Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2014 volume:26 issue:2

Article
The effect of waterlase laser and herbal alternative, green tea and Salvadora Persica (Siwak) extract on push-out bond strength

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Background: The bond strength of root canal sealers to dentin was important for maintaining the integrity of the seal in root canal filling in both static and dynamic situations. In a static situation, it should eliminate any space that allowed the percolation of fluids between the filling and the wall while in a dynamic situation; it was needed to resist dislodgement of the filling during subsequent manipulation. Materials and Methods: Forty mandibular premolars were selected for this study. All canals were instrumented using ProTaper rotary instruments. Instrumentation was done with copious irrigation of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. Roots were randomly divided into four groups according to the type of cleaning and method of root canal irrigation (ten teeth for each group): Group A. The root canals were irrigated with 5 ml of 17% of EDTA for 1 minute and 5 ml of 5.25% NaOCl. Group B. Cleaning with waterlase laser. Group C. The root canals were irrigated with 5 ml of 5mg/ml of siwak (Salvadora persica) extract for one minute. Group D. The root canals were irrigated with 5 ml of 5% of green tea (camellia sinensis) extract for one minute. All groups were rinsed with distilled water and then obturated with cold lateral condensation technique and i Root sp sealer (Bioceramic sealer, the roots then stored in moist environment at 37°C for one week. Three horizontal sections were prepared at a thickness of 1 mm ±0.1 in the apical, middle and coronal parts of each root. The test specimens were subjected to the push-out test method using a Universal Test Machine that carried 1-mm, 0.5- mm and 0.3-mm plungers for coronal, middle and apical specimens, respectively. The loading speed was 0.5 mm/ min. The computer showed the higher bond force before dislodgment of the filling material. These forces were divided by the surface area to obtain the bond strength in MPa. Results: In all groups the mean value of push-out strength was greatest in apical area and least in coronal area and the middle area was in between, except in Waterlase the middle area showed the least mean push-out strength. Conclusion: Herbal extracts used in this study (Siwak and green tea) can be used safely as an intra-canal irrigant for smear layer removal with efficiency that is comparable with conventional synthetic materials (EDTA) and more complicated methods (Waterlase).

Keywords

Waterlase --- Siwak --- Green tea --- push out test


Article
Radiographic follow up for clinical cases of mandibular implant retained overdenture MIR-OD

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Background: The use of osseointegrated fixtures in dentistry has been demonstrated both histologically and clinically to be beneficial in providing long term oral rehabilitation in completely edentulous individual. Most patients suffer from denture instability; particularly with mandibular prosthesis, the use of dental implant will be benefit significantly from even a slight increase in retention. The concept of implanting two to four fixtures in a bony ridge to retain a complete denture prosthesis appealing therefore, as retention, stability and acceptable economic compromise to the expanse incurred with the multiple fixture supported fixed prosthesis . Materials and methods in this study the sample were eight patients selected from a hospital of specialized surgery, these patient were wearing a mandibular implant retained over denture for two years these patients having MIR-OD with Bar-clip, ball-cup and O- ring attachments. Preparative radiography was obtained for this patient from the center .these radiograph was taken to the patient at time of insertion. The second radiograph image was taken to the patient after two years of function with prosthesis. .the scanned images were transfer to special folder in a computer then analysis of bone loss done using Dimax software. After that an accurate calibrations of crestal bone measurement were analyzed for both groups of Radiography . Results it was appeared that the amount of bone loss in ball and bar designs (of mandibular Implant retained overdenture) were within the criteria of successful rate of bone loss during the period of examination, and there was statistically significant difference between both types of anchorage system. Conclusions The amount of bone loss was 0.1 mm after two years follow up, and it was within the acceptable limits of bone lose. A significant difference appeared between both designs of MIR-OD, Ball and bar designs

Keywords

Radiograph --- implant --- overdenture --- Dimax


Article
The influence of recent adhesive onlay fabrication techniques on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars (An in vitro study)

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Background: Endodontically treated teeth have low resistance to fracture against occlusal forces. The strengthening effect of bonded esthetic onlay restoration on weakened tooth has been reported. This study aimed to assess the fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars restored with composite with and without cuspal coverage by using direct and indirect techniques. Indirect technique done by CAD/CAM system (computer aided design – computer aided manufacturer) and laboratory processing. Material and methods: Forty human extracted maxillary premolars of approximately comparable sizes were divided into four groups: Group (A): Ten endodontically treated teeth directly filled with Filtek Z250xt without cuspal coverage. Group (B): Ten endodontically treated teeth prepared with onlay cavities and restored directly with Filtek Z250 XT. Group(C): Ten endodontically treated teeth prepared with onlay cavities and restored indirectly with Filtek Z250 XT. Group (D): Ten endodontically treated teeth prepared with onlay cavities and restored indirectly with Paradigm MZ100 CAD/CAM blocks. Fracture strength of the samples was measured by using universal testing machine (an axial compression test). Data were analyzed statistically by one way ANOVA test and least significant difference test, Results showed that Group A has the lowest fracture resistance value than all experimental Groups and the difference are highly significant. While Group B has a high significant fracture resistant value than the indirectly restored groups. Group C and Group D showed an approximate fracture resistant result (1.13KN and 1.07KN respectively) and the difference is statistically not significant. Conclusion All CAD/CAM composite onlay, indirect Filtek z250 XT and direct cuspal coverage survived maximum biting force for posterior single tooth, so these types of onlays provide good reinforcement in an extensive MOD cavities in premolars The mode of fracture for Group D was 90% restorable which is higher than group C (80%) restorable and group B (30%) restorable type of fracture


Article
The effect of silanized alumina nano -fillers addition on some physical and mechanical properties of heat cured polymethyl methacrylate denture base material

