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Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences

مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية

ISSN: 20727798 23128186
Publisher: University of Kufa
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Bi annual scientific refereed journal published by Faculty of Agriculture - University of Kufa, date of the first issued was in 2009.

Print ISSN:2072–7798 Online ISSN:2312–8186
DOI Crossref USA: DOI:10.36077
Arab Citation & Impact Factor (Arcif 0.125)

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agr.journal@uokufa.edu.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:6 issue:3

Article
Effect of pinching and spraying with Gibberellic acid and Zinc on growth vegetative and flowering and root of plant Geranium Pelargonium hortorum L.
تأثير قرط القمة النامية والرش بحامض الجبرليك والخارصين في بعض صفات النمو الخضري والزهري والجذري لنبات الجيرانيوم Pelargonium hortorum L.

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Abstract

The experiment was conducted at the Cloth House . college of Agriculture. Basrah University. during the growing season of 2012– 2013 Garmat Ali Campus . the objective was to study the effect of pinching . and spraying with Gibberellic acid and zinc on growth vegetative and flowering and root of plant Geranium. The experiment included 18 factorial treatments . which included the interaction of three factors. pinching (pinching and without pinching) spraying with Gibberellic acid at concentrations (0.150 and 300) mg.L-¹ and Zinc element with three concentrations (0 .30 .60) mg.L-¹ The experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment with Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replicates, each experimental unit consisted four plants. The results were analyzed by the analysis of variance and the mean values were compared using the Revised Least Significant Difference Test at 0.05 probability levels. Results showed that Pinching caused a significant increase in the total leaf number , leaf area and phosphorus percentage, while Non Pinching treatment significant increase the flowering stalk and the number of florets in the inflorescence and potassium percentage ,while there was no significant effect of the Pinching in increased number and the main root length. Spraying with GA3 at concentration of 300 mg. L-¹ caused a significant increase in leaf number, leaf area, flower stalk, nitrogen and phosphorus percentage in leaves, while spraying with Gibberellic acid at a concentration of 150 mg.L-¹ gave a significant increase in the potassium percentage in leaves, but it did not appear any significant effect of spraying with Gibberellic acid on the number of florets in the inflorescence and number and the main root length. The results showed plants treated with zinc at a concentration of 60 mg . L-¹ gave significant superiority in the leaf number, leaf area, height of the flower stalk, number of florets in inflorescences and nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium percentage in leaves . Also there was no significant effect number and the main root length. The two and three ways interactions in most treatments were significant in all studied characteristics . أجريت التجربة في الظلة القماشية التابعة لكلية الزراعة/ جامعة البصرة في موقع كرمة علي للموسم الزراعي 2012 - 2013م بهدف دراسة تأثير قرط القمة النامية والرش بحامض الجبرليك والخارصين في النمو الخضري والزهري والجذري لنبات الجيرانيوم Pelargonium hortorum L.تضمنت التجربة 18 معاملة عامليه وهي عبارة عن تداخل بين ثلاثة عوامل هي قرط القمة النامية ( بدون قرط. قرط ) والرش بحامض الجبرليك ولثلاثة تراكيز (0 . 150 . 300 ) ملغم.لتر-1 والرش بعنصر الخارصين ولثلاثة تراكيز ( 0 . 30 . 60 ) ملغم.لتر-1 ، إذ نفذت كتجربة عاملية Factorial experiment بتصميم القطاعات العشوائية الكاملةRandomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) بثلاث مكررات وبواقع أربعة نباتات لكل وحدة تجريبية واستخدام اختبار أقل فرق معنوي معدل لمقارنة المتوسطات على مستوى احتمالية 0.05 وأظهرت النتائج ماياتي : أدى قرط القمة النامية للنباتات إلى تحسين الكثير من صفاتها الخضرية والزهرية وكانت للتداخلات الثنائية والثلاثية بين عوامل التجربة تأثيراً معنويا ً في أغلب الصفات المدروسة.أدى قرط القمة النامية للنباتات إلى تحسين الكثير من صفاتها الخضرية والزهرية حيث حصلت زيادة معنوية في عدد أوراقها الكلية ومساحتها الورقية ونسبها المئوية من الفسفور والنتروجين , في حين تفوقت معنوياً النباتات التي لم تقرط قممها النامية في طول حاملها الزهري وعدد الزهيرات في نوراتها الزهرية ومحتوى أوراقها من البوتاسيوم ولم يظهر للقرط تأثير معنوي في عدد وطول الجذور الرئيسة. أدى رش النباتات بحامض الجبرليك بتركيز 300 ملغم.لتر-1 إلى زيادة معنوية في عدد أوراقها الكلية ومساحتها الورقية وطول حامل نوراتها الزهرية والنسبة المئوية من النتروجين والفسفور قد أدى رش النباتات بحامض الجبرليك بتركيز150ملغم.لتر-1 إلى زيادة معنوية في النسبة المئوية للبوتاسيوم في أوراقها, بينما لم يظهر للرش بحامض الجبرليك تأثير معنوي في عدد الزهيرات وعدد وطول الجذور الرئيسة. وأظهرت النباتات المعاملة بالخارصين بتركيز 60 ملغم.لتر-1 تفوقها المعنوي في عدد اوراقها ومساحتها الورقية وطول الحامل الزهري وعدد الزهيرات والنسبة المئوية من النتروجين والفسفور والبوتاسيوم . ولم يظهر للرش بالخارصين تأثير معنوي في عدد وطول الجذور الرئيسة . وكان للتداخلات الثنائية والثلاثية بين عوامل التجربة تاثيراً معنوياً في أغلب الصفات المدروسة.


