Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2015 volume:27 issue:1

Article
The influence of cavity design for cusp coverage on fracture strength of weakened maxillary first premolars using two esthetic restorative systems (CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic and nanohybrid composite) (An in vitro study)

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Background: Maxillary first premolar with wide MOD cavity more susceptible to fracture. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cavity design for cusp coverage on the fracture resistance of weakened maxillary first premolar restored with CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic versus nanohybide composite. Materials and Methods: Fifty six intact maxillary first premolars of approximately comparable sizes were divided into seven groups eight for each: Group A: Intact teeth (control group); Group B: teeth prepared for MOD inlay; Group C: teeth prepared for MOD onlay covering the lingual cusp; Group D: teeth prepared for MOD covering buccal and lingual cusps ,the previous three groups indirectly restored with nanohybrid composite (3M ESPE Z 250 XT); Group E,F,G prepared with the same design as group B, C, D respectively and restored with CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic (VITA ENAMIC). Results: An axial compression test was used to measure the fracture strength of experimented teeth. The readings were analyzed statistically by t-test, one way ANOVA and LSD, then the mode of fracture had been examined. The results showed that sound teeth in group (A) had more fracture resistance values than all experimental groups and the difference were highly significant with group (B, E, F, G).When the influence of cavity design tested among composite groups it showed highly significant difference between group (B) and (C)and the highest fracture resistance value was for group(C), whereas the influence of cavity design among Enamic groups showed highly significant difference between group (E) and (G) the highest fracture resistance value was for group(E).T-test between similar designs showed non-significant difference between MOD groups and highly difference between other groups. Conclusions: Cusp coverage increased the fracture resistance of composite groups but result in non-restorable fracture, while Enamic total onlay presented promising fracture resistance with favorable mode of fracture


Article
The influence of shifting the class I cavity position prepared in posterior teeth buccally and lingualy on stress distribution (Finite element analysis study)

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Background: Rehabilitation of the carious tooth to establish tooth structure integrity required cavity design that show a benign stress distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the cavity position on the stress values in the reamining tooth structure restored with amalgam or resin composite. Materials and methods: Seven 2-D models of maxillary first premolar include class I cavity design was prepared, one sound tooth (A) 3 composite (B1, B2, and B3) and 3 amalgam (C1, C2, and C3). In design (BI and C1) the cavity position is in the mid distance between bacc-lingual cusp tip, design (B2 and C2) and (B3 and C3) shifted toward the buccal cusp and the lingual cusp for 0.5 mm respectively. One hundred N vertical load was applied and stress analysis was applied using Ansys v14 software. Results: The maximum Von Mises stress 585.35 MPa in the sound tooth and (899,46, 690.46, and 941.47) in central, buccal, and lingual cavities position filled with a composite restoration respectively. Whereas, the highest stress (1540.37 MPa), (1233.09 MPa) and (1214.34 MPa) appears with a central, buccal and lingual cavities filled with amalgam respectively. Conclusion: Reestablishment of the stress level of maxillary premolars subjected to class I cavity preparations are cavity bacc-lingual position and restorative-system-dependent


Article
Biomechanical evaluation of porous titanium implants (CpTi) fabricated by powder technology

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Background: It may be an important prospective clinical use of manufacturing of porous implant for clinical situations, such as cases of limitation in bone height, low bone density .The small segment of porous implant an effective osseointegration allows increasing in contact area provided for small segmented porous provided by its surface configuration. This study was done to Fabricate porous titanium implants by powder technology, as well as the observation of removal torque values of porous titanium implants compared to smooth titanium implants. Materials and methods: Twenty porous titanium implants (3.2mm in diameter and 8mm in length) were manufactured by powder technology using commercially pure titanium powder of ≤75um particles size, with polyvinyl alcohol powder of 212-300um particle size, as a space holder, by volume ratio (70:30) % respectively. The mixed powder was compacted using punch and die set -specially designed for this study –under 20 bar then sintering at 900 ºC by the use of argon gas. Twenty smooth titanium implants were prepared of (3.2mm in diameter and 8mm in length) by lathing of commercially pure titanium rod as a control group. The implants were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), as well as estimation of porosity percentage. For each tibia of the 20 white New Zealand rabbits, one implant of each type (one porous in right, and the smooth in left tibia), were inserted through surgical procedure carried under serial condition. Mechanical test was performed to evaluate the boneimplant interface, after (2 and 6 weeks) healing periods . Results: Porous implants were obtained successfully by powder technology with 52% porosity and pore size 210um 17±. The porous implant showed significantly higher removal torque values when compared to smooth implants at the two different intervals of examination (2,6 weeks) , this proved to be statistically highly significant, also a highly significant difference was noticed for the means of the torque removal values in the same group at different implantation , with no evidence of clinical features of inflammatory reaction with both . Conclusions: Powder technology seemed to be particularly advantageous in fabrication of porous titanium. Porous implant show an increasing bone ingrowth compared with the smooth type represented by higher removal torque for both healing periods (2, 6) weeks


Article
Histological and histomorphometric analysis of strontium chloride coated commercially pure titanium implant compare with hydroxyapatite coating

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Background: In recent years, the immediate loading of dental implants has become more accepted as a standard protocol for the treatment of the edentulous area. Success in implant dentistry depends on several parameters that may improve phenomenon of osseointegration and new bone formation in close contact with the implant. The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of strontium chloride coating of screw shape commercially pure titanium dental implant osseointegration at bone - implant interface by histomorphometric analysis and compare with hydroxyapatite coating at 2 time periods (2 weeks and 6 weeks). Materials and methods: Electrophoretic Deposition Technique (EPD) was used to obtain a uniform coating layer on commercially pure titanium screws. The tibia of 4 white New Zealand rabbits was chosen as implantation sites. Each tibia of rabbit received two screws, one strontium chloride coated and one hydroxyapatite coated and a total 30 histological sections were obtained for each coating material in each period of time. Histomorphometric analysis was performed to measure new bone formed ratio between implant and original bone, after 2 and 6 weeks healing periods. Results: There was increased in new bone formation ratio for the strontium chloride coated implants than hydroxyapatite coated implants and over the two periods of time. There was an increase in the new bone formation ratio at bone-implant interface with time. Conclusion: Coating commercially pure titanium implant with strontium chloride was more efficient in increasing osseointegration at bone implant interface than hydroxyapatite , which was demonstrated by higher new bone formation and maturation at the two periods of time 2 weeks and 6 weeks after implantation