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Background: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most commonly used material in denture fabrication. The material is far from ideal in fulfilling the mechanical requirements. Midline fracture; poor thermal conductivity and water sorption, are common problem in this material. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of surface treated Aluminum oxide nano fillers on some properties of heat cured (PMMA). Materials and methods: In addition to controlled group of heat cured PMMA the silanized (Al2O3) nanoparticles was added to PMMA powder by weight in three different percentages 1wt%, 2wt% and 3wt%, mixed by probe ultrasonication machine. 200 specimens were constructed and divided into 5 groups according to the test (each group consist of 40 specimens) and each group was subdivided into 4 sub-groups. The tests conducted were thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, transverse strength, indentation hardness (shore D), surface roughness, water sorption and solubility. The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Dunntt t-test. Results: A highly significant increase in transverse strength was observed with the addition of (Al2O3) nanoparticles to (PMMA) at the percentage of 1wt%, the value was 117.72 Mpa and significant increase at 2wt%; while a significant reduction occurred in transverse strength at the percentage of 3% the value was 90.110 Mpa. A significant increase in surface hardness and non significant differences in surface roughness were observed for all percentages. Conclusion: The addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to acrylic resin improves the thermal properties and transverse strength of acrylic resin at the same time this addition decreases water sorption and solubility


Article
The effect of in office bleaching on surface roughness and micro-hardness of newly developed composite materials (In vitro study)

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Background: Alterations in the microhardness and roughness are commonly used to analyze the possible negative effects of bleaching products on restorative materials. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of in-office bleaching (SDI pola office +) on the surface roughness and micro-hardness of four newly developed composite materials (Z350XT –nano-filled, Z250XT-nano-hybrid, Z250-mico-hybrid and Silorane-silorane based). Materials and methods: Eighty circular samples with A3 shading were prepared by using Teflon mold 2mm thickness and 10mm in diameter. 20 samples for each material, 10 samples for base line measurement (surface roughness by using portable profillometer, and micro-hardness by usingDigital Micro Vickers Hardness Tester), and 10 samples for after bleaching measurement. The appropriate bleaching procedure was performed on the top surface of test groups for 90 minutes total bleaching period. Then surface roughness and hardness were tested at the end of the duration. Statistical analysis was carried out using ANOVA, LSD and t-test. Results: There was a highly significant increase in surface roughness of all tested groups after bleaching. There is a highly significant increase in micro-hardness for Z250, there is decrease in Micro-hardness for siloraneand Z250xt and there is a non-significant increase in micro-hardness of Z350xt. Conclusion: bleaching has a negative effect on surface roughness of all the tested materials, as surface roughness increased after bleaching. Micro-hardness is a material dependent, there is different reaction to bleaching depending on the resin, load and size of the fillers used in the materials. Nano-filled composite is the material that has better performance than the other tested materials, as it is the material that has the least affection by bleaching


Article
Finite element stress analysis study for stresses around mandibular implant retained overdenture MIR-OD

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Background: It has been well known that the success of mandibular implant- retained overdenture heavily depends on initial stability, retention and long term osseointegration this is might be due to optimal stresses distribution in surrounding bones. Types of mandibular implant- retained overdenture anchorage system and number of dental implants play an important role in stresses distribution at the implant-bone interface. It is necessary to keep the stresses below the physiologic tolerance level of the bone .since. And it is difficult to measure these stresses around bone in vivo. In the present study, finite element analysis used to study the stresses distribution around dental implant supporting Mandible implant retained overdenture Materials and methods: Eight models were constructed including four designs of anchorage system (ball-cup, ball-O Ring, bar without distal extension and bar with distal extension).The first group of models were supported by four dental implant and second group of models were supported by two dental implant only. Models constructed from the data obtained directly from patient The contour of bone was obtained from C.T scan image of patient, then data transferred to ANSYS program for modeling then load applied and solve the equation by the program, Specified nodes were selected at the rings of crestal bone (cortical bone) and cortical cancellous interface around each dental implant and fixed for all models to monitor the stress change in that regions of different design of MIROD.. After load application, Specified nodes were selected at the rings of crestal bone (cortical bone) and cortical cancellous interface around each dental implant and fixed for all models to monitor the stress change in that regions of different design of MIR-OD . Results: In the present study the stress distribution and maximum stresses value around dental implant had a relationship to the number of dental implant. , The result appeared that the maximum stresses and means of stresses value was lower in the first group of models (which was supported through the use four dental implant) than the second group of models (which was supported through the use of two dental implant only). For the first group of models the maximum stresses value around mesial implant was11.67, 10.51, 10.98 and 10.72 Mpa, while the maximum stresses around distal implant was 21.33, 18.51, 18.86, and17.56 Mpa for models 1,2,3 and 4respectively ,and the stresses around implant supporting second group of models was 22.52, 22.16, 20.51 and 19.60 Mpa for models 5,6,7and8 respectively .Statistical analyses of means value appeared that there was statistically significant difference in stresses means value around implant of the second group with that’s values around mesial and distal implant supporting first group of model . Regarding the result of both ball and bar system, it has been demonstrated that stress was greater with ball attachment and MIR-OD supported by the use of four dental implants and anchored by bar attachments with distal extension gives the minimum values of stresses than the rest models. Also the results show that higher stresses value was appeared at the cortical bone ring surrounding dental implant especially the distal implant nearest to the free end extension area. Also it was appeared that the best model was Mandible implantretained overdenture that’s anchored by bar with distal extension and support by four dental implant . Conclusions: Bar-clips with distal extension mode of attachment considered the best type in producing the least stresses around dental implant regardless number of dental implant used

Keywords

Implant --- overdenture --- stresses --- bar --- ball


Article
Evaluation of the push-out bond strength of root canal obturation materials filled by four different obturation techniques