Article
Assessment of some Varieties of Squash under the Desert Conditions of Basrah
تقويم بعض أصناف قرع الكوسة Squash تحت ظروف المنطقة الصحراوية في البصرة

Authors: Nawal Mahdi Hamoud
Pages: 1-17
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Abstract

The experiment was conducted in a farm at Al- Haddama area/Safwan district/ Al Zubair region/ Basrah province, during seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 to test three hybrid cultivars of summer squash (Kriti F1, Amjad F1 and Arti F1). These cultivars were compared with the local cv. Mulla Ahmed in characteristics of vegetative growth (plant height, spreading area, leaf and peduncle area, fresh and dry weights of the leaf, total chlorophyll) and yield (days from cultivation to Horticultural maturation, number of fruits/plant, mean weight of the fruit and its length, yield per plant, total productivity). In addition to the qualitative characteristics of leaves and fruits which included fat, protein, carbohydrates, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and refractive index of oil in seeds Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications was used . Means were compared through least modified differences test (L.S.D.) at aprobability levelof 0.05. Results showed a variation in the response of the cultivated cvs. due to the environmental surroundings, where Kriti F1 superiority in fresh and dry weight of leaves in the first season, the content of nitrogen, phosphor, potassium and protein percentage in leaves and fruits in the second season. In addition, the number of fruits, yield per plant, total productivity and refractive index of oil in seeds for both seasons. Amjad cv. provided the highest content of carbohydrates in leaves and highest number of fruits per plant for the first season, and highest yield per plant and total productivity for the second season, and superiority in the leaf area and fruit contents of carbohydrates for both seasons. Results also showed that the superiority of Arti F1 cv. in fresh and dry weights of leaves and the mean weight of fruit for the second season, height of plant and spreading area for both seasons. Mulla Ahmed cv. surpassed in leaves content of total chlorophyll for both seasons, and an increase in carbohydrate content in the first season, phosphor us in second season and fruits content of carbohydrates in the same season. The three cv. recorded an increase in the leaves and fruits content of potassium for both seasons as compared to the cv. Mulla Ahmed. اظهرت النتائج تفاوت الاصناف المزروعة في استجابتها للظروف البيئية المحيطة إذ تفوق الصنف كريتي في الوزنين الطري والجاف للاوراق في الموسم الاول, وفي محتوى الاوراق والثمار من عناصر النتروجين والفسفور والبوتاسيوم ونسبة البروتين في الموسم الثاني, وفي عدد الثمار وحاصل النبات الواحد والانتاجية الكلية ومعامل انكسار الزيت في البذور لكلا الموسمين . في حين اعطى الصنف أمجد اعلى محتوى من الكربوهيدرات في الاوراق واعلى عدد للثمار على النبات في الموسم الاول , وأظهر اعلى حاصل للنبات الواحد والانتاجية الكلية في الموسم الثاني , وتفوق في مساحة الورقة ومحتوى الثمار من الكربوهيدرات لكلا الموسمين . كما أشارت النتائج الى تفوق الصنف آرتي في الوزنين الطري والجاف للاوراق في وزن الثمرة في الموسم الثاني , وفي ارتفاع النبات ومساحة الافتراش لكلا الموسمين . وتفوق الصنف ملا احمد في محتوى الاوراق من الكلوروفيل الكلي لكلا الموسمين , وزيادة محتواها من الكربوهيدرات في الموسم الاول ومن الفسفور في الموسم الثاني وزيادة محتوى الثمار من الكربوهيدرات في الموسم ذاته . وسجلت الاصناف الثلاثة زيادة في محتوى الاوراق والثمار من البوتاسيوم لكلا الموسمين مقارنة بالصنف ملا احمد .

