Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2016 volume:17 issue:1

Article
Permeability Prediction in One of Iraqi Carbonate Reservoir Using Hydraulic Flow Units and Neural Networks

Authors: Dahlia Abdulhadi Alobaidi
Pages: 1-11
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Abstract

Permeability determination in Carbonate reservoir is a complex problem, due to their capability to be tight and heterogeneous, also core samples are usually only available for few wells therefore predicting permeability with low cost and reliable accuracy is an important issue, for this reason permeability predictive models become very desirable. This paper will try to develop the permeability predictive model for one of Iraqi carbonate reservoir from core and well log data using the principle of Hydraulic Flow Units (HFUs). HFU is a function of Flow Zone Indicator (FZI) which is a good parameter to determine (HFUs). Histogram analysis, probability analysis and Log-Log plot of Reservoir Quality Index (RQI) versus normalized porosity (øz) are presented to identify optimal hydraulic flow units. Four HFUs were distinguished in this study area with good correlation coefficient for each HFU (R2=0.99), therefore permeability can be predicted from porosity accurately if rock type is known. Conventional core analysis and well log data were obtained in well 1 and 2 in one of carbonate Iraqi oil field. The relationship between core and well log data was determined by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in cored wells to develop the predictive model and then was used to develop the flow units prediction to un-cored wells. Finally permeability can be calculated in each HFU using effective porosity and mean FZI in these HFUs. Validation of the models evaluated in a separate cored well (Blind-Test) which exists in the same formation. The results showed that permeability prediction from ANN and HFU matched well with the measured permeability from core data with R2 =0.94 and ARE= 1.04%.


Article
Load Effect on Wall Attachment Fluidics Amplifier Performance

Authors: Ali Abdalmohsin AL-Asadi
Pages: 13-19
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Abstract

An experimental work has been conducted on wall attachment fluidics amplifiers, one of them to study the effect of output pressure or load on the amplifier performance. The output load has been simulated as a piston connected to the device output and the piston can be loaded accordingly. The results shows that the output volume flow rate increases as the supply pressure increases under different load and the output pressure remains constant as the supply pressure increases under constant load.


Article
Corrosion Inhibition of Low Carbon Steel in Sulfuric Acid Using Polyvinyl Alcohol

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Abstract

The inhibitive power of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) was investigated toward the corrosion of carbon steel in 0.2N H2SO4 solution in the temperature range of 30-60˚C and PVA concentration range of 150-2000 ppm. The corrosion rate was measured using both the weight loss and the electrochemical techniques. The weight loss results showed that PVA could serve as a corrosion inhibitor but its inhibition power was found to be low for the corrosion of carbon steel in the acidic media. Electrochemical analysis of the corrosion process of carbon steel in an electrochemical corrosion cell was investigated using 3-Electrode corrosion cell. Polarization technique was used for carbon steel corrosion in 0.2N H2SO4 solutions in presence and absence of the inhibitor investigated. Electrochemical runs were done in the PVA concentrations of 150, 1000, and 2000 ppm and temperatures of 30, 40, 50, and 60˚C. It was shown that the inhibition efficiency for PVA decreased with increasing temperature at a given PVA concentration. On the other hand it was shown that at given temperature the inhibition efficiency of PVA was increased with increasing of PVA concentration in the corrosive acid until a PVA concentration of 2000 ppm was reached. The Maximum inhibition efficiency reached was about 71 % at 30ºC and 2000 ppm concentration, calculated by the weight loss technique. It was indicated also that the corrosion of carbon steel in 0.2N H2SO4 is highly activation controlled and inhibition action is occurring at both anodic and cathodic sites on the metal surface.


Article
Rheological Evaluation of Polymer (Sav 10) For Polymer Flooding Applications

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Abstract

Half of the oil production of the worldwide is a result of the water flooding project. But the main concern of this process is mobility control of the injected fluid, because the unfavorable mobility ratio leads to fingering effect. Adding polymer to the injection water increase the water viscosity, therefore, the displacement will be more stable and have a greater sweep efficiency. Using of polymer flooding has received more attention these days. Polymer has great potential in the Middle East region, especially in reservoir with high temperature and salinity. The main objective of this work is to show the effect of shear rate, salinity, temperature, polymer concentration on polymer viscosity and determine the target viscosity to further displacement experiments. Polymer solution was prepared with two types of water (fresh water, brine). The reason of using two types of water is the ability of polymer to prepare by fresh water or brine. Results from this study show that as the shear rate increases, polymer viscosity decreases. Also, the results show that in spite of polymer viscosity decreased with increase in temperature and salinity, polymer (SAV 10) shows that high temperatures have less effect on its viscosity at the same shear rate and has a salinity resistant up 200000 ppm. As polymer concentration increase, polymer viscosity increase until reach the target concentration which can be used for displacement experiments. It was found that the target concentration with viscosity 6.99 cp is 2000 ppm, which is closest to reservoir viscosity.


Article
Kinetics and Mass Transfer Study of Oleic Acid Esterification over Prepared Nanoporous HY zeolite

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Abstract

A mathematical model was proposed to study the microkinetics of esterification reaction of oleic acid with ethanol over prepared HY zeolite catalyst. The catalyst was prepared from Iraqi kaolin source and its properties were characterized by different techniques. The esterification was done under different temperature (40 to 70˚C) with 6:1 for molar ratio of ethanol to oleic acid and 5 % catalyst loading. The microkinetics study was done over two period of time each period was examined individually to calculate the reaction rate constant and activation energy. The impact of the mass transfer resistance to the reactant was also investigated; two different studies have been accomplished to do this purpose. The effect of the external mass transfer resistance was studied by exploring different stirring speed (400 to 800 rpm). The results show that, the oleic acid conversion increase with increasing the stirring speed until reached 600 rpm, after this rpm the conversion doesn’t increase significantly, which mean that, the effect of external mass transfer resistance was eliminated. The activation energy for the first period is equal to 41.84 kJ/mol while in the second period is equal to 52.03 kJ/mol. The Thiele modulus calculation results show that there is no effect of mass transfer on the reaction inside the catalyst pores.


