th1 response which is responsible for cell-mediated immunity, while there was no significant difference (P >0.05) in the mean serum concentration between genital wart patients and control groups for IL-10.


Article
Association Between Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy and Echocardiography in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Zainab F. Hassan --- Ihsan M. Ajeena --- Ala H. Abbase
Pages: 240-247
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the association between cardiac autonomic neuropathy and left ventricular systolic and diastolic function of the heart and left ventricular mass index. This study included 103 (56 males and 47 females) pure diabetic patients without hypertenstion or predignosed ischemia. They had attended to the diabetic center in Marjan Medical City in Hilla from March 2013 to February 2014. The patients had undergone thorough assessments that included clinical (history and full examination), cardiac autonomic function test and Echocardiographic assessments. Echocardiography showed that most of the diabetic patients (89.8%) had a left ventricular hypertrophy by measuring the left ventricular mass index. However, there were no significant changes in Echocardiographic results between patients with CAN and those without. Most of the patients in the study group (89.8%) are present with left ventricular hypertrophy and there is no significant changes in Echo result between patients with CAN and those without. Also concludes that there is a perfect direct correlation between waist and BMI with LVMI


Article
Uvulo palatopharyngoplasty: Treatment of Habitual Snoring

Authors: Saad AL-Juboori
Pages: 248-252
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Abstract

Habitual, loud snoring is common in the adult population, and may be the only symp¬tom of the more serious Obstructive Sleep Apnoea syndrome. We report here our results of uvulo palatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), with or without nasal surgery, for snoring. Quantitative grading of the severity of the snoring shows that all patients were cured of symptomatic snoring, but that snoring was not altogether abolished in all patients.


Article
The use of Alloplastic Acrylic Subperiosteal Implant to Restore the Facial Symmetry in Post Traumatic Condylar Hyperplasia Patients

Authors: Sabah Hassan Husain
Pages: 253-256
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Abstract

Post traumatic condylar Hyperplasia which is a rare documented condition results in facial asymmetry, condyle, ramus overgrowth and malocclusion of the teeth. Osteotomies together with bilateral sagittal mandibular osteotomies are the treatment of choice, to restore the facial symmetry and the malocclusion of the teeth. Alloplastic sub periosteal acrylic mandible which is an inert material being used to restore the facial symmetry as an alternative method to the osteotomies in 12 patients who were contraindicated medically to the extensive osteotomies surgery, or refused such surgery, given a good permanent postoperative facial symmetry.


Article
Effects of Newcastle Virus Suspension on Some Organs of white Mice (Balb/C)

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Abstract

Newcastle disease is a contagious bird disease affecting wild avian species and many domestic, it may be transmissible to humans. Detection of Newcastle virus confirmed by rapid test technique (Immuno-chromatography). Ten samples (10%) out of 100 fasces samples collected from chickens were positive. Twelve mice used in this study divided into two groups, first group consist of six mice induced with 0.2 ml from one positive sample of Newcastle virus suspension to evaluate some histopathological changes in liver, lung and brain of mice, second group induced with 0.2 ml from phosphate buffer saline only. The results revealed that histopathological changes in liver were induced using 0.2 ml of Newcastle virus suspension ashyperpalsia in kufper cells. Lung of mice treated with this concentration of Newcastle virus has partial pnemonia and thickening the intra- alveolar walls. Brain of mice treated with same concentration induced increasing in number of glial cells (glialosis) and apoptosis in brain cells.


Article
Embryo Grade I is The Most Important ICSI Parameters That Predict Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection(ICSI) Outcome

Authors: Ban J. Edan --- Sami R.Al-Katib --- Basima Sh.AlGhazali
Pages: 264-272
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare different intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) parameters with its outcome and predict the most important factor that relate with successful rate. A total seventy-five infertile women aged between 22-45 years(31.43 ± 5.38 years), referred to the fertility clinic in Al-Sadder teaching hospital, , and undergone intracytoplasmic sperm injection throughout period from March 2013 to January 2014,were included in this study. Fertilization rate (FR) and cleavage rate was calculated. The embryos grading was evaluated according to their morphology and percentage of fragmentation. The biochemical pregnancies was confirm on the fourteenth day of embryo transfer by measurement of serum human chorionic gonadotrophine ( B- HCG ). Out of the 75 included patients, 15 (20%) achieved pregnancy after ICSI. Pregnant women were associated (P < 0.05) . Total oocyte retrieved , stage metaphase II oocyte , pronucleus , cleavage rate , grade I ,total number of embryos ,and number of transferred embryo significantly higher in pregnant women when compared with non-pregnant women(P<0.05) Analysis of ROC curve revealed that area under the curve for number of grade I embryos was 0.868 for predicting pregnancy followed by followed by MII (0.815), number of total oocyte .retrieved and PN (0.773), ET( 0.767) and total number of embryos(0.758) respectively. Data show that the number of grade I embryos is the better at predicting for successful pregnancy outcome.(higher test result give more positive test).


