Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2014 volume:26 issue:1

Article
Comparison of regional bond strength among different types of posts luted with different types of cement

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Abstract

Background: This in vitro study was carried out to investigate the effect of post space regions (coronal, middle and apical), the effect of post types ( Manually Milled Zirconia post, Prefabricated Fiber post, prefabricated Zirconia post) and the type of cement used (GIC, self-adhesive resin cement) on the bond strength between the posts and root dentin by using push-out test. Material and methods: Forty eight mandibular premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons (single rooted) were instrumented with ProTaper system (hand use) and obturated with gutta percha for ProTaper using AH26® root canal sealer following the manufacturer instructions. After 24 hours, post space was prepared using Zirix and Glassix drills no.3 creating 8 mm depth post space. The prepared samples were randomly divided into three main groups (16 samples each) according to the type of post used (Group A. Manually Milled Zirconia post, Group B. Prefabricated Fiber post and Group C. Prefabricated Zirconia post) .each group was subdivided into two subgroups (each subgroup contains 8 samples) according to the type of cement used (subgroup A1.Manually Milled Zirconia post cemented with GIC, subgroup A2.Manually Milled Zirconia post cemented with Speed cem),( subgroup B1.Prefabricated Fiber post cemented with GIC, Group B2. Prefabricated Fiber post cemented with Speed cem) and (subgroup C1.Prefabricated Zirconia post cemented with GIC, subgroup C2. Prefabricated Zirconia post cemented with Speed cem), after cementation and incubation for 24hrs, at 37°c and 100% humidity. Each root was sectioned horizontally into 3 slices (2 mm in thickness) representing the coronal, middle and apical regions of the post space. Push out bond strength test was performed and measured using a universal testing machine (Tinius-Olsen) at across head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Results: The results showed that regarding the root region, the bond strength values increased significantly from apical to coronal region for all types of posts in both tested cements. For the effect of post type, the manually Milled Zirconia post cemented with the self-cured resin cement (Speed cem) showed higher bond strength values. For type of cement, the self-adhesive resin cement (Speed cem) showed higher bond strength values. Conclusions: the retention of post restoration was affected by root region, type of post and type of cement used


Article
Fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars with extensive MOD cavities restored with different composite restorations (An In vitro study)

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Background: This in vitro study evaluated the fracture resistance of weakened endodontically treated premolars with class II MOD cavities restored with different composite restorations (Low-shrinkage Filtek P90, nanohybrid Filtek Z250 XT and SDR bulk fill). The type and mode of fracture were also assessed for all the experimental groups. Materials and Method: Fifty human adult maxillary premolar teeth were selected for this study. Standardized extensive class II MOD cavities with endodontic treatment were prepared for all teeth, except those that were saved as intact control. The teeth were divided into five groups of ten teeth each (n=10): (Group 1) intact control group, (Group 2) unrestored teeth with endodontic treatment, (Group 3) restored with (Filtek Z250 XT), (Group 4) restored with SDR bulk-fill flowable composite and (Group 5) restored with Filtek P90 composite. All specimens were subjected to compressive axial loading until fracture in a universal testing machine. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA test and LSD test. Macroscopic fracture type were observed and classified into favorable and unfavorable. Specimens in group 3, 4 and 5 were examined by stereomicroscope at a magnification of 20× to evaluate the mode of failure into adhesive, cohesive or mixed. Results: The mean fracture load was (1.123 Kn) for group 1, (0.545 Kn) for group 2, (0.687 Kn) for group 3, (0.799 Kn) for group 4 and (0.672 Kn) for group 5. Using one way ANOVA test a highly significant difference (P < 0.01) were found among all groups. The use of bulk-fill flowable composite improved the fracture resistance significantly in comparison to silorane and non-significantly to Filtek Z250 XT. Filtek Z250 XT showed better improvement in fracture resistance but with no significant differences in comparison to Filtek P90 composite restorations. The type of failure was unfavorable for all the restored groups. Conclusion:All experimental composite restorations showed significant improvement in the resistance to cuspal fracture in comparison to unrestored one. However, under the conditions of this study, direct composite restorations should be considered as a valid interim restoration for weakened endodontically treated teeth before cuspal coverage can be provided.


Article
An evaluation of canal transportation and centering ability at different levels of root canals prepared by self-adjusting file using computed tomography (A comparative study)

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Background: The new concepts and technologies continue to change the dynamics of endodontic practices in the world. Rapid and significant changes in techniques, instrument design, and the type of metals used to manufacture endodontic instruments which have been made during the last few years in an attempt to overcome canal preparation errors. The purpose of this study is to measure and compare canal transportation and centering ability of Self Adjusting File with two rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) systems, ProTaper and BioRaCe at different levels. Material and Methods: Forty five distal roots of mandibular first molars with moderate curvature were selected using Schneider method. Roots were divided randomly into 3 groups of 15 each and were scanned using Computed Tomography (Initial scan). After canal preparation with ProTaper (group A), BioRaCe (group B), and Self Adjusting File (group C) the roots were rescanned (Final scan), the degree of canal transportation and centering ability were assessed at apical (4 mm), middle (6 mm), coronal (9 mm) sections using computed tomography. The collected data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Least Significant Difference tests. Results: There were no statistically significant differences among the groups at level 4 mm and level 9 mm (P ˃ 0.05). However, at level 6 mm there was a highly significant difference between (A) and (B) groups (P ˂ 0.01) and there was a significant difference between (A) and (C) groups (P ˂ 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences among different levels of (A) and (C) groups (P ˃ 0.05), while (B) group showed a highly significant difference between 4 mm and 9 mm levels and between 6 mm and 9 mm levels (P ˂ 0.01). Regarding canal centering ability, there was no statistically significant difference among the three groups at different levels (P ˃ 0.05)., while (B) group showed a significant difference between 4 mm and 9 mm levels (P ˂ 0.05), and a very highly significant difference between 6 mm and 9 mm levels (P ˂ 0.001). Conclusion: The study demonstrated that canal preparation with the three designs of Ni-Ti instruments produced canal transportation. Self Adjusting File group showed less canal transportation than ProTaper group. There was a comparable value of canal centering ability among different levels in each group except in BioRaCe group


