Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2014 volume:26 issue:4

Article
Fracture strength of laminate veneers using different restorative materials and techniques (A comparative in vitro study)

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Background: Esthetic correction represents one of the clinical conditions that required the use of laminate veneers in premolars region. Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture strength of the laminate veneers in maxillary first premolars, fabricated from either composite (direct and indirect techniques) or ceramic CAD/CAM blocks. Materials and Methods: Fifty sound human maxillary premolar teeth were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were divided randomly into one control group and four experimental groups of ten teeth each; Group A: Restored with direct composite veneer (Filtek Z250 XT), Group B: Restored with indirect composite veneers (Filtek Z250 XT), Group C: Restored with lithium disilicate ceramic CAD/CAM blocks (IPS e. max CAD) and Group D: Restored with resin nano ceramic CAD/CAM blocks (Lava Ultimate Restorative). Standard preparations were done using Ceramic Veneer Set (Komet). Indirect laminate veneers were cemented with the Relyx Veneer Cement (3M ESPE) and all specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 2 weeks. The load was applied on the occlusal part of the veneer at 45˚ to long axis of the tooth using universal testing machine. Results were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and LSD tests. Specimens were examined by stereomicroscope at a magnification of 20x to evaluate the mode of failure. Results: Control group showed higher mean of fracture strength with highly significant difference in comparison to the experimental groups (P<0.01). (Group A) showed higher mean of fracture strength with statistically significant difference in comparison to (Group B and Group D). On the other hand the difference between (Group A and Group C) was statistically highly significant. Statistically non-significant difference was found among the three indirectly restored groups. Conclusions: All veneers used in this study can be considered as acceptable treatment in the premolars region for patients with normal biting force. Direct composite veneer is the most favorable technique in term of fracture strength, while IPS e. max CAD laminate veneers were least likely to fracture and most likely to completely debond


Article
Evaluation of the effect of sodium fluoride addition on some mechanical properties of heat cure acrylic denture base materials

Authors: Ali AM
Pages: 9-13
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Background: The geriatric patients wearing removable partial dentures are increasing in proportion. At the same time, the root caries prevalence accompanied by gingival recession is increasing. A variety of vehicles can deliver fluoride into the oral cavity, including fluoride mouth-rinse, fluoride dentifrice, topical fluoride, and fluoride-releasing restorative materials, all of which effectively prevent root caries and suppress recurrent caries. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sodium fluoride addition on some mechanical properties of heat cure acrylic denture base material. Material and method: A total of 90 samples were prepared in this study, then divided into three main groups according to the type of test used (hardness, tensile and transverse strength tests). Each main group was subdivided into three main subdivisions according to percentage of sodium fluoride addition to the heat cure acrylic denture base material (control no addition, 2%NaF ,and 5%NaF sodium fluoride groups) Results: The sodium fluoride addition to acrylic denture base materials showed slight but non significant increase in transverse strength and tensile strength tests while the results showed significant and highly significant differences for 2%NaF and for 5%NaF shore D hardness groups respectively. Conclusions: Addition of 2% and 5% sodium fluoride to heat cure acrylic resin is considered advantageous as the mechanical properties of resin denture base materials in respect to hardness tensile and transverse strength were not adversely affected.


Article
Effect of sodium fluoride on the properties of acrylic resin denture base material subjected to long-term water immersion

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Background: Fluoridated acrylic resin material can present more stable properties when compared with conventional one.The most widely used fluoride –containing substance added to dental resin materials is sodium fluoride (Naf). This study evaluated the effect of Naf in different concentration to the acrylic resin denture base material and its effect on tensile strength ,modules of elasticity with long –term water immersion (after 4 months immersion in de-ionized water) Materials and methods: Eighty specimens from dumbbells shaped metal pattern for tensile strength test were preparedaccording to ISO 527: 1993 plastic –Determination tensile properties ,in dimensions(60mm, 12mm, 3 ± 0.2mm) length, width and depth respectively were allocated to two groups according to water immersion there were 40 specimens before immersion and 40 specimens after water immersion for 4 months in de-ionized water(the de-ionized water was changed every day),these two groups were sub divided in to four groups according to the concentration of Naf,Naf powder were added to monomer of acrylic in concentrations of 1%,2%and 5% Naf .0% Naf(control group) ,then mixing were done with polymer according to manufacture instructions ,the conventional flasking ,packing procedure were used following that (fast cycle). For tensile strength test the measuring was done by Instron machine, the values of modulus of elasticity were obtained from tensile test. Results: Results showed that the addition of sodium fluoride to acrylic resin material werelower the tensile strength and modules of elasticity with highly significant differences p<0.01 when compared to control group regardless the concentration of Naf,But after immersion (for 4 month ) the tensile strength and modules of elasticity increased in comparison to groups before immersion (with highly significance differences p <0.01 ), highly significance differences (p <0.0)were found between groups after and before immersion in all concentrations except for tensile strength between 1%Naf and 2%Naf after immersion there was no significant differences(p>0.05), and for modules of elasticity between control and 1%Naf, 1% Naf and 2%Naf( after immersion ),there was only significant differences between them(p<0.05). Conclusions: Addition of fluoride to acrylic resin material lower the tensile strength and modules of elasticity when compared to control group regardless the concentration of Naf, But after immersion (for 4 months ) the tensile strength and modules of elasticity increased in comparison to groups before immersion (with highly significance differences p <0.01)


Article
Fracture resistance of weakened premolars restored with sonically-activated composite, bulk-filled and incrementally-filled composites (A comparative in vitro study)