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Background: The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the push out bond strength (PBS) of root canal fillings using four different obturation techniques (single cone (SC), cold lateral compaction (CLC), continuous wave (CW), and carrier based gutta percha (CBG)). Materials and Methods: Forty mandibular premolar decoronated and instrumented with rotary ProTaper to F3 then teeth were divided randomly into 4 groups of 10 teeth for each as follow: group (I) single- cone obturation with matched-taper gutta-percha, group (II) cold lateral compaction technique, group (III) continuous wave of obturation technique, and group( IV) carrier based gutta-percha technique. Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) sealer was used as a root canal sealer for the four groups. After obturation of the root canals, all the roots were sectioned horizontally at three levels in the apical, middle, and cervical thirds of each group. PBS test was performed using digital universal testing machine. Mode of failures was evaluated using digital stereomicroscope (40 X). Collected data were analyzed statistically using one way ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: PBS of CW and CBG significantly higher than SC and CLC, but significantly there were no differences between CW and CBG, and between SC and CLC. Conclusion: Under the condition of this study it can be concluded that thermoplasticized techniques obtain superior PBS of the filling materials in comparisons with cold gutta percha obturation techniques


Article
The effect of plasma treatment on shear bond strength of soft denture liner with two different types of denture base material (heat cure and light cure)

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Background: In this study we evaluate the effect of plasma treatment (oxygen and argon) gas in two different exposure times on the surface of heat cure and light cure acrylic resin. Materials and method: 100 specimens of heat cure and light cure acrylic resin were fabricated. The measurements of the samples were (75mm, 25mm and 4.5mm) length, width and depth respectively with stopper of 3mm depth. Two types of gas used oxygen and argon in (5,10) min by using (DC-glow discharge plasma device) then we apply cold cure soft lining material, with the help of Instron machine we test the shear stress value. Results: A highly significant effect after argon and oxygen gases treatment in both 5 and 10 min exposure times on shear bond strength to soft liner in heat cure denture base material. Conclusion: In this study we found that the exposure of heat cure acrylic resin to plasma gases (argon and oxygen) increase the shear bond strength (SBS) values significantly


Article
Assessment of mandibular radiomorphometric indices as predictors of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women (Cephalometric reconstructed computed tomographical study)

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Background: Osteoporosis affects almost all of the bones in the female body; the most important one in the facial bone is mandible. Menopause is defined as an absence of the menses for one year. During this time, estrongen, progesterone and ovarian androgens production are diminished due to adult onset ovarian failure which leads to osteoporosis. This study aimed to evaluate the use of computed tomography mandibular morphometric indices for the assessment of pre and postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Subjects and material: This study conducted on 50 Iraqi females divided into 2 groups 20 -30years old as a control group and over50 years old as a study group attending Al-Karkh hospital, Department of Computed Tomography.(each group25 female). Information from each female was recorded and mentioned on a case sheet specially prepared. Data collected, when analysed, using SPSS version 13 program loaded on a computer machine. Results: All the measurements in this study( gonial angle in degree, antigonial angle in degree and depth in millimetre, mandibular and mental thickness in millimetre, bone mineral density in HU and mandibular cortex index),there were no statically significant differences between right and left side P-value <0.001. Gonial angle had statistically positive linear correlation with age in the study group P-value <0.001. Bone mineral density and mandibular and mental thickness had statically negative linear correlation with age. Antigonial angle increased as age increased till reach 180 degree in some cases and the depth decreased correlated to the age till reach zero mm in some cases P-value <0.001. Mandibular cortex index increased in bone irregularity related to increase in age. Conclusion: It was concluded that osteoporosis and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal females could be detected by using CT scan through measuring certain mandibular radiomorphometric indices

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Article
In vivo immunohistochemical investigation of the effect of the topical application of growth hormone on the osseointegration of cpTi implant

Authors: Abdul Naser H. Warwar --- Ban A. Ghani
Pages: 58-63
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Background: Dental implants are a suitable option for the replacement of some or all missing teeth. The successful insertion of a biocompatible material into living tissue with little to no evidence of rejection has revolutionized medicine and dentistry. An increase in bone response was observed with local administration of growth hormone around dental implants. Growth hormone may act as a bone stimulant in the placement of endosseous dental implants and enhances osseointegration. The aim of the study was to evaluate immunohistochemically the effect of the topical application of growth hormone on the osseointegration of cpTi implant. Materials and Methods: Eighty titanium screw implants were inserted in the tibia of the forty adult rabbits. Growth hormone was applied on experimental implants. Immunohistochemical tests were performed on the implants of both control and experimental groups for (3 days1, 2, and 6 weeks) healing intervals. Results: Titanium implants coated with growth hormone revealed an early bone formation, minerlization and maturation in comparison to control. Immunohistochemical findings revealed positive expression for VEGF in experimental implant in comparison to control one. Conclusion: Topical application of growth hormone may act as a bone stimulant in the placement of endosseous dental implants and enhances osseointegration


Article
Accuracy of spiral computed tomography in evaluation of maxillary sinus septa among dentate and edentulous Iraqi subjects (Comparative study)