Article
Prognostic Value of CD44 and Ki-67 in Renal cell carcinoma

Authors: Aqeel Hussein Eissa --- Huda Abdil Sattar
Pages: 274-282
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Abstract

Renal cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 3% of adult malignancies and 80 - 90% of all primary malignant renal tumors. The origin of renal cell carcinoma is from the proximal renal tubular epitheliumtumor stage and nuclear grade were considered as the most important prognostic variables for patients with renal cell carcinoma but they are insufficient to predict the clinical behavior of this tumor. Ki-67 is a nuclear proteinthat is widely accepted as a reliable indicator of cell proliferation and has a demonstrable utility as a prognostic marker for several malignancies The cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions; and its expression has been linked totumor cell invasion and tumor metastasis in several cancers. The objective of this study is to provide a better understanding of the biology of renal cell carcinoma by: Evaluation of the expression of CD44 and Ki- 67 in renal cell carcinoma. Correlate their expression with the usual prognostic variables (tumor size and stage and nuclear grade). Thirty cases of nephrectomy for renal cell carcinomawere included in this retrospective study. All formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissues were retrieved from thepathology department of Al- Harreri surgical specialties teaching hospital and teaching Laboratories in the Medical City during the period from January 2010 to March 2013. Hematoxylin and eosin sections were prepared by routine technique and also 3 µm thickness sections were stained immunohistochemically for CD44 and Ki-67. The clear cell renal cell carcinoma was the most common histological subtype (86.7% of the cases). The expression of ki-67 was positive in twenty five of cases (83.3%) while CD44 was expressed in twenty seven of cases (90%) out of thirty. The expression of CD44 and Ki-67 was increase progressively with increase nuclear grade and tumor stage. The expression of CD44 and Ki-67 showed weak correlation with tumor size and there was no significant correlation with age, gender and histological type of tumor. The expression of CD44 and Ki-67 were significantly associated with tumor stage and nuclear grade of renal cell carcinoma. CD44 and Ki-67can be used as an additional adverse prognostic factor in patients with renal cell carcinoma.


Article
Effectiveness of Health Education on The Knowledge of The Mothers Toward Pertussis Disease and Vaccination in Al-Hashimiya District - Babylon Governorate

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to study effectiveness of health education on the knowledge of the mothers toward pertussis disease and vaccination. A descriptive, cross-sectional study, carried out during the period from 9th January till 10th of March 2014. Data were collected by the researcher, by using a special questionnaire format was constructed for this purpose, The sample of the study was 150 mothers visit Al-Hashimiya health centers. The results of the study shows that the majority of the participants 63 (42%) were between age groups (20 – 29) years, 148 (98.7%) were reported as married, related to the education 78 (52%) were read-write and primary, the majority of the sample are "Housewife", and they accounted 139 (92.7%). Additionally, the results have indicated that there are highly significant differences for all items of mothers knowledge concerning pertussis disease at pre-post test period. Regarding to source of information the results indicated that the mothers answered with health employees at pre-test were 125 (83.3%), while the mothers answered with health employees at post-test period were 142 (94.7%).