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Background: This study was conducted to assess the effect of sonic activation and bulk placement of resin composite in comparison to horizontal incremental placement on the fracture resistance of weakened premolar teeth. Materials and method: Sixty sound human single-rooted maxillary premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were used in this study. Teeth were divided into six groups of ten teeth each: Group 1 (sound unprepared teeth as a control group), Group 2 (teeth prepared with MOD cavity and left unrestored), Group 3 (restored with SonicFill™ composite), Group 4 (restored with Quixfil™ composite), Group 5 (restored with Tertic EvoCeram® Bulk Fill composite) and Group 6 (restored with Universal Tetric EvoCeram® composite using horizontal incremental layering technique). Standardized class II MOD cavity was prepared in all teeth except (group 1).After finishing the restorative procedure of each group according to the manufacturer's instructions, all teeth were stored in deionized distilled water in an incubator at 37°C for seven days.All specimens were subjected to compressive axial loading until fracturein a universal testingmachine.Specimens were examined by a stereomicroscope at a magnification of (20X) to evaluate the mode of fracture . Results: The results of this study revealed that the control group exhibited the highest fracture resistance compared to all prepared teeth groups (restored or unrestored) and the differences were statistically highly significant (P<0.01), except with group 3 (which was restored with SonicFill™ composite) where the difference was statistically significant only (P < 0.05).Additionally the results of this study revealed that the prepared unrestored teeth (Group 2) exhibited the lowest fracture resistance compared to all restored groups and the differences were statistically highly significant (P<0.01). Meanwhile, among the restored teeth groups, teeth restored with SonicFill™ composite (group 3) exhibited the highest fracture resistance as compared with all other restored groups and the difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.01) .On the other hand, no statistically significant differences in fracture resistance were found among groups 4, 5 and 6, which were restored with Quixfil™ composite, Tetric EvoCeram® Bulk Fill composite and Universal Tetric EvoCeram® composite, respectively (P > 0.05). Group 3and Group 5 showed mostly mixed mode of failure, while Group 4 showed mostly adhesive mode of failure. On the other hand Group 6 teeth showed different modes of failure. Conclusions: SonicFill™ composite can be considered as a viable treatment modality for the restoration of weakened maxillary premolar teeth. On the other hand, the time-consuming incremental layering technique can be substituted with bulk filling, using bulk fill materials (Quixfil™ and Tetric EvoCeram® Bulk Fill) for reinforcement ofweakened maxillary premolars


Article
Evaluation of shear bond strength between thermosens as relining material and different denture base materials

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Background: Denture relining is the process of resurfacing of the tissue side of the ill fitting denture, the bond strength at the relining-denture base interface is most important for denture durability.The aim of present study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between the thermosens as relining material and different denture base materials that bonded by thermo fusing liquid. As this corrective procedureis the common chair side procedure in the dental clinic. Material and method: Sixty samples were prepared and divided into three main groups according to the type of denture base materials.Group (A) referred to the heat cure acrylic samples which consisted of 20 samples. Group (B) referred to the high impact acrylic samples which consisted of 20 samples. Group (C) referred to the thermosens samples which consisted of 20 samples. All groups then subdivided into two groups; each one consists of 10 samples, according to the surface roughness: (A1, B1and C1 for groups with surface roughness and A2, B2 and C2for groups without surface roughness). Each sample consisted of two similar parts represent the denture base material each part of the sample was designed with dimensions of (70mm X 12mm X 5mmlength, width and depth respectively) having a stopper of depth 3mm. One part of the sample was placed on the other in a manner thatleaving a space between them of dimensions (12mm X 12mm X 3mm length, width and depth respectively) to sandwich the relining material. Results: The results showed that the thermosens samples had the highest value of shear bond strength followed by the high impact acrylic samples, then heat cure acrylic samples which had the lowest value of shear bond strength. The results of present study showed that rough samples had reducedshear bondstrength in comparison with the smooth samples of the same denture base material


Article
Effect of poly propylene fibers incorporation and their oxygen plasma treatment on tensile strength, wettability and wear resistance of heat cure denture base acrylic resin

Authors: Hasanain K.A. Alalwan
Pages: 32-38
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Background:Recently, Poly propylene fibers with and without plasma treatment have been used to reinforce heat cure denture base acrylic but, so far some of properties like tensile strength , wettability and wear resistance not evaluated yet, the aim of the study is to clarify the influence of incorporation of treated and untreated fibers on these properties. Materials and methods: Twenty one specimens were fabricated for every tested property(tensile strength, wear resistance and wettability) that classified into three groups(control, untreated poly propylene fibers reinforced specimens and Oxygen plasma treated group)and for each test seven samples were used(n=7). Tensile strength was tested using Instron universal testing machine, wear resistance was evaluated by pin on disk wear measurement method while, a digital microscope supplied with high resolution camera was utilized to measure the contact angle reflecting wettability grade. One wayANOVA table and LSD were used to analyze the results. Results: The tensile strength showed a paradoxical effect, plasma treated samples group demonstrated a negative influence in contrary, to the untreated group that revealed positive high significant impression. The plasma treated group had manifested a- positive significant difference regarding wear resistance whilst, the beneficial effect of treated and untreated Poly propylene fibers addition was obvious with high significant difference. Conclusion: Incorporation of O2 plasma treated and untreated poly propylene fibers to heat cure poly methyl methacrylate resin was beneficial regarding the tested properties except for addition of plasma treated Poly propylene fibers on tensile strength


Article
Effect of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of full-contour zirconia

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Background: Adjustment of any premature occlusal contact of any zirconia restoration requires its polishing or glazing in order to restore the smoothness of the restoration. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different polishing systems and glazing on the surface roughness of full-contour zirconia. Material and methods: Forty disks (diameter: 8 mm, thickness: 6.4 mm) were prepared from pre-sintered fullcontoured zirconia block; they were colored and sintered in a high-temperature furnace at 1500˚C for 8 hours. The specimens were then leveled and finished using grinding and polishing machine and adjusted using diamond disk. The specimens were then randomly divided into four groups (n=10), group I involves samples that were polished using (karat diamond polishing set, Vita zahnfabrik, Germany), group II involves samples that were polished with (zirconia polishing kit, SMEdent, Shanghai, China), group III involves samples that were polished with (OptraFine® diamond polishing system, Ivoclar Vivadent, Germany), while group IV involves samples that were glazed using glazing medium (VITA Akzent Glaze AKZ 25, Vita zahnfabrik, Germany). Surface roughness values (Ra) (in μm) of all the specimens were recorded at each stage of surface treatment of zirconia disks (leveling and finishing, adjustment of the samples and polishing / glazing) using surface roughness tester. Statistical analysis was carried out using one-way ANOVA and LSD tests. Results: The results showed that the glazing group recorded the lowest surface roughness mean value, followed by (OptraFine® polishing system), then (zirconia polishing kit) and finally (karat polishing set) which showed the highest mean of surface roughness. For all groups, there was a statistically very high significant difference of (Ra) value before and after adjustment of the samples. Moreover, there was a statistically very high significant difference in (Ra) value when comparing the adjusted samples with the polished and glazed ones. Karat polishing set group showed a statistically highly significant difference with zirconia polishing kit group (P<0.01). Both, karat polishing set and zirconia polishing kit groups showed a statistically very highly significant difference (P<0.001) with (OptraFine® polishing system) and glazing groups. On the other hand, no statistically significant difference was found between glazing and (OptraFine® polishing system) groups (P>0.05). Conclusions: Adjusting full-contour zirconia with diamond bur or disk resulted in a significant increase in (Ra) that necessitates its polishing or glazing to restore the surface smoothness. Furthermore, both glazing and OptraFine® polishing system provided the best surface smoothness, so glazing can be substituted with chairside polishing using OptraFine® polishing system.