Article
Effect of disinfectant agents on certain physical and mechanical properties of type IV dental stone

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Background: Dental stone casts come into contact with impression materials and becomes susceptible to cross contamination from saliva and blood. This study was done to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of dental stone type IV after treatments with various disinfecting agents and regimes (methods). Materials and Methods: Type IV dental stone and different types of disinfecting agents were used and divided into seven groups: G1: dental stone without disinfection (control group), G2: dental stone mixed with silver nitrate powder 0.5% , G3: dental stone mixed with silver nitrate powder 1%, G4: dental stone mixed with copper sulfate powder 0.5%, G5: dental stone mixed with copper sulfate powder 1% ,G6: dental stone immersed in propanol 70% and G7: dental stone immersed in ethanol 70%.Setting time, linear setting expansion, surface detail reproduction, compressive strength of type IV dental stone as well as compatibility with auto mixing addition silicone impression material were evaluated. The statistical analysis were conducted by ANOVA test followed by LSD test (p<0.05), also chi square test was used. Results: The compressive strength, linear setting expansion, surface detail reproduction and compatibility of stone specimens was affected to a higher extent by mixing with silver nitrate powder 1%, copper sulfate powder 1% while treating the stone specimens with the disinfecting powders at low concentrations as well as immersion of stone specimens in either ethanol or propanol for 15 minutes produce less effect on the previous tested properties. Conclusion: Silver nitrate 0.5%, copper sulfate 0.5% powders as well as 15 minutes immersion in 70% ethanol or 70% propanol did not promote adverse alterations in most of evaluated properties of type IV dental stone


Article
The effect of Silicon di oxide Nano -Fillers reinforcement on some properties of heat cure polymethyl methacrylate denture base material

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Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of surface treated silicon dioxide Nano filler (SiO2) on some properties of heat cured acrylic resin denture base material (PMMA). The properties were impact strength, transvers strength, and surface hardness. Materials and methods: In addition to controlled group SiO2 powder was added to PMMA powder by weight in three different percentages 3%, 5% and 7%, mixed by probe ultra-sonication machine.120 specimens were constructed and divided into 3 groups according to the test (each group consist of 40 specimens) and each group was subdivided into 4 sub-groups according to the percentage of added SiO2 (finally each subgroup consist of 10 specimens). The tests conducted were impact strength (charpy test), transverse strength and indentation hardness (shore D). Results: A highly significant increase in impact strength and transverse strength was observed with the addition of SiO2 powder to (PMMA) at the percentage of 3% and 5%; while a significant reduction occurred in both impact and transverse strength specimen’s tests at the percentage of 7% A Highly significant increase in surface hardness was observed at the percentage of 3%, 5%and7. Conclusion: The addition of Nano SiO2 powder to acrylic resin improves the impact strength and transverse strength of acrylic resin at the same time this addition increase surface hardness with the increase in the concentration of Nano SiO2 particles


Article
Evaluation the effect of nano-fillers (TiO2, AL2O3, SiO2) addition on glass transition temperature, E-Moudulus and coefficient of thermal expansion of acrylic denture base material

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Background: The PMMA polymer denture base materials are low in thermal and strength properties. The aim of the study was to investigate the change in glass transition temperature, E-Moudulus and coefficient of thermal expansion of acrylic denture base material by addition of Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2nano-fillers in 5% by weight. Materials and methods: The type of polymerization is free radical bulk polymerization. one hundred twenty (120) specimens were prepared , the specimens were divided into four groups according to the material had been added (one control and three for Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2nanocomposite) each group was subdivided in to three groups according to the test had been done on it, the degree of transition (Tg) was measured by The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), E-Modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion and contraction was measured by Thermo Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) .Each sample was tested at different temperatures (30,40,50,60,70C°). Results: Highly significant decrease in coefficient thermal expansion and contraction and in E-Modulus occurred in acrylic incorporated with Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 nano-fillers in 5% by weight when compared to control group. For glass transition temperature a significant increase had occurred with the addition of nanofillers at 5% when compared to control group. Conclusion: The results showed that the polymer nanocomposites possess material properties different from that of unmodified PMMA, nanocomposite has thermal and mechanical stability more than heat neat PMMA


Article
An in-vitro scan electron microscope comparative study of dentine-Biodentine interface

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Background: This research was an in-vitro SEM comparative study of Dentine – Biodentine TM interface. Materials and Methods: Sixty three freshly extracted human molars, Biodentine TM (Septodont, France), MTA (ProRoot, Tulsa, Brazil), GIC (MediFil, Promedica, Germany), light microscope, scaler and pumice, high speed hand piece, diamond bur, Scan Electron Microscope: VEGA\ Easy Probe. TESCAN – Germany. The study was performed first at the University of Mosul, College of Dentistry to dental models were brought the sixty-three of the specialty dental health center in Mosul. The teeth was prepared by cleaning, cutting, and removing all the caries and examined under light microscope and decayed teeth was excluded .Then the teeth was divided randomly into three main groups (A, B, C) and each major group was divided into three sub groups: (A1, A2, A3) was filled with (Biodentine TM), (B1, B2, B3) was filled with (MTA) and (C1, C2, C3) was filled with the (GIC). Each subset contains seven (7) samples. All groups were filled according to the manufacturer instructions, and then restored at 37°C and 100% humidity. After storage periods of (7, 14, 28) days, the teeth were sectioned mesio-distaly using a low speed diamond saw (Isomet, Buehler Ltd.), and examined under SEM at the University of Technology-Nano Research Center in Baghdad. Results: Under the condition of this in vitro study, examination with SEM showed that the marginal gaps between the experimental materials and the dentine is time dependant, with the best results was observed between Biodentine and dentine interface. Conclusion: The marginal gaps between the experimental materials and the dentine are time dependent