Article
Follicular Fluid Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Outcome

Authors: Sami R.Al-Katib --- Basima Sh.Al-Ghazali --- Ban J. Edan
Pages: 293-300
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the follicular fluid (FF) malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a free radical marker and reduced glutathione (GSH) as antioxidant and pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A total seventy-five infertile women aged between 22-45 years(31.43 ± 5.38 years), referred to the fertility clinic in Al-Sadder teaching hospital, , and undergone intracytoplasmic sperm injection throughout period from March 2013 to January 2014,were included in this study. follicular fluid (FF) malondialdehyde was measured by spectrophotometer based on the calorimetric reaction with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and follicular fluid glutathione was measured by spectrophotometer depends on the action of sulfhydryl groups. Out of the 75 included patients, 15 (20%) achieved pregnancy after ICSI. Pregnant women were associated with significantly higher MDA level (P < 0.05) and lower GSH (P < 0.05) .There was a significant positive correlation between MDA and the number of pronucleus ( r= 0.326 ). The best cutoff value of FF.MDA and FF GSH associated with pregnancy were 3.49 µM and 26.90 µM respectively. Higher FF MDA and lower FF GSH levels are associated with pregnancy after ICSI. Oxidative stress parameters may be markers of metabolic activity within the follicle.


Article
Effect of Gamma Radiation on Pathogenecity of Entamoeba Histolytica

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Abstract

The present study was conducted to test the effect of gamma radiation on the pathogenicity of E. histolytica in vivo by using radiation with doses (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25) rad to attenuation cyst of E. histolytica. The results revealed that mortality rate in laboratory animals (rabbits) decrease when increase the dose of attenuated E. histolytica cyst in comparative with positive control group (non – attenuated group) it reach (60% ,40%,40% and 20%) when give the rabbits attenuated E. histolytica cyst (5,10 ,15, and 20 ) rad. respectively . also we found no any mortality in rabbit which given attenuated E. histolytica cyst with dose (25) rad. also increasing doses of attenuating E. histolytica cyst (5,10,15,20 and 25) rad caused a some of histopathological changes in rabbits liver such as infiltration of inflammatory cell with degeneration of hepatic cells in addition to congested blood vessels and hydropic degeneration of hepatocyte in compare with liver of control group which gave the normal saline which appear normal shape and size. The results noted that this changes were reduce when increase the doses of radiation which decrease the pathogenecity of E. histolytica. We concluded that gamma radiation have good effects on reduce the pathogenicity of E. histolytica.


Article
Evaluationof Curing Depth of Bulk-Fill Resin Composite (A comparative study)

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Abstract

This study evaluated the depth of cure (DOC) of recently introduced resin composites for posterior use, bulk filled flowable composite (SureFil® SDR® flow DENTSPLY Caulk) at different depth. 30 specimens were prepared and divided into two Groups,Group 1: specimens with 2 mm depth, Group 2: specimens with 4mm depth. The composite specimens were prepared by using molds of different depth, one of them with was a hole of 4 mm depth and 4 mm internal diameter and the other was with a depth of 2 mm at the same diameter. The hole was bulk filled with SDR flowable composite resin and light cured for 20 seconds with a modern high-intensity LED curing unit (Elipar™ S10, 3M.US.), followed by 24 hours storage in complete darkness incubator at 37 C◦. The degree of conversion was measured on the top and the bottom for both depths using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A bulk filled flowable (SDR)revealed a significant difference in degree of conversion (DOC) when the bottom surface of the specimen witha 2mm depth (DOC=76.27112163) wascompared with the bottom surface of the 4mm depth specimen (DOC=73.92160935). The 2mm depth wasshown statistically significantly higher mean values degree of conversion than 4 mm depth (P-value = 0.032). There was no statistically significant difference in the degree of conversion mean values between the top and the bottom surfaces of the specimen of the same group (P >0.05). Upon the result of thisin vitro study, it was found that the degree of conversion of the SDR bulk-fill flowable resin compositewasaffected by depths. As the depth of the resin compositewas increased the degree of conversion was decreased.


Article
New Approach in Estimation of Dental Development

Authors: Hayder A. Kadhim
Pages: 317-322
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Abstract

This study aimed to estimate the mature root length of first premolar by using the root of first molar as a reference through the panoramic radiograph. The sample of this study included 102 panoramic radiographs of Iraqi Arab subjects with an age ranged between 17-25 years. The root length of both the first premolars and first molars are measured on good diagnostic quality panoramic radiographs by using the Planmeca Romexis Viewer software. Pearson’s correlation coefficientwas used to determine the relation between the root length of first premolar and that of permanent first molar. Regression equation was used to determine the questions that predict the length of mature root of first premolars. Paired t-test was used to compare between the actual and predicted root length. The findings showed high correlation between the root length of first premolars and that of permanent first molars. Hence, the root length of permanent first molar can be used as predictors for root length of first premolars.

Table of content: volume:12 issue:1