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Background: Presence of maxillary sinus septa has been known to be a complicating factor for sinus elevation procedure and implant placement in posterior maxilla. The maxillary sinuses septa are thin walls of cortical bone inside the sinus. They vary in number, location, and height. This study aimed to discover the accuracy of Spiral Computed Tomographic Scan in evaluation the maxillary sinus septa (prevalence, location, height) in subjects with dentate, partially edentulous and completely edentulous maxilla. Material and method: This study included (267) subjects ranged from (20-70 years), (132) male and (135) female divided into three groups, (97) fully dentate group, (102) partially edentulous group and (68) completely edentulous group who admitted to Spiral Computed Tomography Scan in Al-Karkh General Hospital in Baghdad to have Computed Tomography Scan of the brain and paranasal sinuses for different diagnostic purposes from November 2012 to April 2013. The maxillary sinus septa were evaluated in the axial and sagittal views and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Result: The prevalence rate of septa was 77.3% among fully dentate maxilla sample. Almost the same prevalence rate was obtained in the other two study sample (partially edentulous maxilla 77.5% and completely edentulous maxilla 76.5%).No important or statistically significant difference in prevalence was observed between the three study groups. Age and gender showed no important or statistically significant difference in prevalence rate in each study group, the mean septal height was slightly higher in fully dentate group (7mm) compared to partially edentulous maxilla group (6.2 mm) and completely edentulous maxilla group (6.5 mm). The difference in mean between the 3 groups however was not significant statistically. The rate of septa at floor position was significantly lowest in fully dentate maxilla group (36.1%) compared to partially edentulous maxilla group (52.1%) and completely edentulous maxilla group (53.3%). Conclusion: Spiral Computed Tomography is a precise diagnostic tool for the examination of this zone capable for investigating their location and height during different maxillary sinus surgical procedures. In the posterior maxilla, regardless of type of ridge (atrophy/edentulous or non-atrophy/dentate), the anatomical variation of sinus septa is diverse in its prevalence and location


Article
Evaluation of oral health status in patients receiving antiepileptic medications

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Background: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder of incidence rate 1-2%. Genetic, congenital, developmental, tumors, head trauma and central nervous system infections maybe the cause of epilepsy. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of stomatitis, xerostomia and taste disorder among patients taking carbamazepine or sodium valproate and to make salivary analysis for IgA, cystatin c and salivary flow rate. Material and method:This study performed in al- Yarmuk teaching hospital in Baghdad, Samples consist of (70) epileptics half of them treated with carbamazepine and other half treated with sodium valproate, and (18) healthy control group of both genders and with different ages to detect the prevalence of oral manifestations, salivary IgA and cystatin C changes. Results: Salivary IgA is significantly higher in epileptics than healthy group. DMFT is significantly lower in epileptics than in healthy control. GI is hardly affected by epilepsy. Salivary flow rate was significantly lower in epileptics than the healthy control group. On the other hand, cystatin C was obviously higher in epileptics but failed to reach the level of statistical significance. Mucositis in epileptics was significantly higher. Candidal infection and Dysguisia failed to reach the level of statistical difference. Conclusion: The most affected oral measurement by epilepsy was salivary IgA then salivary flow rate followed by DMFT. Cystatin C had a marginal contribution to the context of case –control discrimination.Sodium valproate is safer than carbamazepine when compared by its effects on the oral health. Mucositis, candida infection and dysguisia were lower in epileptics who were treated with Sodium valproate. Salivary flow rate was higher in Sodium valproate - treated group than in carbamazepine group. GI and DMFT were lower in sodium valproate treated group than the carbamazepine group


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of HOXA1, and Ki-67 proteins of oral squamous cell carcinoma

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Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity and constitutes a major health problem in developing. In the last 30 years, the 5-year survival rate of patients with oral SCC has not improved despite advance in diagnostic techniques. To improve early diagnosis for this deadly disease, new biological markers are needed. HOX genes encode homeodomain-containing transcription factors involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation during embryogenesis. HOX gene expression has been described in several adult tissues, where they performed important roles in maintaining homeostasis. Few studies have suggested that HOXA1 plays a role in tumorigenesis. Besides being overexpressed in several tumors, HOXA1 influences numerous cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis and epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT), and HOXA1 overexpression is sufficient for malignant transformation ofnontumorigenic epithelial cells. Ki-67 is a specific marker of proliferation and the expression of which is strictly associated with cell proliferation and is widely used in pathology as a proliferation marker to measure the growth fraction of cells in human tumors.The aims of this study were to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of HOXA1 & Ki-67 in OSCC & to correlate the expression of the studied markers with the clinicopathological findings and with each other Materials and Methods: Thirty formalin-fixed, paraffin- embedded tissue blocks of oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. H&E stain was done for each block for reassessment of histological examination. An immunohistochimical stain was performed using anti HOXA1 and anti Ki-67 poly clonal antibodies. Results:The expression of HOXA1 and Ki-67were positive in all oral squamous cell carcinoma cases & in all layers (100%), while the expression was restricted to the basal and supra basal layer in normal oral mucosa. Statistically non-significant correlation observed between each marker with clinico-pathological parameters. While a statistically significant association was found between the expressions of two markers, (p-value= 0.027). Conclusion: The statistically significant association observed between expressions of HOXA1 with the specific marker of proliferation Ki-67. This suggested important role in oral SCC development and progression.

Keywords

OSCC --- HOXA1 --- Ki-67


Article
Immunohistochemical evaluation of vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta on osseointegration of CpTi implant radiated by low level laser therapy

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Background: Dental implants provide a unique treatment modality for the replacement of lost dentition .This is accomplished by the insertion of relatively inert material (a biomaterial) into the soft and hard tissue of the jaws, there by providing support and retention for dental prostheses. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is an effective tool used to prompt bone repair and modeling post surgery; this has referred to the biostimulation effect of LLLT. The aims of this study were to evaluate the immmunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor -beta (TGF-β) in experimental and control groups with mechanical test. Materials and Methods: Thirty two adult New Zealand white rabbits used, screw titanium implants inserted in the tibia. The right side is considered as experimental groups and the left side considered as control groups. Low power diode laser (GaAlAs) with wave length (904nm) and (5mW) power applied with the right screw implants. The sample divided into four groups, eight rabbits are sacrificed at four interval 4days, 1 weeks, 2weeks, and 6weeks respectively. immunohistochemical (VEGF&TGF-β), were done for each interval with mechanical test in 2 and 6 weeks . Results: Immunohistochemical findings revealed high positive expression for VEGF and TGF-β in experimental implant in comparison to control one and the acceleration of bone formation and more rapid healing process in the screw implant with laser irradiation than in the control implant. Removal torque test showed dramatic increase with the presence of laser irradiation especially with advancing time. Conclusion: This study was illustrated that the LLLT applications enhance bone formation and increase osseointegration