Keywords

Interface --- Biodentine TM --- MTA --- SEM


Article
A comparative study to evaluate the shear bond strength of different resin sealers to dentin (An in vitro study)

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Background: One of the major problems in endodontics is micro-leakage of root canal fillings which might contribute to the failure of endodontic treatment. To avoid this problem, a variety of sealers have been tested. The objective of this, in vitro, study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of four resin based sealers (AH plus, silver free AH26, RealSeal SE and Perma Evolution permanent root canal filling material) to dentin. Materials and Methods: Forty non-carious extracted lower premolars were used. The 2mm of the occlusal surfaces of teeth were sectioned, to expose the dentin surface. The exposed dentin surfaces of teeth were washed with 5ml of 2.5% NaOCl solution followed by 5ml of 17 % EDTA then rinsed by deionized water to remove the smear layer. The teeth were divided into four groups according to the type of sealer used: Group A: silver free AH26, Group B: AH plus., Group C: RealSeal SE, Group D: Perma Evolution. Polyethylene tube cylinders (4mm internal diameter & 5mm length) were fixed on the dentin surfaces. Then freshly mixed sealers were poured into the tubes and allowed to bench set for two hours and were stored at 100% humidity and 37˚C for one week. With an Instron machine, the shear bond strength between the tested sealers and the dentin, in Mpa, was measured. Statistical analysis was carried out using the one-way ANOVA and Student’s t-tests. Results: Perma Evolution scored the highest mean value of sheer bond strength, being 3.343 Mpa followed by the AH plus (2.786 Mpa) and AH26 (2.149 Mpa). While the RealSeal scored the lowest mean value of sheer bond strength, which was (1.831 Mpa). ANOVA test results showed a highly statistically significant difference. Student's t test results revealed significant differences between all the compared groups, except one paired group had a non-significant difference in the shear bond strength which was between the AH plus and Perma Evolution groups (P>0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study pointed to Perma Evolution which scored the highest sheer bond strength between the tested sealers


Article
Effect of certain chemical surface treatments on repair bond strength of some denture base materials

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Background: Fracture of different types of acrylic denture base is a common problem associated with dental prosthesis. Studies suggested that the repair strength may be improved by several means including surface treatment with chemical agents. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of surface treatment with acrybond-bonding agent and monomer on fractured denture base in respect to transverse, tensile and shear bond strength and evaluation of the mode of failure by light microscope. Materials and methods: Two hundred seventy specimens were prepared and divided into 3 groups according to the material used (regular conventional, rapid simplified and high impact) heat cure acrylic. The specimen in each groups were prepared specifically according to testing (tensile, transverse and shear bond strength). All the specimens were stored in 37°C for 28days before fracture then the specimens in each test were divided into 3 groups according to surface treatment (control-without surface treatment, monomer(MMA) group and acrybond (MMA with acetone ))group. The specimens repaired with cold cure acrylic using Ivomet; then stored in distill water at 37°C for 2days before testing. GEFRA universal testing machine was used and final load at fracture was recorded. Results: monomer and acrybond group exhibited higher bond strength than control group. Conclusion: the type of denture base affect the value of bond strength and the use of monomer or acrybond resulted in higher bond strength than untreated surface


Article
Retentive forces, tensile strength and deflection fatigue of Acetal thermoplastic clasp material in comparison with cobalt-chromium alloy

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Background: Nowadays there is an increasing of the emphasis on aesthetic, dentist have been concerned about providing aesthetics and functional removable partial dentures to their patients and this was make the mission more difficult because of the goal now is achieving optimal aesthetic of the denture - while maintaining retentive, stable, and conservative to the health of supporting tooth and supporting tissue. The traditional use of metal clasp like cobalt-chromium, gold, stainless-steel and titanium hampers esthetics because of its obvious display conflicts with patient’s prosthetic confidentiality. Acetal resin (poly oxy methylene) may be used as alternative denture clasp material. This material was promoted primarily on the basis of its superior esthetic. Material and method: In this study, Acetal resin of Flexite and co-cr alloy of Wirocast companies were used. Four metal models of two premolars and two molars were surveyed to have 0.25mm and 0.5mm undercut depth for each one of the materials. eighty clasps were prepared and tested by testing machine to measure the load required to dislodge Acetal and co-cr clasps of 2mm. thickness (for premolar and molar). Tensile test were utilized for both Acetal resin and co-cr. tensile values will be used in special formula to calculate the amount of deflection. Results: The results of this study revealed that Acetal resin clasp of molar with 0.5mm undercut depth have the higher retentive force, and premolar with 0.25 mm undercut depth have the lowest retentive force as compared to co-cr. Also Acetal had lower values of the tensile strength as compared to co-cr alloy but it had higher deflection value than co-cr and it can withstand higher deflections than those of co-cr before having permanent deformation or fracture Conclusions: Acetal resin can be used with limitation as an alternative to co-cr alloy clasps in removable partial dentures.


Article
Elevation in surface temperature of root canals obturated with different thermoplasticized gutta-percha obturation techniques-an in vitro study

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Background: Many studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of using a hot material in the root canal and its potential for causing damage to the tooth supporting structure. Materials and methods: thirty permanent premolars were obturated with thermoplasticized Gutta-Percha using three different obturation techniques: soft core, Thermafil, and obtura to evaluate the rise in temperature on the root surface using a multipurpose digital thermometer. Results: temperature increases was significantly greater for Obtura versus Soft core (p<0.003), not significant for Thermafil versus Soft core (p<0.087), and Thermafil versus Obtura (p<0.125). Conclusions: temperatures rise on the root surface were below the critical level and, therefore, should not cause damage to the periodontal ligament


Article
Correlation between Streptococci Mutans and salivary IgA in relation to some oral parameters in saliva of children