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Article
Chemical and Physical Changes for some types of Commercial Oil and Fats during Deep Frying

Authors: Munir A. Jasim --- Ali A. Sahi --- Hani S. Stephan
Pages: 21-30
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The chemical and physical changes of Al-Bint oil, Cezer and Golden Spoons fat before and during deep frying of Falafil were studied at 180 C°±5. The obtained results were summarized as follows: 1- There were significant different ( P<0.05 ) between types of oils and fat and between the number of deep frying times, there were increased in peroxide value, acid value, saponification number, refractive index and viscosity. The increase in Golden spoons fat of all above values more than Cezer oil and followed by Al-Bint oil after the fourth time . 2 - There were significant different( P< 0.05 ) between number of frying times and red color and no significant differences with yellow color, but ,did not notice the effect of oil type on the color. The stability to change color of the Tow Golden spoons fat more than Cezer oil then Al-Bint oil. 3 - A decrease in Palmitic in Al-Bint oil and in two Golden spoons fat after the fourth frying time, but it increased in Cezer oil after the fourth frying time. A decrease in stearic in Al-bint oil and Cezer after the fourth frying time, but it increased in Two Golden spoons fat after fourth frying time. The total saturation fatty acids between frying process were in Two Golden spoons fat more than Al-bint oil then Cezer oil, but its present increased in Two Golden spoons fat and decreased in Al-Bint and Cezer oils. Oleic and Llinoleic increased after the fourth frying time in Al-Bint oil, but Oleic present was lower in Cezer oil than in Al-Bint oil before frying process and it's percent decreased after the fourth frying time. Oleic and Lionleic increased in Al-Bint oil after the fourth frying time. Total unsaturated fatty acids in Al-Bint and Cezer oils increased after the fourth frying time, but they were decreased in Two Golden Spoons fat.


Article
The effect of plant spacing spraying the solution nutritious on shoot and root growth and Yield of carrot plant, Local variety Daucus carota L.

Authors: Evan Aad Abed Jabir
Pages: 30-42
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An experiment was conducted in the Collage of Agriculture Karbala University in AL- Husaina region during the growing season of 2011- 2012 to study the effect of the cultivated distances (5, 10) cm between line and the other and the plant and the other which cultivate in (8 plots) and spraying the nutrient solution SFTB 10 using four concentration (0, 1, 2, 3)gr. L-1 on the vegetative and crop growth attributes for carrot plant .The experiment design used in this study was Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replicates, means of treatments was compared using L.S.D at probability level of (0.05), The results showed :- 1- The cultivated distances has a significant effect on improvement the vegetative attributes and thus in the crop attributes. 2- The nutrient solution SFTB 10 has a clear significant effect on the vegetative growth attributes thus the crop attributes for carrot plant. 3- The interaction between the cultivate distances and the nutrient solution SFTB10 had a significant effect on all studied characters of growth and may to give a most accounts in comparison with control treatment which bent to give the little accounts except of the number of total leaves (leaf plant), the phloem thickness, the sap volume and the beta carotene.


Article
The effect of the date of cutting the plant , Planting media and IBA on some growth traits of grapes Vitis vinifera Cuttings cv .(kamali)

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A factorial experiment using Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replications and three factors ; propagation media (1:1 Loamy soil to local peatmoss and 1:1 Loamy soil to foreign peatmoss) , date of cuttings the plant (10th January and 10th February) and 3 levels of IBA (0 , 1000 , 2000 mg. L-1 ) was carried out in the Hort . station / Babyl . to find out the effect of 3 mentioned factors on Kamali grap cuttings . Results showed that 10thof January planting gave the highest means of root and shoot characters . Same trend was found in the cuttings treated with 2000 IBA . On the other hand, 98.70% rooting was achieved by the cuttings treated with 2000 mg. L-1 IBA and planted in 10th January in media contains 1:1 of loamy soil to foreign peatmoss . The three ways interaction resulted in higher means of root number , dry weight of root system , seedling length, leaf number , leaf area and shoot dry weight that reach 56 .43root ,4. .01 gm, 61.77 cm , 44.36 ,14.1.13 cm2 31.80gm ,respectively .