Article
The effect of light curing tip distance on the curing depth of bulk fill resin based composites

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Background: This in vitro study measure and compare the effect of light curing tip distance on the depth of cure by measuring vickers microhardness value on two recently launched bulk fill resin based composites Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill and Surefil SDR Flow with 4 mm thickness in comparison to Filtek Z250 Universal Restorative with 2 mm thickness. In addition, measure and compare the bottom to top microhardness ratio with different light curing tip distances. Materials and Method: One hundred fifty composite specimens were obtained from two cylindrical plastic molds the first one for bulk fill composites (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill and Surefil SDR Flow) with 4 mm diameter and 4 mm depth, the second one for Filtek Z250 Universal Restorative with 4 mm diameter and 2 mm depth. Each spcimen was light-cured using WOODPECKER LED CURING LIGHT for 20 sec. Polymerization was performed with the light tip positioned in direct contact, 2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm distant from the top surface of the sample. After one day of storage in distilled water in a light proof container at 37˚C, the hardness on the bottom and top surfaces of each specimen was tested using the Digital Micro Vickers Hardness Tester. Then the Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA test, LSD test and t-test. Results: All experimental groups show top microhardness higher than bottom microhardness with high significant difference with all light tip distances. At 0 mm light tip distance all groups give the highest microhardness value. Filtek Z250 Universal Restorative shows accepted bottom to top microhardness ratio at all light tip distances. Surefil SDR Flow shows accepted bottom to top ratio only at 0, 2 and 4mm light tip distances while Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill shows the bottom to top microhardness ratio less than the accepted value with all light tip distances. Conclusion: From the results of this study we can conclude that the polymerization of bulk fill composite depends greatly on the distance from light curing tip, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill composite not recommended to be used as bulk fill restoration in deep cavities and need further studies, while Surefil SDR Flow not recommended to be used in deep cavity when curing tip distance (6-8 mm), in addition we can conclude that the thickness of the increments is more important than light curing tip distance


Article
Estimation of the Bennett mandibular immediate side shift in Iraqi full mouth rehabilitation patients

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Background: Controversy exists concerning the presence and amount of the Bennett mandibular immediate side shift among patients and whether it is necessary to accommodate for it in adjustable articulators. The aim of this study was to register and calculate the amount of any immediate side shift (ISS) present in patients requiring full mouth rehabilitation. Materials and methods: 3- dimensional condylar movements of 50 Iraqi TMD-free patients were recorded using a stereographic fully adjustable articulator system during protrusion, left and right eccentric mandibular movements. Protrusive angles of each patient were verified to figure out the suitable fossa analog for each case. The thickness of each right and left premade fossa analog selected was measured with a vernier caliper and was tightly secured in the articulator fossa compartment. Functionally-generated path recordings were performed using custom-made intraoral clutches. Bennett ISSs, verified by the stereographic system in the molded fossae, were measured using the vernier caliper. The final right and left ISSs were estimated by subtracting the thickness of the blank fossa analog from that of the molded one. The final ISSs were recorded and statistically compared. Results: Stereographic recordings of eccentric mandibular movements revealed ISSs within all patients involved in this study. The ISSs varied among the patients and bilaterally within them. Their average values ranged between 0.80 mm for females and 1.68 mm for males, showing significant statistical differences between them but with no relevancy to age advancement. Mean values of ISSs of males' and females' mandibular left joints were more than those recorded by their right joints. Conclusion: Verifying the mandibular ISS in the molded fossae is an essential step to efficiently rehabilitate full mouth cases; thus it would be helpful to use a fully adjustable articulator system to restore complicated cases since very minor intraoral occlusal adjustments might be required for the finished restorations prior to the final cementation


Article
Evaluation of marginal gap at the composite/enamel interface in Class II composite resin restoration by SEM after thermal and mechanical load cycling (An in vitro comparative study)

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Background: This study compared in vitro the marginal adaptation of three different, low shrink, direct posterior composites Filtek™ P60 (packable composite), Filtek™ P90 (Silorane-based composite) and Sonic fill™ (nanohybrid composite) at three different composite/enamel interface regions (occlusal, proximal and gingival regions) of a standardized Class II MO cavity after thermal changes and mechanical load cycling by scanning electron microscopy. Materials and methods:Thirty six sound human maxillary first premolars of approximately comparable sizes were divided into three main groups of (12 teeth) in each according to the type of restorative material that was used: group (A) the teeth were restored with Filtek™ P60 and single bond™ Universal adhesive using horizontal incremental technique, group (B)the teeth were restored with Filtek™ P90 and P90 system adhesive using horizontal incremental technique and group (C) the teeth were restored with Sonic fill™ composite and single bond™ Universal adhesive using bulk technique.After specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days, all specimens were subjected to thermocycling at (5° to 55 °C), then submitted to mechanical load cycling (intermittent axial force of 49N and a total of 50.000 cycles). The specimens were observed under scanning electron microscope at (2000 X) to measure marginal gap width (the distance between the dental wall and the restoration) at occlusal, proximal and gingival regions in micrometer using Tescan software, version 3.5. Data were analyzed statistically by one way ANOVA test and least significant difference tests. Results:The results showed that the silorane-based posterior composite (Filtek™ P90) showed significantly the least marginal gap width at the occlusal, proximal and gingival regions after the application of thermal changes and mechanical load cycling in comparison to the two methacrylate-based posterior composite Filtek™ P60 (packable) and the Sonic fill™ (nano-hybrid). Sonic fill™ bulk fill composite that relied on the vibration concept to lower the viscosity of high filler loaded composite material showed significantly lesser marginal gaps width at occlusal, proximal and gingival composite/enamel interface regions in comparison with Filtek™ P60 (packable composite) using horizontal incremental technique. The silorane-based composite (Filtek™ P90) showed non-significant difference in marginal gaps width at the three different regions. While, both methacrylate based Filtek™ P60 and Sonic fill™ composite showed significantly lesser marginal gap width at the occlusal region in comparison with gingival regions. Conclusion: None of the low-shrinkage composite restorative materials tested in this study totally prevented microgap formation at composite/enamel interfaces of Class II MO cavity