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Background: Saliva plays an important role in oral health. Several salivary proteins are involved in the antimicrobial defence mechanism and are able to eliminate or inhibit bacterial growth in the oral cavity. Secretory IgA (SIgA) is one of the principal antibodies present in saliva, could help oral immunity by preventing microbial adherence, neutralizing enzymes and toxins. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary Streptococcus Mutans (SM) count and S IgA in stimulated whole saliva in children with primary dentition compared to those with permanent teeth in relation to some oral hygiene parameters. Material and methods: Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 50 children (25 with primary dentation and 25 with permanent teeth). Salivary flow rate and pH was measured. Oral hygiene index (OHI) and gingival inflammation was assessed using classical method. S IgA level was measured using an immunoassay kit and SM count was determined by culture media. Results: Mean salivary flow rate, pH and S IgA were significantly higher among children with permanent teeth compared to those with primary dentition. Compared to primary dentition, permanent dentition was associated with a significantly reduced mean plaque index, increased mean gingival index and reduced mean salivary SM count. Although plaque index showed a statistically significant positive correlation with SM count, gingival index showed a weak negative correlation with bacterial count. S IgA, PH and flow rate showed a statistically significant moderately strong negative correlation with bacterial count. Conclusion: This study showed a clear correlation between count of SM in stimulated whole saliva and both SIgA and plaque index


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of Cyclin D1 and NF-KB p65 in oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma (Comparative study)

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Background: Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory mucosal disease, presenting in various clinical forms WHO had regarded OLP as a precancerous conditions in 1978 because of its potential with cancer. Both antigenspecific and nonspecific mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of OLP. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity representing more than 94% of oral cancer. It occurs in different sites and has many etiological factors. Cyclin Dl is a proto-oncogene which consider as the key protein in the regulation of cell proliferation and its overexpression led to the occurrence and progression of malignant tumors.NF-KB p65 is a member ofNF-kB family of transcription factors that widely used by eukaryotic cells as a regulator of genes that control cell proliferation and cell survival, also plays a major role in inflammation. The aims of this study were to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Cyclin D1 & NF-KB p65 in OLP & OSCC & to correlate the expression of the studied markers with the clinicopathological findings and with each other. Materials and Methods: Fifty (50) formalin – fixed, paraffin – embedded blocks of both Oral Lichen Planus (25 cases) & Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (25 cases) were collected pro- and retrospectively were included in this study. Hematoxylin & Eosin stain was performed for each block for reassessment of histopathological examination. An immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti Cyclin D1 and anti NF-KB p65 monoclonal antibodies. Results: Of twenty five OLPstudied cases , positive Cyclin D1 & NF-KB p65 expression was found in (84%) and (88%)of the cases respectively. For OSCC ,out of 25 studied cases ,positive Cyclin D1 & NF-KB p65 expression was observe in (88%) and (96%) of cases respectively. Statistically significant correlation between Cyclin D1immuno- reactivity and clinical presentation of OLP was found. Statistically significant correlation of Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity with tumor grade andNF-kBp65 immunoreactivity with tumor stage in OSCC cases was found. Statistically a highly significant correlation between the expression of two studied markers in OLP and OSCC was found. Conclusion: A highly significant correlation was seen regarding the expression of both markers with each other, suggesting their cooperative role in the pathogenesis of OLP and OSCC

Keywords

OLP --- OSCC --- Cyclin D1 --- NF-KB p65 --- Immunohistochemistry


Article
Salivary gland tumors: A review of 171 cases, with particular reference to histological types, site, age and gender distribution

Authors: Faris I. Al-Khiro
Pages: 88-91
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Background: Salivary tumors are uncommon, being of low incidence worldwide. This study aimed to assess cases collected in this series of salivary gland tumors in regard to histopathological typing, in relation to age, site and gender. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study; cases were collected from public and private laboratories. A total number of 171 cases were collected. The slides were reviewed and reclassified for histopathological typing according to WHO classification 2005. Results: Benign tumors were more common than malignant tumors. The most common histological type was benign mixed tumor, followed by Warthin’s tumor. The most common malignant tumor was adenoid cystic carcinoma. One hundred twenty three cases out of 171 cases developed in the parotid, the most common site for salivary tumors, with a low risk for malignancy, while minor salivary glands show higher risk for malignancy. Salivary tumors developed in females more than males with a ration 1.4:1, the peak incidence in the sixth and seventh decades for both benign and malignant tumors. There was no significant difference between right and left tumors, bilateral tumors were uncommon. Conclusions: The results of this study reveal similarity to the findings of other studies on salivary tumors done in Iraq and the neighboring countries


Article
Computed tomography bone density in Hounsfield units at dental implant receiving sites in different regions of the jaw bone

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Background: Determination of local bone mineral density (BMD) with cortical thickness and bone height may offer a comprehensive description of the bone the surgeon will encounter when he or she actually sets the implant. Quantitative computed tomography (CT) (i.e., quantitative interpretation of values derived from Hounsfield units with a suitable calibration procedure) is the modality of choice to determine BMD. The aim of the present clinical study is to determine the local bone density in dental implant recipient sites using computerized tomography. Material and method: The sample consisted of (72) Iraqi patients whom referred to Al-Kharkh General hospital, Spiral CT scan Department for bone quality and quantity assessment after one week of dental implants insertion, the average of bone density was measured for 120 areas indifferent sectors of maxilla and mandible in Hounsfield unite. Results: As a mean, males show higher bone density than females, decreased with increased age significantly, mandible show significantly higher bone density than maxilla. Maxilla revealed no significant difference between the three sectors, while in the mandible there was significant difference between posterior sector (613.1HU)and both anterior (821.3 HU) and premolar sectors (779.6 HU) with no significant difference between anterior and premolar sectors. Conclusion: CT-Scan may provide a valuable aid to predict bone quality at potential implant sites and could be used to assess the change of bone density around dental implants


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of p53 and PCNA proteins in oral lichen planus and oral dysplasia