Article
The effect of addition nano particle ZrO2 on some properties of autoclave processed heat cure acrylic denture base material

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Background: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is used in denture fabrication and considered as the most reliable material for the construction of removable prosthodontic appliances. The material is far from ideal in fulfilling the mechanical requirements and the effect of autoclave processing has not been fully determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of salinized (ZrO2) Nano fillers in percentages 3%, 5% and 7% by weight on some properties of heat cured acrylic processed the by autoclave and compare it with 0% (control) group . Materials and methods: The silanized(ZrO2) Nano-particles was added to PMMA powder by weight in three different percentages 3%, 5% and 7%, mixed by probe ultra-sonication machine.Two hundred specimens were constructed and processed by autoclave and divided into 5 groups according to the test (each group consist of 40 specimens ) and each group was subdivided into 4 sub-groups according to the percentage of added (ZrO2) nano-particles( with 10 specimens for each subgroups) . The tests conducted were transverse strength, hardness (shore D), Impact strength test, surface morphology and apparent porosity. AFM can provide 3D image of the specimen the homogeneity of nanostructure film, roughness of surface and crystallite size. Scanning electron microscope SEM of control and salinized Nano ZrO2 reveal the Nano fillers distribution and it is shaped. Results: Highly significant increase in impact strength recorded when acrylic (vertex) mixed with 3%, 5% ZrO2 nano filler, while a non-significant reduction was observed with 7% ZrO2 addition in comparison to control. Non-significant improvement in transverse strength when 3% ZrO2 was added, 5% nano addition ZrO2 improved transverse strength significantly while 7% nano addition showed anon significant reduce when these groups compared to the control group .Anon significant reduction in the deformity was seen within 3% nano addition ZrO2 also 5% nano ZrO2 addition reduce the deformity significantly and significant increase was recorded when 7% nano addition ZrO2 was add and when these groups are compared to the control group. A significant increase in surface hardness was observed with the addition of (ZrO2) nano-particles to (PMMA) at the percentage of 3%, highly significant increase at 5% and 7% with addition of modified nano-ZrO2. A non-significant decrease in apparent porosity at 3% and highly significant decrease in apparent porosity at 5% and 7% with addition of modified nano-ZrO2 were observed. SEM results showed a good distribution of the modified nano-ZrO2 fillers at 3%, 5% and showed aggregation at 7% in the polymer matrix. Conclusion: The addition of modified nano-ZrO2 particles to acrylic resin cured by autoclave improved impact and transverse strength of denture base nano composite containing 5% of nano-ZrO2. And this strength decreases with further increase of nano-ZrO2 filler content. Also addition of modified nano-ZrO2 slightly increaseshardness, thesurface roughness and the apparent porosity also decrease by addition of nano ZrO2 percentage increase


Article
The effect of the addition of silanated poly propylene fiber to polymethylmethacrylate denture base material on some of its mechanical properties

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Background: Poly propylene fibers with and without silane treatment have been used to reinforce heat cure denture base acrylic but, some mechanical properties like transverse strength, impact strength, tensile strength, hardness, wear resistance and wettability. Which are related to the clinical use of the prosthesis are not evaluated yet. The aim of the study is to identify the influence of incorporation of treated and untreated fibers on these properties Materials and methods: Eighty four heat cure acrylic specimens were constructed by conventional flasking technique. They were divided into six groups according to the tests and each group was subdivided into two subgroups control and experimental groups (seven samples for each subgroup).Transversestrength and Tensile strength test were performed using Instron universal testing machine. The impact strength test was evaluated by the use of Impact testing device. Wear resistance was evaluated by pin on disk wear measurement method while, a digital microscope supplied with high resolution camera was utilized to measure the contact angle reflecting wettability grade. Descriptive statistics and independent t test were used for statistical significance. Results:The results revealed that the addition of Silanated polypropylene fibers produced significant difference in transverse strength and highly significant difference in tensile strength, the impact strength,Wettability value compared with the control group also the results showed that the hardness test was not significant and different control group . Wear resistance was highly significant decreased in experimental groups Conclusion: Incorporation of silanated treated Poly propylene fibers to heat cure Poly methyl methacrylate resin was beneficial regarding the tested properties to improve the mechanical properties of the resin


Article
Antibacterial effects of mineral trioxide aggregate and Biodentine TM after the addition of different concentrations of black seed aqueous solutions

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Background: Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and BiodentineTM cements are new materials with numerous exciting clinical applications. Both have appreciable properties which include good physical properties and the ability to stimulate tissue regeneration as well as good antibacterial effects. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the antibacterial effects of MTA and BiodentineTM, when they were mixed with different concentrations of aqueous solutions of Black Seed extract, against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and methods: MTA and BiodentineTMwere prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The method of Mawlood was followed to prepare the Black Seed aqueous solution. Agar diffusion method on Brain Heart Infusion agar was employed.Twenty, 9 cm diameter, petri-plates with 25 ml of Muller Hinton agar media were prepared. A sterile spreader was used to inoculate the microorganisms. With a micropipette 0.1 ml of the Enterococcus faecalis suspension was added to the surface of the plates. Within 15 minutes, after inoculation of the plates, 4 cavities, each one measuring 5 mm in diameter and 4 mm in depth, were made in each agar plate. A total of 20 agar plates were divided into 2 groups consisted of 10 plates each; Group A: each plate contained 4 wells filled with MTA alone and MTA mixed with 10%, 30% and 50% of Black Seed aqueous solutions respectively.Group B: each plate contained 4 wells filled with BiodentineTMalone and BiodentineTMmixed with 10%, 30% and 50% of Black Seed aqueous solutionsrespectively. Next day after incubation, the agar plates were examined for bacterial inhibition zones. With a scientific ruler the diameter of the antibacterial inhibition zones were measured. The data were recorded and statistically analyzed, by the ANOVA and the Student's t-test. Results: Both cements had antibacterial effects, which were increased with the addition of the aqueous solutions of Black Seed extract. The increase in the diameter of Enterococcus faecalis inhibition zones was directly proportional with the increase in the concentration of the added Black Seed aqueous extract. Conclusion: Adding aqueous solutions of Black Seed extract to both MTA and Biodentine™ increased their potential to inhibit the growth of Enterococcus faecalis