Article
Effect of spraying of boron on growth parameters of Ficus nitida L. transplants

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An experiment was conducted in the nursery which belongs to Al-Hilla municipality directorate, Babylon province from the period of 25/4/2013 till 27/6/2013 to study the effect of spraying with four concentrations of boric acid ( 17% B) ( i.e. 0, 25, 50, and 75) mg.L-¹ on growth parameters of Ficus transplants .This experiment was designed according to Randomiz Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replicates. Means were compared according to the Least Significant Difference (L.S.D) at probability 0.05. Results showed that a significant superiority of spraying with boric acid at concentration of 75 mg.L-¹ in vegetative parameters (transplant height, stem diameters, total number of leaves and branches and leaf area), and roots parameters (mean number of main roots, fresh and dry root weights), and leaves transplants content of potassium percentage, its content of boron, the percentage of nitrogen and potassium, and the content of boron in transplants roots compared with spraying with distilled water only which gave the least values


Article
The study of fatty acids for four types of common marine fish smoked, marinated and dried in Basrah

Authors: Munir A. Jasim --- Sabah M.H. AL-Shatty
Pages: 69-82
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This study was undertaken to determine the effect of preservation by smoking, marinating and drying on quality and quantity of fatty acids for four common marine fish species in Basrah province which were Suboor (Tenualosa ilisha), Jaffout (Nematolosa nasus), Biayh (Liza carincota), and Thela (Scomberoides commersonianus). The fresh, good quality fish sample were purchased from local market in Basrah, as soon as they purchased the fish were kept in insulated box made from cork and covered with crashed ice. When the samples reached to the laboratory they were tested chemically, then they divided into three groups and stored separately by different preservation methods mentioned above with assessment of their shelf life during preservation methods by refrigerating at 4°C or at ambient conditions (25 °C). The quality and quantity of fatty acids were estimated by gas chromatography technique, 11 of fatty acids were followed during preservation and storage, which they were C14, C14:1, C16, C16:1, C16:2, C18, C18:1, C18:2, C20:1, C20:4 and C20:5.Results were analyzed by SPSS program using completely randomized design (CRD) for triplicates. The studied factors were tested by using revised least significant differences test (RLSD) at level of 0.01 and 0.05. the correlation coefficient ® for some studied criteria as well as determination of standard deviation (SD) had performed. The results of statistical analysis showed significant differences (P<0.01) for quality and quantity of preserved fish along with a period of storage. The study showed that marine fish were good sources of Omaga-3 fatty acids like Eciosapentaeroic acid (EPA) (20:5), specially in Subbor and Jaffourt.


Article
Effect of Salt and Metabolites of Lactic Acid Bacteria On frozen storage of Fish Fillets Epinephelus coioidis and Scomberoides commersonianus

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The study aimed to evaluate the influence of added sodium chloride solutions of (2,4, 6)% NaCl and the metabolic products of Lactic Acid Bacteria sp. Bifidobacterium bifidum -Bb – 12, Lactobacillus acidophilus – La -05 on the bacterial characteristics of Epiniphilus coioides and Scomberiodes commersonianus fillets. The above named fillets were soaked for one hour were investigated at different NaCl solutions ,and another group were sprayed with Lactic Acid Bacteria metabolites on the rate of 10%(VW) ml100gm and left for an hour . Thereafter , the fillet samples were packed into poly ethylene sacks under vacuum and stored under freezing temp.( - 18± 2 )°C for 90 days . The obtained results could be summarized into : Bacteria sp. showed no significant effect on TVN and peroxide number values. The total number of coliform bacteria, lipolytic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were decreased with the increased in the concentration of the NaCl solution. The number of coliform bacteria reached for the 0 , 2, 4 ,6 % NaCl in zero day 2.3 ×103 , 1.7 × 103 ,1.4×103 ,7.1 ×102 cfu gm , respectively ,in the Epiniphilus coioides fillets. the number of proteolytic bacteria reached 2.9 × 102 ,2.3 × 102 , 2 × 102 , 1.8 × 102 . cfu gm in Epiniphilus coioides fillets and the number of lipolytic bacteria reached 1.3× 103 ,1.1 × 103 , 9.5 × 102 , 7.3 × 102 cfu gm , respectively ,in the Epiniphilus coioides fillets. The metabolic product of Lactic acid bacteria showed priority in reducing the number of the coliform bacteria and lipolytic bacteria and the proteolytic bacteria compared to the NaCl solution. The L. acidophilus found to be more effective from B. bifidum in reducing the total number of lipolytic and proteolyic bacteria cfugm in the Epiniphilus coioides fillets. Furthermore, statistical analysis showed no significant differences at (0.05) level between the two bacterium sp. in respect to total number of coliform bacteria.