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Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic inflammatory muco-cutaneous disease classified among the potentially malignant lesions of oral mucosa. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the expression of p53 and PCNA proteins in oral lichen planus and epithelial dysplasia cases. Materials and methods:Formalin-fixed and paraffin- embedded blocks of 21 lichen planusand 21 oral dysplasia cases were referred to immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis for anti p53 and anti PCNA monoclonal antibodies. Results: The results showed that positive nuclear staining for p53 was found in 11/21 (52.4%) cases of lichen planus and 17/21 (80.9%) cases of dysplasia. Positivity for PCNA was observed in 18/21(85.7%) of oral lichen planus cases, and19/21(90.5%) of epithelial dysplasia cases. There was a statistically significant difference between the expression of p53 and PCNA proteins in oral lichen plauns cases and non- significant differences of either protein expression in oral dysplasia cases. No statistically significant difference of p53 and PCNA proteins expression between oral lichen planus and epithelial dysplasia cases was found. Moreover, there was no significant difference in P53 and PCNA expression with respect to the grade of epithelial dysplasia. Conclusion: The proportion of cases with positive p53 expression increased from lichen planus to dysplasia. These results may indicate an involvement of p53 in neoplastic transformation as well as in proliferative events PCNA, although the absence of p53 staining could be used to predict the outcome of potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions.

Keywords

Oral lichen planus --- oral dysplasia --- p53 --- PCNA


Article
Immunoflourescent assessment of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type 1 in oral lichen planus

Authors: Muthanna K. Ali مثنى علي
Pages: 103-107
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Background: Oral lichen planus is one of the most common dermatological diseases presenting in the oral cavity. Hence, viral infection of the oral mucosa may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus, Taking in to consideration the oncogenic potential of HSV-1, this study aimed to assess the presence of Herpes Simplex Virus type one by direct immunoflourescent in oral lichen planus. This study aimed to assess the presence of HSV type1 by direct immunofluorescent in histopathologically diagnosed OLP Material and Method: Twenty formalin fixed embedded tissue blocks of oral lichen planus with 2 Positive control cases were taken from patients having infection with herpes labialis, US Biological herpes simplex virus-1 Glycoprotein C was used for detection of HSV-1 Ag by direct immunofluorescence assay Results: One case of oral lichen planus showed positivity of HSV 1 with a non- statistical significance. Conclusion: The present study couldn’t find any correlation between HSV-1 positivity with clinical and histopathological features of OLP

Keywords

OLP --- HSV --- immunofloresant assay


Article
Oral cancer awareness among group of general dental practitioners in Iraq

Authors: Omar Sh. Museedi
Pages: 108-111
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Background: The early detection of oral cancers gives the greatest chance of curing and the delay in presentation has a significant impact on the associated morbidity and mortality. The lack of general dental practitioners (GDP) knowledge in early cancer detection has been shown to contribute to delays in referral and treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the oral cancer awareness among a group of GDP by assessing their knowledge of detection and prevention of oral cancer. Materials and methods: A questionnaire based study was designed. The questionnaire was delivered to 200 GDP assessing oral examination method, knowledge of oral cancer risk factors, clinical appearance and the most common site, point of referral and requests for further information. Results: A response rate of 69% was obtained. The GDP were less likely to examine the oral mucosa than other similar studies in other countries, and also less likely to advice patient about risk factors. Smoking and alcohol use wereidentified as risk factors by 96.3% and 43.48% of the GDP respectively. Only 37.7% of GDP believed they had sufficient knowledge of oral cancer, and more than 94% believed they need further information about oral cancer. Conclusion: This study highlights need for more education of the GDP on oral cancer


Article
BAX In situ hybridization and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemical expressions in salivary gland tumours

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Background: Epithelial salivary gland tumours are relatively uncommon and constitute a wide spectrum of variable morphologic and biologic entities. The cell proliferation / death balance is most important in the development of salivary gland tumours. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of PCNA protein immunohistochemically and Bax mRNA gene using in situ hybridization techniques and to correlate between the clinicopathological features of salivary gland tumours with the expressions of PCNA protein and Bax mRNA. Materials and Methods: Forty nine formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of epithelial salivary gland tumours were used in this study. Haematoxylin and Eosin stain was used for reassessment of the histopathologic diagnosis. The cell proliferation activity was examined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry and proapoptotic cell death Bax mRNA gene was analysed by in situ hybridization techniques. Results: Immunohistochemical analysis show high expression of PCNA and was noted in 8 of 12 pleomorphic adenoma cases (66.67%), 15 of 19 adenoid cystic carcinoma cases (78.95 %), 6 of 7 mucoepidermoid carcinoma cases (85.71%), and 3 of 5 adenocarcinoma case (60 %). Significant difference was found between labeling index of benign and malignant salivary gland tumours, while no significant relationship was noted in labeling index between adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma neither between mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. In situ hybridization detection show low expression of Bax and was noted in only 3 cases of pleomorphic adenoma cases (25%), 10 cases in adenoid cystic carcinoma cases (52.63 %), however, mucoepidermoid carcinoma showed high expression of these markers than other salivary gland tumours, whereas adenocarcinoma show equal number of cases expressed both PCNA protein and Bax mRNA. No significant relationship was demonstrated between the immunostaining PCNA or Bax and the morphological growth pattern or patient clinical profile. Positive significant correlation was found between PCNA and Bax mRNA in pleomorphic adenoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cases. Conclusion: The high proliferative rate could explain the natural course of these tumours and the decreased expression of bax in salivary gland tumours indicate that loss of bax expression might give the tumour cells a double growth advantage because uncontrolled proliferation is combined with reduce cell death rate. The interaction may trigger a multistep process which is able to promote and may play a role in salivary gland tumour genesis, possibly by inhibiting the apoptosis mediated by Bax


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of basic fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanase in salivary pleomorphic adenoma