Article
An evaluation of the influence of different finishing lines on the fracture strength of full contour zirconia CAD/CAM and heat press all-ceramic crowns

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Background: One of the major problems of all ceramic restorations is their probable fracture against the occlusal forces. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two gingival finishing lines (90°shoulder and deep chamfer) on the fracture resistance of full contour CAD/CAM and heat press all-ceramic crowns. Materials and Methods: Thirty two maxillary first premolars were prepared to receive full contour CAD/CAM (zolid) and heat press (Cergo Kiss) ceramic crowns using a special paralleling device (Parallel-A-Prep). The teeth were divided into four groups according to the type of finishing line prepared. Each crown was cemented to its corresponding tooth using self-etch, self-adhesive dual cure resin cement. Following storage for 1 week in distilled water at room temperature, teeth were subjected to thermal cycling. Fracture resistance was determined using a universal testing machine, and the samples were investigated microscopically from the point of view of the origin of the failure. Statistical analysis was carried out using the one-way ANOVA and Student’s t-tests. Results: The mean values of fracture resistance for CAD/CAM group showed 1367.250+178.967 N for 90°shoulder margins and 1109.250+252.455 N for the deep chamfer margins. ANOVA test results revealed high significance between and within the groups. The mean values of fracture resistance for heat press group were 548.562+272.471 N for 90°shoulder margins and 247.912+96.995 N for the deep chamfer margins expressing statistical significance. Conclusions: The results of this study pointed to a relationship between the design of the cervical finishing line and the fracture strength of the full CAD/CAM crowns and the full heat press ceramic crowns. Both 90° shoulder and deep chamfer finishing lines are suitable for zolid crowns while the 90° shoulder is more suitable for the Cergo Kiss crowns than the deep chamfer preparation


Article
The effect of incorporation of prepared Ag-Zn Zeolite on some properties of heat polymerized acrylic denture base materials

Authors: Zainab A. Azeez --- Nabeel A.Fatah
Pages: 63-69
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Background: Poly (methylmethacrylate) is the most widely used material in denture fabrication. The characteristics of acrylic resin which support microorganism development can threaten the oral health of denture users. This study was assigned to prepareand incorporate Ag-Zn zeolite powder into heat cured denture base material as antimicrobial material and to investigate its effect on some properties of heat cured acrylic denture base materials. Materials and methods: Sliver –zinc zeolite was prepared by ion exchange method and characterized then incorporated into poly (methylmethacrylate) powder in0.5% by weight. Specimens were constructed and divided into 6 groups according to the using tests; each group was subdivided into 2 groups. The tests conducted in this study were: impact strength test, transverse strength test, surface hardness test, surface roughness test, water sorption test, water solubility test and color change measurement after addition. The results were statistically analyzed by t-test at p value≤ 0.05. Results: Characterization methods results showed the incorporation of sliver and zinc ion without change of zeolite structure framework. A non-significant effect resulted from the addition of 0.5% sliver –zinc zeolite on the impact strength, transverse strength, surface hardness, surface roughness and cause no change in color of heat cure denture base. Also a highly significant decrease in water sorption and a significant increase of water solubility were observed. Conclusion: Preparation of sliver-zinc zeolite could be performed successfully and the addition of 0.5% of antimicrobial sliver-zinc zeolite into heat cure acrylic had a non significant effect on the impact strength, transverse strength, surface hardness, surface roughness and did not change the color, also there was a significant decrease in water sorption and increase in water solubility of acrylic resin


Article
Effect of sodium fluoride addition as a disinfectant on some properties of alginate impression material

Authors: Alaa M. Hussian --- Raghdaa K. Jassim
Pages: 70-76
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Background: Impression materials, impression trays, and poured stone cast have been said to be the main source of cross infection between patients and dentists. However, it was observed that disinfection of the impression is not performed systematically in routine dental practice. Disinfection of alginates either by immersion or spray technique was found to cause dimensional inaccuracies, although with proper disinfection of alginates there were small dimensional changes. A variety of fluoride releasing products designed for topical use is currently available. Following their use, varied amount of fluoride is systemically absorbed depending on the fluoride concentration and the manner of its use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition (0%, 0.25%,0.5%,1%, 2%, 3%, 4% ) of (NaF) as a self-disinfection to alginate impression material powder and its effect on setting time, tear strength, dimensional change and accuracy of alginate impression materials. Materials and methods: A total No. of (700) specimen were used in this study.These specimens were divided into (5) main groups according to the tests used. Each of the four main groups contain (70) specimen divided into 7 subgroups (ten specimens to be tested for each (7)concentrations which is composed of six percentages of NaFwith alginate powder (0.25%,0.5%,1%, 2%, 3%, 4% )and one for control (0% NaF) , while the fifth group (Microbiological test) contain 420 specimen were divided between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans as (120) specimen for each one that was subdivided into three subgroups (specimens taken before impression casting, specimensafter pouring of alginate with stone andspecimens of stone were taken from the casts) in which it contain the same subgroups of the other concentrationsof (NaF) to test its efficacy against (Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans). Results: Tear strength for all experimental impression materials was greater than those of the control products. There were no statistically significant differences between the dimensional change tests and also reproduction of detail test.With regard to setting time of the impressions, statisticallyreduction were seen between the control and experimental groups of alginate impression materials that contain (NaF). Self-disinfection of alginate impression material containing NaF showed a significant reduction in the count of cell forming unit of microorganisms immediately after impressions were made. Conclusion: In cooperation of specific concentrations of (NaF) as a disinfectant in alginate dental impression produced a significant reduction of contamination, also they caused non-significant effect on dimensional stability, detail reproduction and significant increase in tear strength. Therefore it is recommended as step in preventing cross contamination.