Article
Effect of salt Solutions and Metabolites of Lactic Acid Bacteria On Chemical Characteristics of Fish Fillets Epinephelus coioidis and Scomberoides commersonianus preserved by freezing

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The study aimed to evaluate the influence of added sodium chloride solutions of (2,4, 6)% NaCl and the metabolic products of Lactic Acid Bifidobacterium bifidum Bacteria sp. -Bb –12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus–La-05 on the chemical characteristics of Epiniphilus coioides and Scomberiodes commersonianus fillets. The above named fillets were soaked for one hour were investigated the different NaCl solutions ,and another group were sprayed with Lactic Acid Bacteria metabolites on the rate of 10%(VW) ml100gm and left for an hour . Thereafter , the fillet samples were packed into poly ethylene sacks under vacuum and stored under freezing temp. ( - 18± 2 )°C for 90 days. The obtained results could be summarized into: Application of lactic acid bacteria metabolites caused a decrease in pH value , similarly the effect of storage period in respect to the Epiniphilus coioides compared to that of the Scomberiodes commersonianus fillets , the concentration of NaCl solution caused the opposite effect on the pH value. Peroxide number was decreased with application of the NaCl solution , but increased with the increase of storage period . peroxide number values were 1.31 ,1.42 ,1.51 and 1.61 (meq kg ) for zero day of storage for the treatment of 0 , 2 ,4 and 6 NaCl % respectively , for the Epiniphilus coioides and Scomberiodes commersonianus fillets . These numbers were decreased by addition of the Lactic acid bacteria products. Besides , results shown a lower peroxide number for the and Scomberiodes commersonianus compared to that of Epiniphilus coioides fillets . peroxide number were 1.61 ,1.24 ,1.23 ( meq kg ) for the metabolic products treatment 0%, 10% Bb ,10 %La respectively , on zero day . Total volatile nitrogen were higher for the treatment of higher concentration of NaCl solution reaching the values of 14.95 ,15.08 ,15.11,15.23 mg N100gm for the 0,2,4and 6 %NaCl at zero day , respectively ,in the Scomberiodes commersonianus fillets. But the TVN decreased due to application of metabolic products , whereas , they were increased as storage increased. TVN values for the metabolic product treatment 0%,10%Bb and 10%La 14.95,14.87,14.90 mg N100 gm. respectively, in the zero day in Scomberiodes commersonianus fillets. TVN values appeared to be lower in Scomberiodes commersonianus fillets compared with Epiniphilus coioides fillets.


Article
The effect of Gibberellic acid on growth and yield parameters of three local Rice cultivars )Oryza sativa L.(

Authors: Dr. Emman Lazem --- Shadhar AL-aameri
Pages: 123-143
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The study was conducted at Mishkab Rice Research Station at Al-Najaf Governorate during two growing season of 2012 and 2013 to investigate the effect of Gibberellic acid levels (0,100,200)mg.L-1 on growth and yield of three local Rice cultivars (Anbar33,Yassmen and Furat). The layout of the experiment was conducted split-plot with a R.C.B.D with three replications. Gibberellic acid levels were put in the main plots while cultivars were put in the sub-plots, analysis of variance and their means were compared according to L.S.D. at level of 0.05. Results showed that spraing of the Gibberellic acid level of 200 mg.L-1 to gave a higher percentage of values of number of days from sowing to physiological maturity, plant height, number of active tillers in m2 , 1000 grain weight, biological yield , grain yield and harvest index. There ware a significant differences between cultivars, Furat cultivar was superior in trwament giving the highest grain yield and 1000 grain weight compared with Anber33 cultivar also gave the higher values of days from sowing to physiological maturity 136,137 day and plant height 136,136cm each season. Yassmen cultivar non significant difference with Furat cultivar in percentage for zero fertility 5,8% each season,respectively. There were significant interactions between Gibberellic acid levels and cultivars, the treatment of GA200 with Furat cultivar eaused noted increase as. compared to the other treatments for studied in all properties .

Keywords

Gibberellic acid --- Rice --- Anbar33 --- Yassmen --- Furat

Table of content: volume:6 issue:3