Article
Oral manifestations, microbial study and salivary IgA study in asthmatic patients receiving prednisolone

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Background: Asthma is a disease of the airways characterized by chronic inflammation associated with airway hyper-responsiveness and airway wall remodeling. Aims of the study: The aims of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral manifestations , identify different microorganism from oral micro flora and determination of salivary IgA and salivary flow rate in asthmatic patients taking different dose of Prednisolone in comparison with control group. Subjects, materials and methods: The study included 17 patients under treatment with Prednisolone (10-20 mg),15 patients take (20-30 mg) of Prednisolone and other 18 patients take (30 – 40mg) of Prednisolone, and 25 healthy control group (10 male and 15 female). Results : The most frequent oral manifestations in asthmatic patients on Prednisolone was burning mouth syndrome, then dry mouth, tooth erosion and white coated tongue and decreased in salivary flow rate. High prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , streptococcus Viridians and Candida albicans in patients with asthma and difference in oral microbial isolation between asthmatic patients take different dose of Prednisolone and healthy control.The level of salivary IgA in asthmatic patients treated with Prednisolone less than healthy control. Conclusions: The findings of this study show an obvious difference in the prevalence of oral manifestation and some micro-organisms between patients with asthma and healthy control. Decrease of IgA and salivary flow rate in patients with asthma as compared to healthy control


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of P16 and HER2/neu in normal oral mucosa, oral epithelial dysplasia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma

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Background: Oncogenesis in the oral cavity is widely believed to result from cumulative genetic alterations that cause a transformation of the mucosa from normal to dysplastic to invasive carcinoma. The p16 gene produces p16 protein, which in turn inhibits phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb), p16 play a significant role in early carcinogenesis. A number of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, HER2/neu, has received much attention because of its therapeutic implications. The aims of the study were to evaluate and compare the immunohistochemical expression of the cell cycle protein P16 INK4a and c-erbB2 (HER2/neu) in NOM, OED, and OSCC. Correlate both marker expression with each other as well as with various clinicopathological findings. Materials and methods: Sixty two formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue blocks (20 cases of normal oral mucosa, 17 cases of oral epithelial dysplasia, and 25 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma) were included in this study, an immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti p16 monoclonal antibody, and anti HER2/neu polyclonal antibody. Results: Positive IHC expression of p16 was found in 18 cases (90%) of NOM, 16 cases (94.1%) of OED and in 20 cases (80%) of OSCC. Positive IHC expression of HER2/neu was almost undetectable in NOM, while it was found in 9 cases (52.9%) of OED, and in 15 cases (60%) of OSCC.The correlation between the expression of both markers were statistically highly significant in NOM, significant in OED, and non significant in OSCC. Conclusions: This study signify the important role of p16 and HER2/neu in oral carcinogenesis and in the evolution of the mucosa from normal to dysplastic to invasive carcinoma

Keywords

NOM --- OED --- OSCC --- P16 --- HER2/neu


Article
Assessment of serum and salivary malondialdehyde in patients with oral lichen planus

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Background: Free radicals are common consequences of normal aerobic cellular metabolism. Oxidative stress resulting from the increased production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species and/or a decrease in antioxidant defense leads to damage of biological macromolecules and dysregulation of normal metabolism and physiology. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory oral mucosal disease of unknown cause. It has been proven that the imbalances in free radical levels and reactive oxygen species with antioxidants may play a key role in the onset and evolution of several inflammatory oral pathologies. The aim of this study was to assess the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of OLP through the study of serum and saliva malondialdehyde as a marker of oxidative stress. Methods: The study included (48) patients with OLP (21) with the reticular form and (27) with erosive form and (32) healthy looking volunteers that were age-matched with the patients. Serum and saliva malondialdehyde was measured by reacting with thiobarbituric acid under acidic conditions and heating to a pink color that measured spectrophotometricaly at 532 nm. Results: the mean of serum and saliva malondialdehyde in oral lichen planus patients group was significantly higher than that of control group (p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively) and there was no statistically significant differences in serum and saliva malondialdehyde when compared between reticular and erosive forms (p>0.05). The study showed that there was no statistically significant correlation between serum and saliva malondialdehyde levels in OLP patients group (r= 0.053, p>0.05). Conclusion: Increased serum and salivary malondialdehyde levels refer to the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of OLP.


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of ICAM-1 and Cortactin as cell adhesive molecule and invasive markers in Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the head and neck region (A comparative study)

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Background: Lymphomas are a group of diseases caused by malignant lymphocytes that accumulate in lymph nodes and cause the characteristic clinical features of lymphadenopathy. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM- 1) (CD54) is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion molecules. Cortactin was first identified as one of the major substrates for src kinase. because it localized to Cortical actin structures, The aims of this study was to evaluate and compare the immunohistochemical of ICAM-1 expression as cell adhesion molecule marker and Cortactin expression as invasive marker. Material and Methods: This study was performed on (68) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks, histopathologically diagnosed as lymphoma (head and neck lesions).Immunohistochemical staining of ICAM-1and Cortactin was performed on each case of the study sample. Results: The expression of ICAM-1 was membranous and cytoplasmic, the study cases showed a 98.5% positive reaction to ICAM-1, score 2 was the most common and found in 69.1% of all cases.The expression of Cortactin was cytoplasmic, 98.5% of cases expressed positive reactions to Cortactin, score 1 was the most common and found in 42.7% of all cases. Conclusion: Although the two markers showed a higher expression rate in all lymphomas (both HL and NHL) in this study, they can't be used to differentiate between them, nor can be used to differentiate between the subtypes of both HL and NHL. The high ICAM-1positive expression clarified that in addition to its role in cell-cell and cell-stromal interactions, it participates in proliferation, differentiation and invasion of malignant lymphoma cells.The present study is the first one that used Cortactin as an invasive marker for lymphoma.