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Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanase in salivary pleomorphic adenoma, and to correlate the two studied markers with each other and with clinicopathological parameters including: age, sex, tumor site and histopathological presentation. Methods: Sections of twenty five formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks specimens of salivary pleomorphic adenoma were immunostained using monoclonal antibodies (Fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanase) to assess their expression in this tumor. Results: The expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanase were positive in all pleomorphic adenoma cases (100%). The positive expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 was significantly correlated with histopathological presentation (p-value=0.032), but it was non-significantly correlated with FGF-2 and other clinicopathological parameters (age, sex, tumor site). The positiveexpression of Heparanse was non-significantly correlated with the histopathological presentation (p-value=0.088) as well as with other clinicopathological parameters (age, sex, tumor site). Statistically significant correlation was found between the expressions of both studied markers (p-value= 0.0005). Conclusion: The fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanase positive expression was noted in all cases of salivary pleomorphic adenoma signifying that both fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanase might contribute in the biological behavior of pleomorphic adenoma. The highly significant correlation found in the expression of both markers suggests their synergistic and cooperative role in the tumorigenesis of pleomorphic adenoma


Article
Periodontal health status and salivary parameters in pregnancy

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Background: Pregnancy is considered a major risk factor for development and progression of periodontal disease. There are hormonal changes in both estrogen and progesterone hormones in addition to bacterial effect and poor oral hygiene that will enhance development of periodontal disease in pregnant women. Materials and methods: Seventy subjects were enrolled in the study, the subjects with an age range (20-35) years old without any history of systemic disease. The subjects were divided into 20 non-pregnant women they represent the control group (G I), 30 pregnant women with gingivitis (GII) and 20 pregnant women with periodontitis (GIII).All periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level) were recorded and 5ml of unstimulated saliva was collected for each subject. The collected saliva was centrifuged and clear supernatant was collected and kept frozen until biochemical analysis of salivary enzymes which included ALP, LDH and salivary Calcium. Results: No significant difference in the mean value of salivary ALP between GI and G II, while there is high significant difference between GI and GIII. There was significant difference in the salivary LDH and Ca levels between control group and group II, while there is highly significant difference of salivary LDH and Ca between group I and group III.There was significant difference in the number of bleeding sites, and probing pocket depth (PPD) among all groups. There was increase in the total number of all scores of PPD (score 1,2 and 3) GII and GIII compared to GI. Conclusions: Thepregnant women revealed more periodontal disease conditions (gingivitis and periodontitis) due to hormonal changes superimposed with microbial infection. Salivary enzymes (ALP, LDH) and salivary calcium are considered as good biochemical markers of periodontal tissue destruction and can be used to evaluate the effect of pregnancy on periodontal health status.


Article
The association of crevicular albumin level with the severity of periodontal destruction in chronic periodontitis patients after initial periodontal treatment

Authors: Raghad Fadhil رغد فاضل
Pages: 134-137
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Background: Gingival crevice fluid (GCF) is a mixture of substances derived from serum, leukocytes, and structural cells of periodontium and oral bacteria. These substances possess a great potential for serving as indicators of periodontal disease and healing after therapy the main purpose of this study was to find if there is a difference in albumin concentration between healthy and diseased periodontal tissues and to compare between diseased group according to pocket depth Materials and methods: total sample composed of 60 pockets found in 35 patients all of them had no history of any systemic disease, The samples were divided in to three main group that include two diseased groups divided according to the depth of the periodontal pocket (group I were the pocket depth less than 6mm and group II were the pocket depth is equal or more than 6mm) and one healthy group (group III). Sampling of GCF were taken from patients in the second visits of periodontal treatment A previously weighed strips of filter paper size 30 were gently inserted in to the selected pocket depth until resistance was felt the filter paper left in place for 30 seconds and after removal they were weighed on a chemical balance. The difference between the weights of filter paper before and after absorption of exudates was calculated and each filter strips was placed in a tube containing o.3ml of normal saline then transferred and stored at -20C.on the day of analysis the samples were centrifuged at 10.000rpm for 20 minutes .the supernatant was used for assessment of Albunim colorimetrically similar to that of blood. Results: Comparison for gingival fluid weight were shown a non significant difference in the weight between group I&II at a P values >0.05 while there were a highly significant difference between group I&III and between group II&III at P values <0.000 While comparison for albumin concentration in gingival fluid by using t-test and f test show a non significant difference for all groups at p values >0.05 intra groups correlation between albumin content in gingival fluid and periodontal parameter there were a significant negative correlation between plaque index and albumin in group I and II while anon significant correlation in group III also a significant and highly significant correlation were found between albumin and weight of gingival fluid in group I and II while anon significant differences in group III as shown in the table while there were anon significant differences between albumin content of gingival fluid and the gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss. Conclusion: the gingival crevicular fluid is an aqueous component in which is true trasudate and inflammatory exudates after the initial periodontal treatment in which it increased in weight as the inflammation present but the concentration of albumin may became a no significantly different compared with clinically healthy gingiva. As the initial periodontal treatment took place for each patients


Article
Estimation of soluble CD14 level in saliva of patients with different periodontal conditions and its correlation with periodontal health status

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Background: Cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) is a serum/cell surface glycoprotein; and it is a pattern recognition receptor. CD14 expressed on the surface of various cells, or it found soluble in saliva and other body fluids. It has been proposed that soluble CD14 (sCD14) may play a protective role by controlling Gram negative bacterial infections through its capacity to bind lipopolysaccharide. This study was conducted to assess the level of soluble CD14 in saliva of patients with different periodontal diseases and healthy subjects and determine its correlation with clinical periodontal parameters. Materials & Methods: A total of 80 subjects, age ranged (25-50) years old, divided into three main groups, group Ι consisted of 45 chronic periodontitis patients, group ΙΙ consisted of 20 gingivitis patients, lastly group ΙΙΙ comprised 15 apparently- healthy volunteers. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected to determine levels of soluble CD14 in saliva by enzyme-linked immune–sorbent assay (ELISA). Clinical periodontal parameters were recorded at four sites per tooth including plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. Results: A highly significant difference (P<0.01) was found for salivary sCD14 levels among the three groups, also it was greater in chronic periodontitis group than those detected for gingivitis and healthy controls with a highly significant difference (P<0.01). Furthermore, Spearman’s correlation analysis showed statistically highly significant strong correlations (P < 0.05) between salivary sCD14 levels and each of (probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level). And non-significant correlation between salivary sCD14 level with plaque, gingival & bleeding on probing indices. Conclusion: The findings of the present study reemphasize the importance of whole saliva as sampling method in terms of immunological purposes in periodontal disease and suggest that the elevated sCD14 concentration may be one of the host-response components associated with the clinical manifestations of periodontal disease