Article
Evaluation of shear bond strength of zirconia to tooth structure after different zirconia surface treatment techniques

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Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of zirconia different surface treatments (primer, sandblast with 50μmAl2O3, Er,Cr:YSGG laser) on shear bond strength between zirconia surface and resin cement. Material and methods: Sixty presintered Y-TZP zirconia cylinder specimens (IPS e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar vivadent) will be fabricated and sintered in high temperature furnace of (1500 C for 8 hours) according to manufacturer’s instructions to the selected size and shape of (5mm. in diameter and 6mm in height). All specimens were ground flat using 600.800.1000.1200, aluminum oxide abrasive paper to obtain a standardized surface roughness. Surface roughness values were then recorded in μm using surface roughness tester (profilometer) to obtain a standardized data base line for all samples. The specimens were then randomly divided into three main groups (n=20); group A: no surface treatment (control group), group B: specimens in this group treated with 50μm Al2O3 and group C: specimens in this group treated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Sixty sound human premolars were used in this study, after construction of acrylic blocks, the occlusal surface of the teeth were ground flat, with diamond cutting disk to obtain a flat dentine surface . Prior to cementation of zirconia cylinders to tooth specimens subgroups (A1,B1,C1) will receive a coat of metal/zirconia primer and left to react for three minutes, while the subgroups (A2,B2,C2) were left undisturbed. Bonding surface of zirconia cylinder was then luted with SpeedCEM self adhesive resin cement under a static load of 2Kg. placed on the vertical arm of the surveyor and allowed to auto cure for 4minutes.The final cemented specimens were then stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24hours. All specimens were subjected to shear loading force in a universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 1mm/min. The shear bond strength values were analyzed statistically with one-way ANOVA; the fractured surfaces of zirconia cylinders were examined with a stereo-microscope to observe the failure mode. Results: The air borne-particle of 50μm followed by primer application showed significantly the higher bond strength than other groups. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, the results showed that sandblasting the bonding surface of zirconium cylinders with 50μmAl2O3 produced the highest values of shear bond strength , also the use of primer enhanced shear bond strength as well


Article
The effect of the addition of silanized Nano titania fillers on some physical and mechanical properties of heat cured acrylic denture base materials

Authors: Sama A. Alwan --- Shatha S. Alameer
Pages: 86-91
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Background: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most commonly used material in denture fabrication. The material is far from ideal in fulfilling the mechanical requirement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of 3% wt of treated (silanized) Titanium oxide Nano filler on some physical and mechanical properties of heat cured acrylic denture base material. Materials and methods: 100 specimens were constructed, 50 specimens were prepared from heat cure PMMA without additives (control) and 50 specimens were prepared from heat cure PMMA with the addition of TiO2 Nano fillers. Each group was divided into 5 sub groups according to the test performed which was mixed by probe ultrasonication machine. Results: A highly significant increase in impact strength and transverse strength was observed with the addition of (TiO2) Nano particles to (PMMA). A significant increase in surface hardness and in surface roughness. The water sorption and solubility were significantly decreased when compared with the control group. Conclusions: The addition of TiO2 Nano particles to heat cure acrylic resin improve the impact strength, transverse strength and surface hardness of heat cure acrylic resin at the same time this addition decrease water sorption and solubility. On the other hand there was an increase in surface roughness with the addition of 3% wt of silanized TiO2 Nano particles

Keywords

NanoTiO2 --- TMSPM --- PMMA


Article
Effect of different palatal vault shapes and woven glass fiber reinforcement on dimensional stability of high impact acrylic denture base [part II]

Authors: Shnay M. Atiyah --- Thekra I. Hamad
Pages: 92-95
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Background: Change in palatal vault shape and Reinforcement of high impact acrylic denture base resin may in turn affect the dimensional accuracy of acrylic resin and affecting the fitness of the denture. The aim of study is to evaluate the effect of fiber reinforcement for high-impact acrylic resin denture base with different palatal vault shapes on linear dimensional change and effect of palatal vault shapes on linear dimensional changes of nonreinforced and fiber reinforced high impact denture base acrylic resin Material and method: Three different palatal vault shapes were prepared on standard casts using CNC (computer numerical control) machine. 60 samples of heat polymerized high impact acrylic resin maxillary denture base were fabricated onto each definitive cast according to manufacturer instruction. Samples divided into three main experimental groups represented the three different palatal vault shapes (20 samples for each main group); 1st rounded 2nd U-shaped and the 3rd groups V-shaped. Each main group divided into two subgroups (10 samples for each subgroup) representing non fiber reinforced high impact acrylic group as a control and the fiber reinforced high impact acrylic. The measurements of linear dimensional changes of denture bases done at two stages, 1st 24 hour after polymerization and 2nd measurement done after one month storage in distilled water at room temperature. Results and conclusion: Linear dimensional changes of high impact acrylic denture base not affected by glass fiber reinforcement p-value in all reference lines ≥ 0.05, while topographical change in maxillary vault shapes effects on the linear dimensional changes in woven glass fiber reinforced high impact acrylic denture base p-value < 0.05


Article
The effect of incorporating carbon nanotubes on impact, transverse strength, hardness, and roughness to high impact denture base material

Authors: Wsamaa S. Mahmood
Pages: 96-99
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Background: One of the most common complications of dentures is its ability to fracture, so the aim of this study was to reinforce the high impact denture base with carbon nanotubes in different concentrations to improve the mechanical and physical properties of the denture base. Materials and methods: Three concentrations of carbon nanotubes was used 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% in a pilot study to see the best values regarding transverse strength, impact, hardness and roughness test, 1 wt% was the best concentration, so new samples for control group and 1wt% carbon nanotubes and the previous tests were of course repeated. Results: There was a significant increase in impact strength and transverse strength when we add carbon nanotubes in 1wt%, compared to control group where as hardness decrease when adding carbon nanotubes. Conclusion: the addition of carbon nanotubes improves the physical and mechanical properties


Article
In vivo histological evaluation of the effect of the topical application of estrogen hormone on wounds healing in ovariectomized rabbits