Article
Evaluation of shear bond strength of artificial teeth to heat cure acrylic and high impact heat cure acrylic using autoclave processing method

Authors: Mustafa M.J
Pages: 71-77
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Background: Debonding and fracture of artificial teeth from denture bases are common clinical problem, bonding of artificial teeth to heat cure acrylic and high impact heat cure acrylic denture base materials with autoclave processing method is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of autoclave processing method on shear bond of artificial teeth to heat cure denture base material and high impact heat cure denture base material. Materials and methods: Heat polymerized (Vertex) and high impact acrylic (Vertex) acrylic resins were used. Teeth were processed to each of the denture base materials after the application of different surface treatments. The sample (which consist of artificial tooth attached to the denture base at 45 degree) are consist of (80) artificial teeth from the same model of central incisor, they were prepared , treated and bonded to the conventional heat cured and high impact acrylic denture base material then processed. Control group (Group A 40 samples) in which acrylic resins PMMA cured by conventional water- bath processing technique (74°C for 1.5 hours then boil for 30 minutes),the group was subdivided to 20 samples heat cure acrylic and 20 samples high impact acrylic. Experimentalgroups (Group B 40 samples) in which acrylic resins was cured by autoclave at 121°C, 210KPa. For 30min.the group subdivided to 20 samples heat cure acrylic and 20 samples high impact acrylic. For each subgroup, the 20 samples were subdivided according to surface treatment into: 1-Five acrylic teeth without any surface treatment (control). 2- Five acrylic teeth with diatoric preparation (retention grooves). 3- Five acrylic teeth conditioned with thinner. 4- Five acrylic teeth with retention grooves and thinner. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that chemical and mechanical treatment of acrylic teeth improved the shear bond with heat cure and high impact acrylicalsoautoclave processing improvedthe shear bond with acrylic teeth in high impact acrylic. Conclusion: Autoclave polymerization is suggested as alternative method for processing denture base resins. Autoclave polymerization can be easily performed in laboratory conditions. In High Impact Acrylic, there were highly significant differences of autoclave processing technique compared with water bath regarding the shear bond strength with acrylic teeth


Article
Effect of silver nitrate incorporation into heat polymerized acrylic resin on some mechanical properties

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Background: Polymers are very rarely used in their form. These modifications are carried out in order to improve the properties of polymers.Recently silver have been used successfully as antimicrobial (medical and dental) biomaterials that can prevent caries and infection of implants. The aim of the present in vitro study is to evaluate the effect of addition of silver nitrate to acrylic resin in different concentrationsthrough several tests part of these are: The effect of this additive on impact strength, transverse strength, and tensile strength of AgNO3 – loaded resin, and to assess any effect of addition of silver nitrate on coloration of acrylic resin. Materials and methods: Different concentrations of silver nitrate (9.375, 15, 30, 60, 120, 150, 300, 600 and 900 ppm) were prepared from stock solution of 1000 ppm silver nitrate. The specimens were prepared in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the tested silver nitrate solution was added to the acrylic resin powder and monomer in a fixed volume (0.2ml). Controls devoid of silver nitrate were included. Results: Fourier transform infra-red confirmed that there was no chemical bond between the Poly methyl methacrylate and silver nitrate. There was insignificant increasing (P=0.05) in impact strength observed when compared with control group. In transverse strength test, significant reduction was show (P<0.001). While for tensile strength there was insignificant reduction with 9.375(P=0.05NS) and 15(P=0.42NS) ppm silver nitrate. However, it was significant above 15 ppm (P<0.001). Darkening of silver nitrate -loaded resins were shown to be started with concentration of silver nitrateof 300 ppm and above. Conclusions: The additions of silver nitrate to acrylic resins yield good color stability and mechanical properties, depending on the concentration of silver nitrate


Article
Shear bond strength of endodontic sealers to dentin with and without smear layer and gutta percha (An in vitro study)

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Background: The bond strength of root canal sealers to dentin and gutta-percha seems to be an important property for maintaining the stability of root canal filling, which potentially influences both leakage and root strength. The objective of this, in vitro, study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of three different endodontic sealers (Gutta- Flow, AH Plus, Apexit Plus) to dentin, in the presence and absence of the smear layer and gutta percha. Material and Methods: After slicing off the occlusal 2mm of 60 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth, the exposed dentin served as the tested surfaces; the teeth were fixed with cold cure acrylic, and were divided into two groups according to the smear layer presence, group A without smear layer, when dentin surfaces were irrigated with EDTA 17% followed by distilled water then subdivided into 3 subgroups according to the type of sealer used; group B when dentin surfaces were washed with distilled water only, then subdivided into 3 subgroups. Thirty samples of gutta-percha were prepared and named as group C which was subdivided into 3 subgroups. Five mm long section of polyethylene tubes were placed on the dentin or gutta percha surfaces and filled with freshly mixed sealer. After one week, all the samples were tested for shear bond strength by the Instron Universal Testing Machine at a cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data was calculated in MPa and was statistically analyzed Result: There was a highly significant difference in the shear bond strength (P < 0.05) in comparison among the tested groups, GuttaFlow showed non-significant difference in bond strength to dentin with and without smear layer, while AH Plus and Apexit Plus showed a high significant difference. Conclusions: AHPlus showed the highest shear bond strength in all the tested samples, while GuttaFlow was the least. Additionally, AH Plus and Apexit Plus shear bond strengths were affected by the smear layer removal, while GuttaFlow was not.