Article
Assessment of some salivary biochemical parameters in cigarette smokers with chronic periodontitis

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Background: Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor that has a clear strong association with the prevalence and severity of chronic periodontitis (CP). Salivary biochemical parameters may be affected by both smoking and CP together. Materials and methods: Eighty systematically healthy male patients were included in this study. They were grouped based on their periodontal and smoking status. Unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) was collected from all subject. Salivary flow rate (FR) was measured during sample collection. Parameters such as salivary pH, total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), total fucose (TF), protein bound fucose (PBF) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were estimated. Results: Salivary flow rate was not altered regarding to smoking status or periodontal health status. Salivary pH was lower in smokers comparing to non- smokers, while salivary pH was not affected by periodontal health status. TF, TP and Alb were higher in CP and PBF was lower in CP comparing to healthy control, while these parameters concentrations did not affect by smoking status except for Alb (smokers with CP had lower Alb concentration comparing to non-smokers with CP). CRP was higher in smokers comparing to non- smokers, while its value was not affected by periodontal health status. Both smoking and chronic periodontitis together affect some salivary biochemical parameters, thus the concentrations of these parameters could be used as indicators for periodontal disease progression and severity in smoker with CP. Both smoking and periodontal health status together should be taken in consideration when salivary composition is studied.


Article
Genders identification using mandibular canines (Iraqi study)

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Background: This study aimed to determine the gender of a sample of Iraqi adults using the mesio-distal width of mandibular canines, inter-canine width and standard mandibular canine index, and to determine the percentage of dimorphism as an aid in forensic dentistry. Materials and methods: The sample included 200 sets of study models belong to 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) with an age ranged between 17-23 years. The mesio-distal crown dimension was measured manually, from the contact points for the mandibular canines (both sides), in addition to the inter-canine width using digital vernier. Descriptive statistics were obtained for the measurements for both genders; paired sample t-test was used to evaluate the side difference of mandibular canines in both genders, independent samples t-test was performed to evaluate the gender difference in addition to the percentage of dimorphism and percentages of correctly classified and misclassified cases using the standard mandibular canine index. Results: The mesio-distal widths of the mandibular canines were non-significantly slightly larger in males than females, while the inter-canine width was larger in males than females with a high significant difference. The accuracy of genders determination using standard mandibular canine index was 32% for males, 59% for females and 45.5% for the combined sample. The percentages of dimorphism were 0.58% for the canine mesio-distal width, 3.99% for the inter-canine width and 3.85 for the mandibular canine index. Conclusions: The mandibular inter-canine width and mandibular canine index gave better percentage of dimorphism than the mesio-distal width of mandibular canines. On the other hand, standard mandibular canine index showed low accuracy for gender determination


Article
Effect of Nd-YAG laser-irradiation on fluoride uptake by tooth enamel surface (in vitro)

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Background: The irradiation of teeth with a laser results in an interaction between the light and the biological constituents of the dental hard substance, which is converted directly into heat.This thermal effect is the cause of the structural and chemical enamel changes.The combined treatment of topical fluoride agent with laser may increase fluoride uptake, and reduce progression of caries-like lesions. The aim of this study was to measure the uptake of the acidulated phosphate fluoride and sodium fluoride to the buccal and lingual caries-like lesion enamel surfaces before and after irradiated by Nd-YAG laser in comparison with matching control group. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 30 human healthy upper premolar teeth which were stored in 0.1% thymol solution after extracted. Every tooth divided into: buccal and lingual specimen, each specimen has a rectangular window which was divided to right and left halves (120 specimens). The sample was divided into 2groups (60 specimens) for buccal surface, and the same for lingual surface. The caries-like lesion was formed for all groups except control (1) each group treated with either acidulated phosphate fluoride 1.23% or sodium fluoride 2%, (30 specimens) which contain other subgroups, these are: (10 specimens) one half treated with fluoride agent only and another half as control (first group as control (1) without caries-like lesion, and the second group control (2) with caries-like lesion, then de-ionized water only). (10 specimens) treated with fluoride agent then irradiated by Nd-YAG laser; one half with program (1) (short pulse), andanother with program (2) (long pulse). (10 specimens) irradiated by Nd-YAG laser; one half with program (1) and another with program (2) then treated with fluoride agent. The specimens of enamel were sectioned and the fluoride uptake was determined with using fluoride sensitive electrode. Results: There was a significant difference between the buccal and lingual enamel surfaces regarding the fluoride uptake in sound tooth, while a non- significant difference was observed after artificial caries-like lesion formation. Conclusion: Irradiation of Nd-YAG laser program (1) to the buccal and lingual caries-like lesion surfaces of enamel before application of fluoride agents (APF, NaF) was significantly increase fluoride uptake than that of using laser after the application of fluoride agent, as well as from using laser of program (2) after and before the application of fluoride agent, and from using fluoride agent alone in the buccal and lingual surfaces


Article
Diagnosis and localization of the maxillary impacted canines by using dental multi-slice computed tomography 3D view and reconstructed panoramic 2D view