Article
Assessment of serum Interleukin-1β and its correlation with periodontal health status during pregnancy

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Background: Pregnancy is a stressful state of increased inflammatory activity, and pregnancy – associated hormone changes can influence periodontal tissues, these inflammatory activity lead to production of inflammatory mediators. Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokines that is consistently associated with periodontal diseases. This study was designed to determine the periodontal health status and detect the serum level of IL-1β in the healthy pregnant women at first, second and third trimester and compare it with healthy non pregnant women, and determine its correlation with different clinical periodontal parameters. Materials and Methods: Subjects included in the study were sixty six (66) healthy pregnant women with an age range of 20-35 years old. They were divided into three subgroups according to gestational age, as twenty two (22) women in each trimester. Also the sample included fifteen (15) married, non pregnant women and didn’t take contraceptive pills, as control group with same age rang of 20- 35 years. Clinical periodontal parameters were measured in this study (plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level). Blood samples were collected from all women under study (pregnant & non pregnant women) to asses concentrations of IL-1β by mean of enzyme – linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Highly significant statistical differences were observed among the study groups regarding the gingival index (GI)with p-value( 0.007) and the percentages of bleeding on probing (BOP) p- value(0.00), a significant difference regarding the probing pocket depth ( PPD) with p-value (0.046) ,and non significant statistical differences regarding the plaque index (PLI), p-value(0.6) and clinical attachment level (CAL) with p-value (0.371). Interleukin 1-beta ( IL- 1β) serum level showed a highly statistical significant difference among the study groups with p-value (0.00).A pregnant women showed higher level than non pregnant with a higher value in the second trimester. Conclusions: The present result revealed that the serum level of IL-1β was higher in pregnant women than non pregnant women with a highly significant difference. The IL-1β serum concentration reaches the maximum value in the second trimester of pregnancy. Nevertheless there were weak correlations between clinical periodontal parameters and serum level of IL-1β


Article
Early detection of periodontitis among young adult cigarette smokers and non-smokers using cone beam computed tomography

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Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the supporting tissues of the teeth; Smoking is an important risk factor for periodontitis induces alveolar bone loss and cause an imbalance between bone resorption and bone deposition. The purpose of this study is to detect and compare the presence of incipient periodontitis among young smokers and non-smokers by measuring the distance between cement-enamel junction and alveolar crest (CEJ-Ac) using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Material and methods: The total sample composed of fifty two participants, thirty one smokers and twenty one nonsmokers (age range 14-22 years). Periodontal parameters: plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI) were recorded for all teeth except the third molar while the radiographic analysis using CBCT was recorded on the Ramfjord teeth, the unit of measurement was from cement-enamel junction to alveolar crest distance (CEJ-Ac distance) per site in millimeters. Results: The results obtained were a non significant difference for PLI, a significant difference of mean of GI between young smokers and non smokers. There was a highly significant difference in the general mean of CEJ-Ac distance between both groups. There was a significant difference between maxillary and mandibular teeth, a non significant difference between right and left sides among young smokers and non smokers. Conclusion: The CBCT device plays an important role in detection the incipient form of periodontitis among young smokers and non-smokers, so we concluded that there is a highly significant difference in the general mean CEJ-Ac distance between young smokers and non smokers with increase distance in the maxillary teeth than that in the mandibular teeth


Article
The benefit of Ramfjord teeth to represent the full-mouth clinical attachment level in epidemiological study

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Background: Since the periodontal disease Index of Ramfjord (Ramfjord index) can potentially shorten the examination time by almost half, many studies evaluated Ramfjord teeth in predicting full-mouth periodontal status of an adult population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of Ramfjord teeth in predicting the fullmouth clinical attachment level of an adult population in patients attending the college of dentistry- Baghdad University. Materials and methods: The study participants were 100 patients with age range from 30-60 years old which represent group zero. The patients were divided into three main groups according to the age of the patients. Group I and group II each of them composed of 30 patients while group III composed of 40 patients. In the first time clinical attachment level (CAL) was measured from the full mouth (FM) and then from the Ramfjord teeth (RT) (teeth number: 16, 21, 24, 36, 41, 44) in all groups. Clinical attachment level (CAL) was measured in millimeters using periodontal probe. Results: The difference in the mean clinical attachment level measured from the full mouth (FM) and Ramfjord teeth (RT) by using paired t - test was non significant in all the groups. Also in all groups the correlation coefficient as well as beta coefficient was high. Conclusion: The high agreement between Ramfjord teeth and full mouth CAL confirm the epidemiological validity of Ramfjord teeth to represent the full mouth


Article
Discoloration of aesthetic bracket by mouth washes

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Background: The present study aimed to determine the influence of the different types of mouth wash on discoloration of different orthodontic ceramic, sapphire brackets and adhesives. Materials and methods: The sample composed of 120 ceramic brackets and 120 sapphire brackets, the brackets were divided according to bond material into three groups of 40 brackets include unbounded brackets, chemically cured (no-mix) bonded brackets and Light cured bonded brackets all these groups were further subdivided according to mouth wash type into three groups with 10 brackets each which include; Listerine, cetrimide, chlorhexidine 0.2%, and one control group which immersed in artificial saliva; then Staining measurements were performed with UV-Visible spectrophotometer . Results and conclusions: all types of mouth wash cause staining, this effect was higher in ceramic than sapphire bracket and for no-mix than light cure bond bracket complex; the amount of staining low in Listerine, intermediate in cetrimide, high in chlorhexidine for all bracket-bond complex


Article
Socioeconomic status in relation to dental caries in Dewanyiah governorate among 12 years old school students