Article
Effect of different palatal vault shapes and woven glass fiber reinforcement on dimensional stability of high impact acrylic denture base [Part I]

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Background: Change in palatal vault shape and Reinforcement of high impact acrylic denture base resin may in turn affect the dimensional accuracy of acrylic resin and affecting the fitness of the denture.This study evaluated tostudy the effect of fiber reinforcement for high-impact acrylic resin denture base with different palatal vault shapes on adaptation or gap space between the denture base and the stone cast and compare with non-fiber reinforcement and effect of palatal vault shapes on adaptation of non-reinforced and fiber reinforced high impact denture base acrylic resin Material and method: Three different palatal vault shapes were prepared on standard casts using CNC (computer numerical control) machine. 60 samples of heat polymerized high impact acrylic resin maxillary denture base were fabricated onto each definitive cast according to manufacturer instruction. Samples divided into three main experimental groups represented the three different palatal vault shapes (20 samples for each main group); 1st rounded 2nd U-shaped and the 3rd groups V-shaped. Each main group divided into two subgroups (10 samples for each subgroup) representing non fiber reinforced high impact acrylic group as a control and the fiber reinforced high impact acrylic. The measurements of gap-space changes of denture bases done at two stages, 1st 24 hour after polymerization and 2nd measurement done after one month storage in distilled water at room temperature. Results and conclusion: Dimensional changes of high impact acrylic denture base not affected by glass fiber reinforcement p-value for all reference pointes ≥ 0.05, while topographical change in maxillary vault shapes effects on the gap-space in non-fiber reinforced high impact acrylic denture base p-value < 0.05 in point one, four, and seven.


Article
The initial stability of dental implant with horizontal plate (An in vitro study)

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Background: The Initial (primary) stability is one of the factors that play an important role in the success of the dental implants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the initial stability of dental implant with horizontal plate by using five analytical tests: insertion torque, removal torque, resonance frequency analysis, push-in test and pull-out test. Materials and methods: Two different lengths of dental implants (5mm and 10mm) were tested in this study; each dental implant was 4mm in diameter with a square threads shape of 1mm pitch and 0.5mm depth. The crestal area was 4.2mm diameter contained a right angle margin circumferential ring while the apical area was tapered with two self-tapping grooves. In this study, the initial stability of dental implants’ design was compared with initial stability of dental implants of the same dimensions and design that engage horizontal plates of 1.5mm thickness at the apical part. All dental implants were implanted into a solid rigid polyurethane foam blocks (artificial bone) of 0.48g/cm3 density and tested by the five initial stability tests. Each test was done with forty samples (twenty samples of 5mm length and twenty samples of 10mm length). Results: The statistical analysis was performed and the result showed that there was very highly significant difference between dental implants with the horizontal plates and dental implants without the horizontal plates of both 5mm and 10 mm lengths in four initial stability tests which were insertion torque, removal torque, push-in test and pull-out test. The statistical analysis of the resonance frequency analysis showed that there was non-significant difference between dental implants with the horizontal plates and dental implants without the horizontal plates of both lengths. Conclusion: These results implied that the dental implants with the horizontal plates had better primary stability compared with the dental implants without the horizontal plates confirming that the horizontal plates enhanced the primary stability of the dental implants


Article
Immunohistochemical evaluation of FHIT and WWOX expression in normal oral mucosa, oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

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Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most prevalent malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity which results from accumulated genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is not always inexorable and may be reversible if early intervention in the process can occur to prevent further genetic mutation and disease progression. The FHIT gene is a tumor suppressor gene located in FRA3B region which is the most active common fragile site, where DNA damage leading to aberrant transcripts and translocations frequently occur. The WWOX is a tumor suppressor gene that plays a central role in tumor suppression through transcriptional repression and apoptosis, with its apoptotic function the more prominent of the two. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the immunohistochemical expression of FHIT and WWOX in normal oral mucosa, oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma and to correlate the expression of the mentioned markers with the clinicopathological features and to show the expression of studied markers with each other. Materials and methods: Fifty formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue blocks (10 cases of normal oral mucosa, 19 cases of oral epithelial dysplasia, and 21 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma) were included in this study. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti FHIT polyclonal antibody, and anti WWOX polyclonal antibody. Results: Positive IHC of FHIT was detected with high score in all cases of NOM, 16 cases (84%) of OED and 18 cases (86%) of OSCC. For WWOX expression positive IHC detected with high score in all cases (100%) of NOM, 14 cases (74%) of OED and 15 cases (71%) of OSCC. There was statistically highly significant correlation of both markers in OED and non significant correlation in OSCC, with significant differences among studied groups. Conclusions: These results signifying both markers cooperative tumor suppressive role and potential pathological transition from normal oral mucosa to dysplastic epithelium and subsequently cause malignant oral lesions

Keywords

NOM --- OED --- OSCC --- FHIT --- WWOX


Article
Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of the effect of local exogenous application of VEGF on bone healing (experimental study in rat)

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Background: The repair of bone defects remains a major clinical orthopaedic challenge. Bone is a highly vascularised tissue reliant on the close spatial and temporal connection between blood vessels and bone cells to maintain skeletal integrity. Angiogenesis thus plays a pivotal role in skeletal development and bone fracture repair. The role of angiogenic and osteogenic factors in the adaptive response and interaction of osteoblasts and endothelial cells during the multi step process of bone development and repair will be highlighted in this study. This study aimed to identify the role of local exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor in bone healing and to analyze the expression of VEGF by immunohistochemistry in created bone defect after application with different biomaterials in a rat model. Materials and methods: In this experimental study eighteen male Albino rats, weighing (300-400) gram, aged (6-8) months were used and maintained under control conditions of temperature, drinking and food consumption. The animals were subjected for a surgical operation of medial sides of both tibiae bone ( right side was considered as experimental site ,while left be the control one), in control group the bone defect treated with local application of 1μm of normal saline, while experimental treated with local application of 1μm of VEGF .The rats were sacrificed at 3,7,10 days after surgery(six rats for each period). Bone healing was histologically examined with immunohistochemical localization of VEGF Results: Bone defect treated with local application of VEGF shows an early osteoid tissue deposition with high cell count for osteoblast, osteocyte and osteoclast. Immunohistochemical evaluation for VEGF by stromal cells, reported to be higher with significant difference in VEGF group in comparison to control. Conclusion: The study illustrated that low application of VEGF could be an effective therapeutic expression for bone injuries; these data are promising for a possible future clinical usage