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Background: Diagnosis and treatment planning can be difficult with conventional radiographic methods as the or-thodontic-surgical management of impacted canines requires accurate diagnosis and precise localization of the impacted canine and the surrounding structures. This study was aimed to localize and evaluate weather there is any differences in the diagnostic information provided by multi-slice computed tomography three dimensional volumet-ric CT images and two dimensional reconstructed panorama images (derived from CT) in subjects with impacted maxillary canines. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients including 24 female and 6 male with mean age of 18 years with suspected unilaterally or bilaterally impacted maxillary canines were evaluated on images taken with Brilliance™ 64, Philips mul-ti-detector computed tomography. The spatial relationships of the impacted maxillary canines relative to the adja-cent structures was evaluated using linear and angular measurements, and the adjacent lateral incisor root resorp-tion was assessed with three dimensional and two dimensional visualization software. Results: The inclination of the impacted maxillary canine measured to the midline and to the occlusal plane did not differ significantly when it was evaluated using the two imaging modalities. However, there were significant differ-ences between the 3D and 2D images with respect to the impacted maxillary canine vertical height, bucco-palatal localization, and in detecting the proximity and root resorption of the adjacent lateral incisors. Conclusion: Dental CT volumetric images provide more reliable and accurate information for diagnosing the maxil-lary impacted canine position, inclination, distance from adjacent structures, and detection of lateral incisors rootre-sorption.


Article
Dissolution of calcium ion from teeth treated with different concentrations of siwak water extract in comparison with sodium fluoride

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Background: The miswak is a teeth cleaning twig made from a twig of the Salvadora persica tree (known as arak in Arabic).A traditional alternative to the modern toothbrush, it has a long, well-documented history and is reputed for its medicinal benefits. It also features prominently in Islamic hygienical jurisprudence. Materials and methods: Twenty maxillary first premolars were treated with the selected solutions which included siwak water extract (5%, 10%) and sodium fluoride 0.05% for 2minutes once daily for 20 days interval, deionized water was used as control negative. Then the concentration of the dissolved calcium ion in the etching solution of 2N HCL was measured. Results: The least amount of the dissolved calcium ion was registered for water siwak extract 10%, then sodium fluoride0.05%followed by water siwak extract5%. A significant difference was found between the two concentrations of siwak water extract, while no significant difference was recorded between the mentioned agents and sodium fluoride. There was highly significant difference between deionized water group and other groups except between water and siwak water extract5% the difference was significant. Conclusions: Siwak water extract is successful in improving tooth resistance against caries challenge as it mineralize and harden enamel surface


Article
Comparison of metal ions release and corrosion potential from different bracket archwire combinations (An in vitro study)

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Background: Esthetic treatment is the options of patient seeking orthodontic treatment. Therefore this study was conducted to measure the concentration of Aluminum, Nickel, Chromium and Iron ions released from combination of monocrysralline brackets with different arch wires immersed in artificial saliva at different duration, to evaluate the corrosion point on different parts of the orthodontic appliances before and after immersion in artificial saliva, and to evaluate the corrosion potential of each group of the orthodontic appliances. Material and methods: Eighty orthodontic sets prepared. Each set represents half fixed orthodontic appliance, from the central incisor to the first molar, for the maxillary arch, each set consisted of molar band, five brackets, half arch wire and ligature elastic.These sets are divided into two groups: Group A: with monocrystalline brackets divided into five subgroups (each subgroup has ten sets), but differ in arch wires, as numbered stainless steel, nickel-titanium, thermally activated, coated stainless steel and coated nickel-titanium arch wires respectively. Group B: with stainless steel brackets divided into three subgroups (also each subgroup has ten sets), but differ in arch wires, as numberedstainless steel, nickel-titanium, and thermally activated arch wires respectively. Used optical microscope to check the corrosion points, and used potentiostat techniques to indicate corrosion rate and tendency. Results: The greatest concentration of Aluminum and nickel ions release during the 1st week in group A, then sharply decreased in the 2nd week. The release of chromium ion released increase with increase intervals, while iron ion released decrease with increase time. Both nickel and chromium ions increase with increase intervals in group B,while iron increase to the maximum at 3rd weeks, then began to degrease. Optical microscope displayed pitting, crevices, and intergranular corrosion. Potentiostat techniques indicated that increase corrosion when used stainless steel and coated nickel titanium than others arch wires with group A, while corrosion increase with nickel titanium than stainless steel arch wires with group B. Conclusions: Non-significant difference in the total nickel, chromium and iron release in group B. Aluminum and iron increase in A4 and A5, while nickel and chromium increase in A1 and A2.The total released amounts of metals ions in both groups were less than the amounts of daily intake

Keywords

ions release --- aluminum --- nickel --- chromium --- iron


Article
Distribution of tooth wear among institutionalized residents (50-89 years old) in Baghdad city Iraq (Cross-sectional study)

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Background: Tooth wear is one of the most common problems in the older dentate population which results from the interaction of three processes (attrition, abrasion and erosion) and it affects all societies, different age groups, and all cultures. This study was achieved to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of tooth wear among institutionalized residents in Baghdad city Iraq. Subjects and Methods: This survey was accomplished on four private and one governmental institution in Baghdad city. One-hundred twenty three (61 males, 62 females) aged 50-89 years were participated in this study. The diagnosis and recording of tooth wear were according to criteria of Smith and Knight. Results: The prevalence of tooth wear was 100% with a mean (30.79± 19.39) and median (28). The highest grade of tooth wear recorded was grade 2 (56.9%), followed by grade 3 (26%), grade 4 (17.1%). There was no statistically significant difference of total tooth wear among age groups (P>0.05), astatistically significantdifference was seen regarding the severity of tooth wear among different age groups; for grade 2 and grade 4 (P <0.05), while a statistically highly significant difference recorded for both grade 1 and grade 3. A statistically highly significant difference of the total tooth wear was recorded between the total males and females (P <0.01). Conclusion: The occurrence of tooth wear among those subjects was high thus they need oral health policy makers for promotion, prevention and restorative care

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