Article
Synergistic Effect of Potassium Iodide on Inhibitive Performance of Propyl Alcohol during Corrosion of Mild Steel in 1.0M HCl

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Abstract

The inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 1.0M HCl by 1-propanol and the synergistic effect of potassium iodide (KI) was investigated using weight loss and polarization techniques in the temperature range (30 ‒ 50) ̊ C. A matrix of Doelhert to three factors was used as the experimental design, adopting weight loss results as it permits the use of the response surface methodology which exploited in determination of the synergistic effect as inhibition on the mild steel. The results were confirmed using electrochemical polarization measurements. Experimental results showed that the inhibition efficiency (IE%) increases with increase in concentration of inhibitor and with increasing of temperature. The addition iodide ions to alcohol (inhibitor) enhanced the inhibition efficiency due to synergistic effect. Potentiodynamic polarization studies showed that the studied compound is mixed-type inhibitor causing blocking of active sites on the mild steel surface .The adsorption of the inhibitor and its combination with iodide ions on mild steel surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm via physisorption mechanism, which was proposed based on values of adsorption Gibbs free energy difference ΔGads. Statistically, the multi-variable regression equation describes the behavior of the corrosion inhibition process with high accuracy (correlation coefficient R2 between 0.974 and 1).


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Micro-Mesoporous ZSM-5/MCM-41 Composite Zeolite

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Abstract

Nanocrystalline micro-mesoporous ZSM/MCM-41 composite was synthesized using alkaline treatment method and two step of crystallization in poly tetraflouroethylene (PTFE) lined autoclave. The synthesized zeolites was characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transport infrared (FTIR), and N2 adsorption-desorption (BET). It was approved that the best results for alkaline leaching can be got with 1.5M NaOH solution. High surface (BET) area of 630 m2/g with pore volume of 0.55 cm3/g has been got. AFM reports showed a nano-level size for average particle size of 50nm.


Article
Extraction of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions Using Bulk ionic Liquid Membranes

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Abstract

Room temperature ionic liquids show potential as an alternative to conventional organic membrane solvents mainly due to their properties of low vapour pressure, low volatility and they are often stable. In the present work, the technical feasibilities of room temperature ionic liquids as bulk liquid membranes for phenol removal were investigated experimentally. In this research several hydrophobic ionic liquids were synthesized at laboratory. These ionic liquids include (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide[Bmim][NTf2], 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide[Hmim][NTf2], 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide[Omim][NTf2],1‐butyl‐1‐methylimidazoliumhexafluorophosphate[Bmim][PF6], 1‐hexyl‐1‐methylimidazoliumhexafluorophosphate[Hmim][PF6], 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide[Bmpyr][NTf2], and 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetra fluoroborate[Omim][BF4]. The distribution coefficients for phenol in these ionic liquids were measured at different pH values and found to be much larger than those in conventional solvents. Through the values of the distribution coefficients and the experiments that were conducted on bulk liquid membrane applying various types of prepared ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide was selected as the best ionic liquid which gave the highest extraction and stripping efficiencies. The effect of several parameters, namely, feed phase pH(2-12), feed concentration(100-1000 ppm), NaOH concentration(0-0.5M), temperature (20-50oC), feed to membrane volume ratio (200-400ml/80ml ionic liquid) and stirring speeds(75-125 rpm) on the performance of the choosen ionic liquid membrane were also studied. The preliminary study showed that high phenol extraction and stripping efficiencies of 97% and 95% respectively were achieved by ionic liquid membrane with a minimum membrane loss which offers a better choice to organic membrane solvents.


Article
Study in Kinetics of Saponification Reaction of Diethyl Adipate with Sodium Hydroxide Solution under Reactive Distillation

Authors: Raghad fareed kasim --- rouaa ali shokorr
Pages: 99-108
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Abstract

This research presents a new study in kinetics under reactive distillation by using consecutive two – step reaction : the saponification reaction of diethyl adipate with sodium hydroxide solution . The distillation process takes the role of withdrawing the intermediate product (sodium monoethyladipate SMA) which otherwise converts to the final product of low purity.The effect of three parameters were studied through a design of experiments applying 23 factorial design. These parameters were : the mole ratio of DA to NaOH solution (0.1 and 1) , NaOH solution concentration (3 N and 8 N) , and batch time (1.5 hr. and 3.5 hr.) . The conversion of DA to sodium monoethyladipate(SMA)(intermediate product) was the effect of these parameters which was detected .The results showed that increasing mole ratio of DA to NaOHsolution increases the conversionto a maximum value within the range of study.The effect of NaOH solution concentration decreases the conversion to a specified value within the range of study . The effect of batch time on conversion was decreasing the conversion to a specified value within the range of study . The maximum attainable conversion within the studied range of parameters was eighteen fold of thebase case.Reaction rate constant k and the order of reaction n of first reaction weredetrminedusing the differential method . The study attempted to determine n and k under the maximum conversion condition obtained in this system which corresponds to : feed mole ratio of diethyl adipateDA to NaOH solution of 0.3,NaOH solution concentration of3 Nandtime of1.5 hr.The study showed that the reaction order was 1.5and reaction rate constant was 0.8m3/kmol.s at a temperature of 100 ℃ .

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