Article
Evaluation of maxillary sinus septal type and height in partially edentulous maxilla using spiral computed tomography

Authors: Farah A. Hadi --- Areej A. Najm, --- Mohammed A. Kadhum
Pages: 116-119
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Background: The presence of anatomic variations within the maxillary sinus such as septa has been reported to increase the risk of sinus membrane perforation during sinus elevation procedure for implant placement. This study aimed to measure the septal heights and correlate it with different types of septa. Material and methods: Thirty patients (15 males and 15 females) with partially edentulous maxillae and mean age (35) years were enrolled in this study. Sixty sinuses scanned with Spiral multislice Computed Tompgraphy, septal height measured after evaluation of septal type whether it was primary or secondary. Results: The results showed that 72.5 % of the septa detected were primary and this is statistically significant when compared with the percentage of secondary type (27.5%). There was a statistically significant difference in the height of septa between the two types, and the primary septa were higher. There was no significant difference between septal type and sex. Conclusions: A sound knowledge of maxillary sinus anatomy and anatomic variations such as septa is essential to prevent complication during surgical interventions involving this region.


Article
Salivary microRNAs (hsa-miR-200a, hsa-miR-125a and hsa- miR-93) in relation to age, gender and histopathological parameters

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Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that post‐transcriptionally regulate gene expression by targeting specific mRNAs. The main objective of this study was measure the level of salivary (hsa-miR-200a, hsa-miR- 125a and hsa- miR-93) in both oral squamous cell carcinoma and healthy controls to asses the association of them with age, gender and tumor grade materials and methods The level of three salivary microRNAs namely hsa-miR-200a, hsa-miR-125a and hsa- miR-93 were measured in saliva of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and healthy controls by using reveres transcription, preamplification and quantitative PCR also the general information from each patient including the age, sex and tumor grade were recorded. Results: Salivary miR-200a was down regulated while miR-93 was up regulated in saliva of females with OSCC compared to females of healthy control, also there was a weak and statistically insignificant positive linear correlation between tumor grade and hsa-miR-200a CT values (r=0.223).However each tumor grade group had a mean normalized CT value which was higher than that of controls with statistically significant differences, P<0.05. The results suggest that circulating miRNAs may be a biological marker of aging and tumor grade. More studies should be done to validate these results. Conclusions: Both miR-200a and miR-93 could be used as biomarkers for poorly differentiated and aggressive cancer

Keywords

Saliva --- miR-200a --- miR-125a --- miR-93 --- OSCC --- tumor grade --- Real time-PCR


Article
Assessment of bone density after six months from dental implants placement using Computed Tomography

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Background: Determination of local bone mineral density (BMD) immediately after implant insertion play an important role in implant success rate, may offer comprehensive description of the bone, and give enough information to the surgeon prior to implant insertion and at follow up status. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the changes of local bone density in the dental implant recipient sites by using computerized tomography. Material and method: The sample consisted of (20) dental implants recipient sites, bone density assessment was done twice, immediately after implants insertion and after six months. Results: The mean HU of the bone around the implant insertion site, immediately after implant placement was 552.28 HU, and increased to761.33HU after six months. According to gender, with females, it was 539,54HU, and increased to 765.65HU after six months from implant insertion while with males, it was 565.02HU, and increased to 757.02HU after six months from implant insertion. Conclusion: There was an increased in bone density around dental implant by time with non-significant differences according to the gender.


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of P53, as a marker of apoptosis in Hodgkin’s and Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the head and neck region

Authors: Thaer K. Ali --- Bashar H. Abdulla --- Khitam R. Kadhim
Pages: 129-132
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Background: Malignant lymphomas represent about 5% of all malignancy of the head and neck region which can involve lymph nodes as well as soft tissue and bone of the maxillofacial region. Apoptosis is considered a vital component of various processes including normal cell turnover, proper development and functioning of the immune system. Inappropriate apoptosis is a factor in many human conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer. Expression of p53 Proteins in Hodgkin ׳s and Non Hodgkin ׳s lymphomas suggested that it can help in monitoring of patients and the markers may aid in controlling the progression of lymphoma and detect the degree of aggressiveness of the disease to give suitable treatment and management of patients. Material and methods: Sixty seven formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, histopathologically diagnosed lymphoma blocks (head and neck lesions) as (24) Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and (43) Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. Immunohistochemical (IHC) technique was used for the evaluation of P53 monoclonal antibodies expression and correlated with the clinicopathological parameters. Results: The mean of expression of P53 in relation to tumor grades was different as it had a value of (51.2±13.5) in low grade tumors, (55.7±20) in the intermediate grade tumor and (45±17.6) in high grade tumors; consequently, this difference did not reached the level of statistical significance P(ANOVA) >0.05. Conclusions: This study had shown that there was no significant correlation between the mean of expression of P53 in HL and NHL


Article
Quantitative detection and correlation of Epstein - Barr Virus in plasma with gingivitis and severity of chronic periodontitis by using real-time polymerase chain reaction technique