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Background: The socioeconomic is important factor that effect in the severity and prevalence of most predominant and wide spread oral disease named dental caries, since this oral disease effects children, adolescents, adults and elderly peoples especially in developing countries as in Iraq.This survey was aimed to investigate the prevalence and severity of dental caries in relation to socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: This oral health survey was conducted among primary and secondary school students aged 12 years old in Dewanyiah governorate in Iraq. The total sample composed of 804 (401 boys and 403 girls) selected randomly from different schools in Dewanyiah governorate. Diagnosis and recording of dental caries was assessed according to the criteria described by WHO (1997).The modification of Kuppuswamy's index (1976) was applied for measurement of socioeconomic status. Results: The most of low socioeconomic category was occupied by rural students. The prevalence of dental caries was 70.65 % for the total sample. The mean DMFT was equal to (1.83 ± 0.068) and DMFS (2.89 ± 0.126). No significant difference was seen between socioeconomic status and DMFS. Conclusion: A high prevalence of dental caries was recorded. Socioeconomic status may affect dental caries indicating the need for public and health preventive programs among school students


Article
Occupational dental wear among El-Kubasis cement factory workers - An observational study

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Background: Loss of tooth structure may be due to tooth to tooth contact and presence of abrasive components in the work environment. The aim of study was planned to evaluate the occurrence of dental attrition among Cement factory workers. Material and Method: The Sample included all workers chronically exposed to cement dust in the EL-Kubaisa cement factory (95 workers). A comparative group of workers (97) were non-exposed to cement dust was selected. All workers were males in gender with age range (25-55) years. The assessment of tooth wear was based on the criteria of smith and knight, 1984. Results: The maximum tooth wear score for exposed workers was 84.2% while non exposed workers was 38.1%,with statistical differences between two groups was highly significant (P<0.01). The maximum tooth wear score among workers exposed to cement dust according to duration (<10years), (10-20 years) and >20 years) was (52.2 %), (92.3%) and (100%) respectively, with statistical differences was highly significant (P< 0.001). While the maximum tooth wear score among workers exposed to cement dust according to wearing mask was found to be statistically not significant (P> 0.05). Conclusion: Work environment was related to dental wear


Article
Assessment of dental arches symmetry in a sample of Iraqi children at the mixed dentition stage

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Background: Little is known about asymmetry of children's dental arches, the purpose of this study was to verify the presence of asymmetry of dental arches among Iraqi children in the mixed dentition stage. Materials and methods: The sample included 52 pairs of dental casts, 27 pairs belong to males and 25 pairs for females. Three linear distances were utilized on each side on the dental arch: Incisal-canine distance, canine-molar distance and incisal-molar distance, which represent the dental arch segmental measurements using the digital sliding calipers, which is accurate up to 0.02 mm. Results: No significant sides' differences with high correlation coefficient were found between the right and left incisal-canine, canine-molar and incisal-molar distances in both dental arches for both genders with males exhibited higher mean values than females in all segmental measurements of the dental arches. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed the symmetrical pattern of dental arches, since statistically the right and left sides showed no significant difference with high correlation coefficient in all measuring segments


Article
Aging effect of different types of composite resin restoration on shear bond strength to different orthodontic adhesives with sapphire bracket (In vitro comparative study)

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Background: This study was performed to determine the effect of aging of different types of composite material restorations on: Shear bond strength (SBS) to light cure and no mix chemical cure orthodontic adhesives with sapphire bracket and the debonding failure sites. Materials and methods: One hundred forty four composite disks were made from three different composite resin materials which are: 3M Filtek Z250, 3M filtek Z350 and 3M Valux plus, each group with (48) disks each, then according to the duration of storage each group was subdivided into two equal groups one of them stored for one day and the other was stored for one month, then each group was further subdivided into two equal subgroups with (12) disks each one bonded with light cure orthodontic adhesive and the other with no mix chemical cure adhesive. The sample was tested for bond strength using the universal testing machine and the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was inspected under the stereomicroscope. Results: The results revealed that there was a highly significant difference among the three types of composite materials bonded with light cure orthodontic adhesive as showed by ANOVA test, while the T test showed that there was no significant difference between the two storage durations and also between the two orthodontic adhesives for both Filtek Z250 and Valux plus. Conclusions: The highest (SBS) values were obtained from Filtek Z350 samples than other two types of composite. All the samples stored for one day showed higher values of (SBS) than those stored for one month


Article
Selected salivary constituents, physical properties and nutritional status in relation to dental caries among 4-5 year’s old children (Comparative study)

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Background: Tooth decay is still one of most common diseases of childhood, child’s primary teeth are important even though they aretemporary. This study was conducted to assess the physiochemical characteristic of saliva among caries experience preschool children and compared them with caries free matching in age and gender. Then an evaluation was done about these salivary characteristics to dental caries and evaluated the relation of body mass index to dental caries and to salivary variables. Materials and method: After examination 360 children aged 4-5 years of both gender. Caries-experiences was recorded according to dmfs index by (World Health Organization criteria 1987) during pilot study children with caries experience was divided in to three groups according to decay fraction of decay missing filled surfaces index .Mild with decay surfaces<6, moderate with 6≤decay surfaces≤13 and severe with decay surfaces>13 and select thirty children with moderate caries experience and compared with thirty caries free children decay missing filled surfaces=0 match in age and gender. Nutritional status of each child was assessed by measuring weight and height to calculate body mass index. Unstimulated saliva collected from sixty child under standardized condition and potential hydrogen and flow rate were measured. Total antioxidant concentration, total protein, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, zinc and copper were measured. Results: Statistically highly significant differences were found in concentration of salivary calcium and inorganic phosphorus between caries-experience and caries free children with higher mean value among caries free group. Statistically significant differences were found in concentration of salivary zinc between groups. Statistically nonsignificant differences were found in concentration of salivary total antioxidant, total protein, copper and body mass index between caries experience and caries free groups.Salivary flow rate and PH showed statistical non-significant differences between groups. Positive non-significant correlation was found between dmfs index, (ds) fraction of dmfs index and salivary flow rate, total antioxidant and negative correlation with salivary PH, total protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc and copper. Positive a non-significant correlation was found between BMI, salivary flow rate, PH, total antioxidant, zinc and copper while a negative weak correlation found with dmfs, ds fraction of index and salivary total protein, calcium and inorganic phosphorus in caries experience group. Furthermore a non-significant positive correlation was found between BMI, salivary flow rate, PH, total antioxidant inaddition to that negative weak correlation was found with salivary total protein, calcium inorganic phosphorus, zinc and copper among caries free group. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that inorganic components of saliva play an important role in reminerlization of incipient caries and there is an inverse association between body mass index and dental caries