Authors: Bayan Jaber Al-Kadhimy --- Ban A. Ghani
Pages: 100-104
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Background: Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Growth factors released in the traumatized area promote cell migration into the wound area (chemotaxis), stimulate the growth of epithelial cells and fibroblasts (mitogenesis), initiate the formulation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and stimulate matrix formation and remodeling of the affected region. One of factors that effects on wound healing is a sex hormones and one of these hormones is an estrogen hormone. A wide range of cutaneous cell types (eg, fibroblast, endothelial, epithelial, and inflammatory) expressed estrogen receptors, indicating potential estrogen responsiveness. Materials and methods: Thirty two female New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. All animals were ovariectomized, and incisional wounds were done on the right (experimental for estrogen hormone application) and left (control) sides of face for each animal, the control side was left to heal normally. Histological assessment regarding the count of inflammatory cells was performed for healing intervals (3, 7, 10, 14 days). Results: Topical estrogen hormone application revealed enhancement of wound healing by reducing wound size and stimulating matrix deposition in comparison to control. Conclusion: Topical estrogen cream application results in significant progress of cutaneous wound healing, leaving no scar or crust formation and can minimize the probable wound complications


Article
Analysis of inflammatory cells in osseointegration of CpTi implant radiated by low level laser therapy

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Background: Dental implants provide a unique treatment modality for the replacement of a lost dentition .This is accomplished by the insertion of relatively an inert material (a biomaterial) into the soft and hard tissue of the jaws, there by providing support and retention for dental prostheses. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is an effective tool used to prompt bone repair and remodeling, this has referred to the biostimulation effect of LLLT. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of inflammatory cells on osseointegration of CpTi implant irradiated by low level laser. Materials and Methods: thirty two adult New Zealand white rabbits, received titanium implants were inserted in the tibia. The right side is considered as experimental groups and the left side considered as control groups. Low power diode laser (GaAlAs ) with wave length (904nm) and (5mW)power applicated with the right implants . The sample divided into four groups, eight rabbits were sacrificed at four interval 4days, 1 weeks, 2weeks, and 6weeks respectively. Histological and inflammatory analyses were done for each interval. Results: Histological examination showed acceleration of bone formation and more rapid healing process in the screw implant with laser irradiation than in the control implant .inflammatory analysis showed dramatic decrease with the presence of laser irradiation especially with advancing time. Conclusion: This study illustrated that the inflammatory cells were reduced in osseointegration of dental implant treated with LLLT.


Article
Evaluation the effect of hyaluronic acid on bone healing process in rabbits (Immunohistochemical study for TGF-β)

Authors: Ibtihal H. Radhi --- Nada M. Al-Ghaban
Pages: 111-116
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Background: Bone augmentation techniques are commonly employed in medical fields. This biomaterial system must be readily available, easily applicable by minimally-invasive technique and able to release an osteoinductive growth factor. Such a system will be able to engineer new bone formation locally at the site of injection. Hyaluronic acid has osteogenic potential that can be exploited not only for repairing bone defects but also for providing transplantable bone for the reconstruction of a variety of bone defects. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of Hyaluronic acid gel on bone healing by immunohistochemical estimation of transforming growth factor - beta 3 in experimental and control groups. Materials and methods: Thirty two New Zealand male rabbits were used in this study .Two Intra bony holes were made for each rabbits on the right and left buccal side of the upper diastema. The right hole was filled with Hyaluronic acid gel (experimental one), while the left hole was left for normal healing (control one). The rabbits were randomly divided and sacrificed at 1, 2, 3 and 6 weeks post operatively. Immunohistochemical test for the expression of TGF-β3 were performed on bone specimens of both control and experimental groups at all healing interval. Results: Immunohistochemical examination of this study revealed that the hyaluronic acid treatment increased the positive expression of TGF-β3by osteoblasts, osteocytes and bone marrow stromal cells especially in 1 and 2 weeks intervals than that observed in control one. Conclusions: The present study illustrated that the Hyaluronic acid was osteoconductive material that enhance osteogenesis and accelerated the bone healing process


Article
Assessment of tongue space area in a sample of Iraqi adults with class I dental and skeletal pattern

Authors: Mohammed A. Kadhum
Pages: 117-120
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Background: Lateral cephalometric radiography is commonly used as a standard tool in orthodontic assessment and treatment planning. This study aimed to determine the tongue and surrounding space area in a sample of Iraqi adults with class I dental and skeletal pattern. Materials and methods: The study included thirty healthy subjects (15 males and 15 females) with an age ranged between 23-34 years and class I dental and skeletal pattern with no history of any sleep related disorders. The assessed cephalometric measurement included length and height of the tongue and position of hyoid bone from cervical line. Descriptive statistics were obtained for the data. Genders difference was evaluated by independent sample t-test. Results: There were significantly higher values in males as compared to females in most of the measurements. Conclusions: The study provides preliminary details of tongue space area assessment in normal class I profile subjects


Article
Immunohistochemical assessment of tumor suppressor geneWwox in relation to proliferative marker KI67 proteins expression in giant cell lesions of the jaws and giant cell tumor of long bones

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Background: Peripheral giant cell lesion (PGCL) and central giant cell lesion (CGCL) of the jaws have a distinct clinical behavior.Giant cell tumour (GCT) is a benign locally aggressive neoplasm affects the long bones. Both lesions are characterized histologically by multinucleated giant cells in a background of ovoid to spindle-shaped mesenchymal cells. The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene is located at 16q23.1–16q23.2, a region that spans the second most common human fragile site, FRA16D, at 16q23.2.The Ki-67 antigen is a nuclear protein that is associated with and may be necessary for cellular proliferation.Ki-67 protein is present during all active phases of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2, and mitosis), but is absent from resting cells (G0). This study aimed to evaluate and compare immunohistochemical expression of tumor suppressor gene (WWOX) and proliferative marker (ki67) in giant cell lesions (GCLs) of the jaws and long bones. Materials and methods: Forty five retrospective paraffin embedded tissue blocks of giant cell lesions of the jaw and long bones were included in this study.Sections were stained immunohistochemically with anti WWOX and anti ki67 monoclonal antibodies. Results: Positive WWOX expression was found in 12 cases (80%), 14cases (93.3%)and12 (80%) of CGCG, PGCG and GCT studied cases respectively, with thehighest strong positive expression observed in PGCG.Positive Ki67 expression was found in 12 cases (80% ), 13cases ( 86.7 % )and10(66.7%) of CGCG,PGCG and GCT studied cases respectively with the high proliferative expression score has been recorded in PGCG .Statistically highly significant difference was found in the Ki67expression among different giant lesion types (p=0.006), whilenon-significant difference was found in WWOX expression. Non-significant correlation was found between expression of WWOXand Ki67 in CGCG, PGCG and GCT studied cases. Conclusions: Similar immunohistochemical expression of WWOX and Ki67 ingiant cell lesions of the jaw and GCT of long boneswith non-significant correlation between them in different studied lesionssuggests that those lesions may be the same disease but with different clinical behavior