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Background: This study aimed to detect EBV quantitatively in plasma using real-time polymerase chain reaction technique in chronic periodontitis and gingivitis patients and to compare the finding with control subjects (healthy periodontium) and to investigate the relationship between the presence of EBV & the severity of periodontal diseases using the clinical periodontal parameters (PLI ,GI , BOP ,PPD and CAL) between each of (chronic periodontitis and gingivitis) patients and compare with control (healthy periodontium) subjects . Materials and methods: The study sample consisted of (101) individual of both genders, (61) chronic periodontitis patients which were subdivided into (mild, moderate & severe) depending on the scores of clinical attachment level, (20) gingivitis patients and (20) control subjects (healthy periodontium) with age ranged from (30-50) years. All the groups were without any history of systemic diseases. Clinical periodontal parameters used in this study were (PLI ,GI , BOP ,PPD and CAL) .Blood samples were collected from all individuals and examined by Real-Time PCR technique for the detection of EBV. Results: The result of comparison for the occurrence of EBV among study and control groups according to sequential responding of EBV appears to be highly significant at negative level of EBV, significant in (100 - 500 copy/105 cells) level and the results of leftover levels appear non significant difference. The result of correlation between the actual occurrence of EBV and PPD scores in severe chronic periodontitis subgroup appears to be significant at PPD score (1) and non significant at scores (2&3). The correlations between EBV and PPD scores in moderate and mild chronic periodontitis subgroups appear to be non significant with all scores. The results of correlation between EBV and CAL parameter appear to be non significant among all scores of chronic periodontitis subgroup. Concerning plaque index, the correlation appears to be significant in mild chronic periodonttis subgroup and highly significant in control group. In case of gingival index, the correlation appears to be significant in severe chronic periodontitis subgroup and control group .The result of correlation with (B.O.P. score 1) appears to be highly significant in severe subgroup of chronic periodontitis group and significant in gingivitis group, while in case of (B.O.P. score 0), the correlation appears to be significant only in severe chronic periodonttis subgroup. Conclusions: The present findings revealed that there may be an association between EBV infection and the severity of periodontal diseases and thus coinfection with EBV may play a role in increase destruction of periodontal tissues


Article
Assessment of serum levels of MMP-8 and hs CRP in chronic periodontitis patients in relation to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

Authors: Zainab J. Raheem --- Maha A. Ahmed
Pages: 141-146
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Background: Periodontitis and Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular disease are chronic inflammatory diseases which are highly prevalent. During the last two decades, there has been an increasing interest in the impact of oral health on atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease. The aims of the study were to evaluate the periodontal health status in study groups (Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease patients with chronic periodontitis and patients having chronic periodontitis),to estimate the serum levels of Matrixmetalloproteinase-8(MMP-8) and high sensitive Creactive protein(hs CRP) in study and control groups and compare between them. Also,test the correlation between the serum levels of MMP-8 and hs CRP with clinical periodontal parameters at each study group Subjects, materials and methods: Eighty subjects, males and females were included in this study with age range (35- 50) years old, they were divided into study groups [ATH+CP group: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease& chronic periodontitis group (30 patients), CP group: chronic periodontitis group (30 patients)] andcontrol group: (20 systemically healthy subjects, have healthy periodontium). Periodontal health status was determined by measuring the following clinical periodontal parameters (Plaque index (PL.I), Gingival index (GI), Bleeding on probing (BOP), Probing pocket depth (PPD) and Clinical attachment level (CAL)).Serum levelsof (MMP-8and hs CRP) were determined by mean of ELISA. Results: The results showed that the mean values of clinical periodontalparameters (PL.I, GI, PPD and CAL), were higher in the ATH+CP group than in the CP group with significant differences except in PL.I there was no significant difference. A higher percentage of score 1of BOP sites demonstrated by CP groupthan in ATH+CP group with highly significant difference.The levels of serum (MMP-8 and hs CRP) were higher in ATH+CP groupwhen compared with CP group and control group, with highly significant differences between all pairs of study and control groups.Regarding the Correlation between serum levels of (MMP-8 and hs CRP) and clinical periodontal parameters, were positive correlation in both study groups. Conclusion: The present results my provide evidence that Chronic Periodontitis may contribute to the inflammationassociated to atherosclerotic process


Article
Oral health status among fifteen years-old students in Maysan governorateIraq

Authors: Ahmed M. Mughamis --- Ahlam T. Mohammed
Pages: 147-151
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Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most common and widely spread diseases affecting humans at different ages. Aim of this study is the assessment of prevalence and severity of dental caries, gingivitis, oral hygiene and enamel anomalies in relation to gender and residency among 15 years old students in Maysan governorate –Iraq. Materials and methods: The total sample composed of 750 students (400 males and 350 females, 450 urban and 300 rural) selected randomly from different high schools in the Governorate. Diagnoses and recording dental caries was according to the criteria of WHO (1987), Plaque index of Silness and Loe (1964) was used for plaque assessment, Ramfjord index (1959) was applied for the assessment of calculus, gingival index of Loe and Silness (1963) was followed for recording gingival health condition and criteria of WHO (1997) to assess enamel anomalies. Results: Caries prevalence was found to be (92.53%) of the total sample. The DMFS value was higher among females compared to males with statistically high significant difference (P<0.01) also the value was higher among rural compared to urban with statistically high significant difference (P<0.01). Plaque, gingival and calculus indices were higher among rural than urban and higher among males than females, statistically, there were high significant differences regarding plaque and gingival indices (P<0.01) while non-significant difference regarding calculus index (P>0.05), for both genders and residencies. Conclusion: A high prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis were recorded indicating the need of a public health programs in this governorate


Article
Ions release from fixed orthodontic appliance in two different mouthwashes

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Background: Metal ions can be released from metallic orthodontic appliances due to corrosion in the oral cavity; prophylactic mouthwashes may have an effect on ion release from orthodontic wires. Materials and Methods: Thirty six orthodontic sets of half maxillary fixed appliance with 2 types of arch wires SS and NiTi(Morelli) were constructed and immersed in 2 types of mouthwashes; Claradone (non-fluoridated) and Silver Care (fluoridated) for 28 days at 37°C, then the released Ni and Cr ionswere measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and compared statistically. Results: Ni ion release was higher from NiTi wire group than SS wire group for both mouthwashes and also was higher for Silver Care group than for Claradone group. While for Cr ion was higher for Silver Care group than for Claradone group, with significant differences for all the groups. Conclusion: Claradone non-fluoridated mouthwash cause less release of Ni and Cr ions release from the orthodontic appliance samples than Silver Care fluoridated mouthwash

Keywords

corrosion --- mouthwash --- Ni --- Cr


Article
Quantitative assessment of Mutans Streptococci adhesion to coated and uncoated orthodontic archwires (In vitro study)