Article
Dental caries among a group of boys with β-thalassemia major (10-12 years old) in relation to salivary Mutans streptococci

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Background: Beta thalassemia major is an inherited disorder that may affect general and oral health.The purpose of this study was toassess the severity of dental caries in relation to oral cleanliness, mutans streptococciamong a group of boys with beta thalassemia majorin comparison with a control group. Materials and Methods: The study involved 30 boys with BTM aged 10-12 years compared to 30 healthy boys with the same age group. d1-4mfs and D1-4 MFS indices were applied (Muhlemann, 1976), the viable counts of mutans streptococci in stimulated saliva were also determined. Results: The entire thalassemic group was caries-active. For both dentitions, a higher dmfs/DMFS values were recorded for study compared to control group, difference was statistically not significantconcerning dmfs, while it was statistically significant concerning DMFS (P<0.05). Salivary bacterial counts of mutans streptococci were found to be higher in the study compared to control group and the difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.01).All correlations between bacterial counts and dmfs/DMFS indices in study group were statistically not significant. Conclusion: Patients with Beta thalasemic major had more caries severity compared to normal subjects


Article
Dental arches dimensions, forms and its association to facial types in a sample of Iraqi adults with skeletal and dental class II-division 1 and class III malocclusion (A cross sectional study)

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Background: The association between facial types and dental arches forms has considerable implications in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. The aim was to establish the maxillary and mandibular dental arches width and length in skeletal and dental class II division 1 and class III malocclusion groups, find out the most frequent dental arch form and facial type and the association between them and to check the gender differences. Materials and Methods: Frontal and lateral facial photographs and maxillary and mandibular occlussal photographs for 90 iraqi subjects with age 18-25 years old (45 males and 45 females) divided equally into three groups, the 1st group with class II division 1malocclusion (overjet more than 3mm but less than or equal to 6mm), the 2nd group with class II division 1malocclusion (overjet more than 6mm) while the 3rd group with class III malocclusion (edge to edge or reverse overjet).Six linear measurements for each maxillary and mandibular dental cast photographs and two liner measurements for frontal and profile facial photographs was analyzed with (AUTO CAD 2013), which simplified the analyzing process and reduced the time and effort spent on taking measurements directly from the records to facilitate work and to gain more accurate results. Results: All the mean value of dental arches and facial measurements were higher in male than female, the most frequent maxillary and mandibular dental arch form in the three groups was the mid arch form follow by the narrow then the wide arch form except in the mandibular dental arch of the 3rd group it follow by the wide then the narrow arch form.The most frequent facial type in the 1st group is the Mesoprosopic one,followed by the Leptoprosopic then the Euryprosopic face type while in the 2nd and 3rd group the most frequent facial type is the Leptoprosopic, follow by the Mesoprosopic then the Euryprosopic facial type. An association was found between mid arch form and the Mesoprosopic face type in the 1st group, while no clear association was found between dental arch form and facial type in the 2nd and 3rd group for both genders. Conclusions: It was concluded that there was an association between facial type and dental arch form in subject with class II division 1malocclusion (overjet not more than 6mm), while in subject with class II division 1malocclusion (overjet more than 6mm) or with class III malocclusion (edge to edge or reverse overjet) no clear association was found between dental arch form and facial type


Article
Tensile force measurement by using different lingual retainer wires, bonding materials types and thickness (A comparative in vitro study)

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Background: The bonded orthodontic retainer constructed from multistrand wire and composite is an efficient esthetic retainer, which can be maintained long-term. Clinical failures of bonded orthodontic retainers, most commonly at the wire/composite interface, have been reported. This in vitro investigation aimed to evaluate the tensile forces of selected multistrand wires and composite materials that are available for use in the construction of bonded fixed retainers. Materials and Methods: The study sample includes 120 wires with three types of retainer wires (3 braided strands Orthotechnology, 8 braided strands G&H Orthodontics, 6 coaxial strands Orthoclassic wires), two types of adhesive (flowable Orthotechnology, non flowable G&H Orthodontics composites) and two thickness of the adhesive (1mm, 2mm). The samples were prepared for each composite in which a wire was embedded; then the composite was light cured for 40 seconds and the specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37°C in the incubator for 24 hours. The ends of the wire were drawn up and tensile force was applied through Tinius-Olsen universal testing machine until the resin failed and the results were recorded in Newton (N). Results: Statistical analysis showed that there was a highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.01) among the mean values of tensile forces of the three types of retainer wires in each thickness of composite with exception of a non significant difference (P > 0.05) between (3 braided) and (8 braided) and a non significant difference (P > 0.05) between (3 braided) and (6 coaxial) in both thickness of composite, a highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.01) between the two thickness of both composite types in each wire type and a highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.01) between the two types of composite in each wire type of both thickness of composite. Conclusion: The result of this study revealed that the 8 braided strands retainer wire shows the highest values of tensile force among the tested retainer wires, the non flowable composite demonstrates a higher tensile force than the flowable composite and increasing the thickness of composite overlying the wire increased the force required to detach the wire from the composite

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