Keywords

Wwox --- KI67


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of MMP9, as a marker of local invasion in Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the head and neck region

Authors: Thaer K. Ali, --- Bashar H. Abdulla --- Khitam R. Kadhim
Pages: 128-132
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Abstract

Background: Malignant lymphoma is the generic term given to tumors of the lymphoid system and specifically of lymphocytes and their precursor cells, While all lymphomas are malignant neoplasms, there is a wide spectrum of clinical behavior, with some following an indolent clinical course and others behaving in an aggressive manner (will causing death in a short time frame if left untreated). The metastatic process involves intravasation and extravasation of tumor cells, followed by reimplantation of tumor cells, formation of a new tumor stoma, Degradation of the extracellular matrix and components of the basement membrane by proteases facilitates the detachment of tumor cells, their crossing of tissue boundaries, and invasion into adjacent tissue compartments. The importance of tumor-associated proteases in invasion and metastasis has been demonstrated for a variety of solid malignant tumors. MMP family has been implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Material and methods: This study included 67 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded histopathologically diagnosed lymphoma blocks (head and neck lesions), 24 Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and 43 Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. Immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation of MMP-9 monoclonal antibodies), in relation to the clinicopathological parameters was assessed. Results: The mean of expression of MMP-9 in NHL was higher (65.4±18) than that in HL (56.7±21.4) though it did not reach the level of statistical difference P > (0.05), while the mean of expression of MMP-9 in relation to tumor grades was different as it had a value of (72±14.1) in low grade tumors, (68.3±15) in the intermediate grade tumor and (61.4±20.7) in high grade tumors; consequently, this difference did not reached the level of statistical significance P(ANOVA) >0.05 . MMP 9 had no statistical significant correlation in regard to its mean in HL subtypes. Conclusions: This study had shown that there was no significant correlation between age and mean of expression of MMP-9 in HL and NHL. There was no statistical significant difference in the mean of expression of MMP-9 between HL and NHL subtypes


Article
Effect of systemic administration of Simvastatin on dental implant stability: A random clinical study

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Abstract

Background: The primary objective for many researches carried out in dental implantology was to reduce the period needed for functional implant loading, simvastatin (cholesterol lowering medication) had many pleiotropic effects, one of which was increasing bone density around titanium implants (1) and subsequently establishing faster osseointegrated dental implants (2,3). This study aims to reduce the period of time needed to establish secondary stability of dental implant measured in ISQ (Implant Stability Quotient) by investigating the effect of orally administered simvastatin on bone. Materials and methods: Simvastatin tablets (40mg/day for three months) were administered orally for 11 healthy women aged (40-51) years old who received 15 dental implants (Dentium, Implantium) in the traumatic functional implant zone(4), this is the intervention group, the control group (n=11) received 14 dental implants in the same zone. 3 dental implants in 2 subjects were lost, leaving a total of 26 dental implants in 20 patients with 10 patients in each group. All subjects were radiographed with OPG for preliminary assessment and with CT scan for registering bone density in Hounsfield Units. Different dental implant sizes were used according to optimal patients' needs. An informed consent was obtained from the intervention group and the recommended monitoring protocol was followed. Dental implant stability ISQ were recorded using RFA by OsstellTM ISQ for both groups three times: immediately after implant placement (at surgery) and after 8,12 weeks respectively. Results: Results showed that the mean implant stability for the intervention group was significantly higher P= 0.01 after 12 weeks in comparison to that of the control group. Simvastatin showed statistically significant effect on implant stability among the intervention group after 8 and 12 weeks (P value for both times <0.001) with the attributed risk percent was 70.8 and 50 respectively. Conclusions: This study concluded that the intervention group had higher implant stability and was ready for functional loading prior to control group and that simvastatin might enhanced and/or accelerated the process of osseointegration.


Article
Assessment of some salivary enzymes levels in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis (Clinical and biochemical study)

Authors: Ghasaq A. Abdul-wahab --- Maha A. Ahmed
Pages: 138-143
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Background: Diabetic patients have been reported to be more susceptible to gingivitis and periodontitis than healthy subjects. Many intracellular enzymes like (alkaline phosphatase- (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase- (AST) and alanine aminotransferase- (ALT) that are released outside cells into the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva after destruction of periodontal tissue during periodontitis. This study was conducted to determine the periodontal health status and the levels of salivary enzymes (ALP, AST and ALT) of the study and control groups and to correlate the levels of these enzymes with clinical periodontal parameters in each study group. Subjects, Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects were enrolled in the study, with an age range of (35-50) years, only males were included. The subjects were divided intostudy groups (group-I consists of 30 patients with controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM), group-II consists of 30 patients with uncontrolled T2DM, group-III consists of 25 patients non-diabetics, all of them have chronic periodontitis(CP) and group-IV consists of 15 apparentlysystemically healthy subjects and have healthy periodontium, as control group. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected for biochemical analysis of salivary enzymes (ALP, AST and ALT).The clinical periodontal parameters including: plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded for all subjects at four sites per tooth except third molars. Results: All clinical periodontal and biochemical parameters were highest in uncontrolled T2DM with CP patients and all enzymes levels revealed highly significant differencesbetween all pairs of the study and control groups except AST enzyme level which demonstrated a non-significant difference between controlled T2 diabetics with CP and nondiabetics with CP. There were weak correlations between all clinical periodontal parameters and biochemical parameters except between PPDand ALT enzyme in non-diabetics with CP group and between CAL and AST enzyme in uncontrolled T2 diabetics with CP which demonstrated highly significant strong positive correlations. Conclusion: It was concluded that T2DM and poor glycemic control have negative impact on periodontal health status. Salivary enzymes were considered as good biochemical markers of periodontal tissue destruction and useful in diagnosis, monitoring and efficient management of periodontal diseases and T2DM