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Background: The development of orthodontic biomaterials that attract less biofilm has been a goal for decades. Adhesion and colonization of cariogenic streptococci are considered to play key roles in the development of enamel demineralization related to orthodontic materials. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the Mutans streptococci adhesion to coated orthodontic archwires (Epoxy and Teflon) and uncoated archwires (stainless steel and nickel-titanium) with respect to incubation time in the presence and absence of saliva. Material and Method: Six types of archwires stainless steel and nickel titanium with two type of coating (Epoxy, Teflon) were used in this study. Twelve specimens of each archwire were incubated in sterilized unstimulated whole saliva (for the study group) and phosphate-buffered saline (for control group) for 2 hours, then incubated with suspension of Mutans streptococci allowed to adhere for (5,90,180 minutes). Adhesion was quantitated by a microbial culture technique by treating the archwires with adhering bacteria with trypsin and enumerating the colony forming unit (CFU) counts of bacteria recovered after cultivation by using Dentocult SM kit. Results: There was significant difference among the tested archwire types in each time interval with the highest bacterial adhesion on the NiTi archwires in the absence of saliva. In the presence of saliva, the results revealed nonsignificant difference at 5 min. while there was significant difference at 90 min and highly significant difference at 180 min. Conclusion: The adherence of Mutans streptococci was decreased in the presence of saliva on different archwires and the extended incubation time was significantly related to increase colony forming unit of Mutans Streptococci


Article
Cephalometric evaluation of a sample of Iraqi adults with normal occlusion using tetragon analysis

Authors: Ammar Sh. Ahmed
Pages: 163-166
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Background: This study aimed to determine the cephalometric values of tetragon analysis on a sample of Iraqi adults with normal occlusion. Material and methods: Forty digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs belong to 20 males and 20 females having normal dental relation were analyzed using AutoCAD program 2009. Descriptive statistics and sample comparison with Fastlicht norms were obtained. Results: The results showed that maxillary and mandibular incisors were more proclined and the maxillary/mandibular planes angle was lower in Iraqi sample than Caucasian sample. Conclusion: It's recommended to use result from this study when using tetragon analysis for Iraqis to get more accurate result.


Article
The relation among ramal width and length with some cervical and cranio-facial measurements in different skeletal classes

Authors: Esraa S. Jassim
Pages: 167-174
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Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the relation among the ramal length and width with various cervical and cranio-facial measurements for a sample of Iraqi adults with different skeletal classes. Materials and method: The sample composed of 71 Iraqi adults (36 females and 35 males) with an age ranged between 17-30 years and had different skeletal mal-relations using SNA, SNB and ANB to differentiate between them and assorting them into CL.I, CL.II and CL.III mal-relation. Each individual was subjected to clinical examination and digital true lateral cephalometric radiograph that had been analyzed using AutoCAD 2007 software computer program to determine sixteen linear and ten angular measurements. Descriptive statistics were obtained and independent samples t-test was performed to evaluate the gender differences in different classes. ANOVA test as used to compare the measurements among the skeletal classes in each gender, while Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was used to determine the relations among ramal length and width with other measurements in all classes. Results and Conclusions: All of the linear measurements were significantly higher in males than females. On the other hand, the angular measurements showed non-significant gender difference except for SN-PP angle in class II group. ANOVA test showed statistically significant difference in upper gonial angle, Y-axis angle and the mandibular length. Ramal length and width correlated significantly with PFH, SN-MP angle and Co-Gn.


Article
In vivo plaque count of Streptococcus Mutans around orthodontic brackets bonded with two different adhesives

Authors: Munad J. Al-Duliamy
Pages: 175-179
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Background: The prevention of the enamel demineralization at the periphery of the brackets is a significant challenge to orthodontic professionals. The aim of this clinical study was to compare the Streptococcus mutants count in the plaque surrounding two orthodontic adhesive types, Fuji Ortho LC and Enlight (Ormco). Materials and methods: A total of 13 patients (7 males and 6 females) needing fixed orthodontic appliance therapy were participated. A split mouth technique was followed with appliances bonded by two orthodontic adhesive types, Fuji Ortho LC and Enlight (Ormco). Saliva was collected before placement of appliances (T0) and again at three weeks (T1) and six weeks (T2) after placement of appliances. Plaque was collected from areas adjacent to brackets and buccal tubes at three weeks (T1) and six weeks (T2) after placement of appliances. The numbers (colony-forming units) of Streptococcus mutans were determined with the side-specific modified Strip-Mutans. Results: No significant modification in the number of Streptococcus mutans CFU in saliva was observed at both time intervals (T1) and (T2) after placement of appliances. The number of Streptococcus mutans CFU in plaque at both time intervals (T1) and (T2) was statistically lower in sites adjacent to Fuji Ortho LC than in those adjacent to Enlight (Ormco) adhesive. Conclusion: plaque surround brackets and tubes bonded with Fuji Ortho LC adhesive harbor less Streptococcus mutans and this will aid in prevention of enamel demineralization


Article
Mesio-distal crown dimension of permanent dentition in normal, crowding, and spacing of young adult sample aged 18-25 years

Authors: Nawar A. Gburi --- Dhiaa J. Al-Dabagh
Pages: 180-186
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Background: This study aimed to assess the effect of tooth width in malocclusion in relation to normal, crowding, and spacing dentition. Materials and methods: The sample included dental casts of some dental students and orthodontic patients; their age was (18-25) years and having three groups normal, crowding, and spacing dentition groups. The sample was equally divided to three groups normal, crowding, and spacing dentition groups, each group contained 50 maxillary and 50 mandibular casts that were further subdivided by gender; all the stone casts were measured by highly sensitive digital vernier. Results and Conclusions: Non-significant side difference was found in both dental arches in the three studied groups. Males had higher mesiodistal crown dimension than females in all three groups, with significant gender difference in crowding and normal dentition groups. The mesiodistal distance of the segment measurements (Total Anterior material; Total Posterior material and Total teeth material) were larger in crowded dentition then followed by normal and spaced dentition groups respectively in both gender. Total Anterior material in both arches had direct significant correlation with crowding malocclusion, while maxillary Total Anterior material had indirect significant correlation with spacing malocclusion

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