Article
Phototoxic effect of visible blue light on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in patients with chronic periodontitis (An in-vitro study)

Authors: Ali R. AbdulAzeez --- Maha S. Mahmood --- Wifaq M. Ali
Pages: 144-150
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Background: The aim of this study was to determine phototoxic effect of visible blue light on anaerobic periodontal pathogens namely Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Materials and methods: Strains of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis were isolated from pockets of systemically healthy patients aged between 35-55 years old with pocket depths of 5-6 mm, the bacteria cultured on special blood Agar plates solid media, then subjected to visible blue light emitted from commercially available light cure devise (LED curing light); that emits blue light (400-500nm) of 1000mw energy at different periods of time exposures, then the CFU of each plate was measured by direct colony count with the aid of open CFU software after 48hours of anaerobic incubation. Results: There was a decrease in CFU for both microorganisms as we proceeded from zero, 20, 40 and 60 seconds of blue light exposure. Conclusion: there was a phototoxic effect for the visible blue light emitted from the light curing device against the anaerobic periodontal pathogens


Article
Augmentation of the localized bony defects with synthetic bone substitute in simultaneous dental implant surgery (Clinical study)

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Background: Simultaneous and staged guided bone regeneration (GBR) is one of the several surgical techniques that have been developed in the past two decades to regenerate bone and thus to allow implant placement in compromised sites (fenestration and dehiscence). It is a surgical procedure that consists of the placement of a cell-occlusive physical barrier between the connective tissue and the alveolar bone defect. The treatment concept advocates that regeneration of osseous defects is predictably attainable via the application of occlusive membranes, which mechanically exclude non-osteogenic cell populations from the surrounding soft tissues, thereby allowing osteogenic cell populations originating from the parent bone to inhabit the osseous wound. Augmentation utilizing guided bone regeneration (GBR) has become a major treatment option to provide optimal bone to support Osseointegrated dental implants. One of the objectives of GBR is the formation of new bone at sites deficient in bone volume. Another objective is to treat fenestrations and dehiscence at implant surfaces as well as defects associated with simultaneous implant placement. GBR has allowed for placement of restorations at a more ideal location in the oral cavity, thus improving esthetics and functions. This study aimed to improve the alveolar ridge width by using of synthetic bone substitute covered by resorbable collagen membrane in simultaneous dental implants placement and to compare the ridge width at three levels (crestal, middle and apical) clinically (osteometer) and radiographically (CT) pre operatively and postoperatively. Materials and methods: This prospective study was conducted in teaching dental hospital in College of Dentistry of Baghdad University on (15) patients with (21) dental implant with insufficient bony support for simultaneous dental implants , this study extended from March 2013 to the end of December 2013. All patients were treated at the time of implantation by using a synthetic bone substitute covered by resorbable collagen membrane .All patients examined clinically by osteometer and radio graphics (CT) to assess ridge width and height and bone density. Results: Clinically and radiographically evaluation showed increasing of ridge width after 6 months of healing period at three levels: apical, middle and crestal, statistically, there were no significant differences between ridge width gain measured clinically and radio graphically and gender and age groups. In this study the success rate (95.24) % in (20) dental implant and only (1) dental implant was failed (4.76) % at age 47 years old. Conclusion: There was significant increase in ridge volume that augmented at the time of implantation to become sufficient width for support implant esthetically and functionally. This study revealed that there was no effect in gender and age on bone augmentation with synthetic bone substitute.


Article
Salivary antioxidants in relation to dental caries among a group of lead-acid batteries factory workers

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Background: Lead-acid battery workers are at higher risk for systemic diseases as well as oral diseases like dental caries. The aim of this study was to assess selected salivary antioxidants and their relation with dental caries among lead acid battery factory workers in comparison with non-exposed group. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 35 subjects aged 35-45 year-old who worked in Babylon lead acid battery factory in Baghdad city and matching group that not exposed to lead were selected as a control. Dental caries severity was recorded by using DMFS index, stimulated salivary samples were collected and analyzed for the measurement of salivary antioxidants (uric acid, total protein, catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes). Results: The antioxidants levels (uric acid, catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes) were higher among the study group than the control group with non-significant difference for uric acid, highly significant difference for catalaseenzyme and significant for glutathione peroxidaseenzymes, whereas total protein level was significantly lower among the study group than the control. Regarding dental cariesseverity, DMFS values were significantly higher among study group compared to that among control group. All the correlations between salivary antioxidants and dental carries found to be weak non-significant for both groups. Conclusions: Selected salivary antioxidants were found to have little effects dental caries of the study group, although dental caries revealed higher percentage of occurrence among lead exposed workers. Therefore, special oral health preventive and educational programs are needed for them


Article
Evaluation of the relationship between curve of Spee and dentofacial morphology in different skeletal patterns

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Background: Curve of Spee (CS) is an anteroposterior anatomical curve established by the occlusal alignment of the teeth viewed in the sagittal plane. This occlusal curvature has clinical importance in orthodontics and other fields of dentistry. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the CS and dentofacial morphology of different skeletal patterns in both genders. Materials and Methods: Eighty six Iraqi Arab subjects (44females,42 males ) their age ranged from 17 -30 years, classified into: Skeletal I with normal occlusion(15 females and 15 males), skeletal II with CI II div 1 malocclusion (15 females and 15 males) and skeletal III with CI III malocclusion (14 females and 12 males). Forty one variables measured using direct dental cast measurements , dental cast photographs and cephalometric radiographs with the aid of AutoCAD program version 15 (2006). Results: No significant differences in the CS depth between males and females or between right and left sides in both arches of different skeletal patterns. No significant differences in the maxillary CS among the 3 skeletal patterns, the mandibular CS in CI II div 1 malocclusion was larger than normal occlusion and CI III malocclusion. Maxillary CS significantly correlated to arch length, inter canine distance and inter second premolar distance in normal occlusion and overbite in Cl III malocclusion. Mandibular CS significantly correlated with overbite and overjet in Cl II div 1 and Cl III malocclusions. Conclusions: CS was not influence by sides and gender in both arches of different skeletal patterns. CS was concave in the mandibular arch with the maximum concavity at the mesio-buccal cusp tip of the mandibular first molar and convex in the maxillary arch with the maximum convexity at the buccal cusp tip of the maxillary second premolar, in different skeletal patterns


Article
The effect of inhaled corticosteroid on oral conditions among asthmatic children

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Background: Inhalation therapy has been employed as the mainstay of the treatment in chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, Patients who taking asthma medication may be at risk of many health problems including oral health .The purpose of this study was to assess the local effect of ICS on oral tissue by measuring Candida albicans count colonies in saliva among12 years old asthmatic children who were collected from AL- Zahra Center Advisory for Allergy and Asthma, and compares them with non asthmatic children of the same age and gender. Material and Methods: The total sample involved sixty children of 12 years old, thirty asthmatic children who received medium dose of ICS/day (200-400 microgram/day) for 2 years and 30 non-asthmatic children. The unstimulated saliva was collected under standard condition and then analyzed for Candida albicans colony counts assessment. Results: The mean rank of the colony counts were found to be higher among asthmatic than non- asthmatic children with statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Concerning each gender, the results illustrated that the difference for boys was statistically non significant (P>0.05), while for girls the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Concerning gender differences, data analysis showed that the mean rank of Colony counts were found to be higher among girls than boys in both groups with statistically non-significant difference (P>0.05) Conclusions: The findings of the present study showed that the asthmatic disease and ICS treatment play an important role in elevation of the candida prevalence in oral cavity


Article
Evaluation of a new orthodontic bonding system (Beauty Ortho Bond)

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Background: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new orthodontic bonding system (Beauty Ortho Bond) involving the shear bond strength in dry and wet environments, and adhesion remnant index (ARI) scores evaluation in regard to other bonding systems (Heliosit and Resilience Orthodontic Adhesives). Materials and methods: Sixty defect free extracted premolars were randomly divided into six groups of 10 teeth each, mounted in acrylic resin, three groups for a dry environment and three for a wet one. Shear bond strength test was performed with a cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min, while surfaces of enamel and bracket-adhesive-enamel surfaces were examined with stereomicroscope For ARI scores evaluation. Data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance, least significant difference, student's t-test, and Fisher exact test. Results: The mean shear bond strength showed highest values for Resilience adhesive followed by Beauty Ortho Bond and Heliosit adhesives respectively both in dry and wet environments. Interestingly, there was a non-significant difference (P<0.05) between Resilience and Beauty Ortho Bond adhesives using least significant difference at dry environment. In wet environment the Beauty Ortho Bond showed an acceptable mean shear bond strength value (6.39 Mpa) which is considered as a clinically acceptable value. Adhesive remnant index scores demonstrated a tendency towards score 1 in dry environment, and towards score 3 in wet environment, the scores also showed a non-significant difference (P<0.05) between Resilience and Beauty Ortho Bond adhesives using Fischer exact test. Conclusion: Beauty Ortho Bond is less sensitive to wet environment than Resilience and Heliosit adhesives, therefore it has an advantage during clean up, as it reduces the risk of enamel damage during debonding procedure


Article
The effect of ER: YAG laser on enamel resistance to caries during orthodontic treatment: An in vitro study

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Background: One common undesirable side effect of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is the development of incipient caries lesions around brackets, particularly in patients with poor oral hygiene. Different methods have been used to prevent demineralization; the recent effort to improve the resistance against the demineralization is by the application of lasers. Materials and method: Thirty human premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were used to test the effect of two energy level of ER-YAG laser on enamel resistance to demineralization. The brackets were bonded on the teeth and all the labial surface excluding 2 mm area gingival to the brackets were painted with acid resistance varnish. Three groups were generated. The first group was the control group (A) with no treatment was performed. In the second (group B) and third (group C) groups; teeth were irradiated by ER-YAG laser of 200, 60 mj energy respectively. All the teeth were individually subjected to acid challenge cycle for 30 days. After debonding longitudinal sections were taken and examined under stereomicroscope. The enamel demineralization evaluation was done by taking the average of three depths at the centre of the artificial lesion. Also the enamel surface was classified by an experienced investigator according to acid etch pattern. Comparisons of the average depth values of the groups were performed with ANOVA and LSD tests. The statistical significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: The results revealed that average lesion depth was significantly deeper at the control group than the laser groups, and it was significantly deeper in group (B) with 200 mj than in group (C) with 60 mj. Enamel surfaces showed deeper pits and craters than in control group. Conclusions: The decrease in artificial caries lesion depth associated with use of the two laser energy level support the ER-YAG laser as a tool to increase enamel resistance to demineralization and white spot lesion prevention

Keywords

Demineralization --- ER-YAG --- laser


Article
Salivary level of RANKL and OPG in chronic periodontitis

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Background: Periodontal diseases are initiated by microbial plaque, which accumulates in the sulcular region and induces an inflammatory response. The Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand / osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) axis is involved in the regulation of bone metabolism in periodontitis, in which an increase in receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand or a decrease in osteoprotegerin can tip the balance in favor of osteoclastogenesis and the resorption of alveolar bone that is the hallmark of periodontitis. This study was performed to investigate the role of salivary levels of RANKL and OPG in pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. Subjects and Methods: Fifty five subjects with chronic periodontitis with ages range from 24-64 years and 25 apparently healthy volunteers their ages and sexes were matched with the patients were participated in this study. Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing. Saliva samples were collected from all patients and controls. Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay was carried out for estimation the salivary level of RANKL and OPG in studied groups. Results: The present data revealed that the median salivary levels of RANKL was elevated in patient as compared with control group (P<0.001), whereas the salivary levels of OPG doesn’t show any significant differences between the study groups (p>0.05). In contrast the ratio of RANKL/OPG ratio was significantly higher in patients when compared with the ratio in control group. Furthermore, negative significant correlation was noticed between RANKL and OPG. Regarding correlation between salivary (RANKL and OPG) and clinical periodontal parameters, RANKL levels was showed significant positive correlation with each of probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. Otherwise no association between OPG levels and clinical parameters of periodontitis was found. Moreover; the ratio RANKL/OPG was showed significant positive correlation with each of gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that salivary levels of RANKL and OPG play a crucial role in pathogenesis of periodontitis, and the relative RANKL/ OPG ratio appears to be indicative of disease occurrence

Keywords

chronic periodontitis --- RANKL --- OPG

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