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Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2016 volume:17 issue:2

Article
Experimental Study of Thermophysical Properties of TiO2 Nanofluid

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Abstract

Titanium-dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles suspended in water, and ethanol based fluids have been prepared using one step method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV–visible spectrophotometer. The TiO2 nanoparticles were added to base fluids with different volume concentrations from 0.1% to1.5% by dispersing the synthesized nanoparticles in deionized water and ethanol solutions. The effective thermal conductivity, viscosity and pH of prepared nanofluids at different temperatures from 15 to 30 oC were carried out and investigated. It was observed that the thermal conductivity, pH, and viscosity of nanofluids increases with the increase in TiO2 nanoparticle volume fraction. The thermal conductivity of TiO2 nanofluids significantly increases linearly with increasing particle vol. fraction at different temperature values and also it was found that the viscosity increases with increasing particle vol. fraction and decreases with the increase in temperature.


Article
Entransy Dissipation of Shell and Double Concentric Tubes Heat Exchanger

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Abstract

The concept of entransy dissipation was determined for new type of heat exchanger (shell and double concentric tubes heat exchanger). Three parameters, hot oil flow rate, temperature of inlet hot oil and pressure drop of system were investigated with this concept (entransy dissipation). The results showed that the value of entransy dissipation of oil and of system which represents the summation of entransy dissipation of both oil and water increased with increasing the flow rate of hot oil and these values were larger when cold water flow rate was doubled. Also they were increased with increasing the hot oil inlet temperature at a certain flow rate of hot oil. Furthermore, the pressure drops for hot oil in both shell side and inner tubes side was constant and increased according to the increase of its flow rate. At different hot oil flow rate and a certain hot oil inlet temperature, the entransy of hot oil was increased with its pressure drop. In order to keep up with modern technology, infrared thermography camera was used in order to measure the temperatures which were higher than the temperatures obtained by thermocouples. For that reason the entransy dissipation was determined with lower values compared with their values obtained by using thermocouples.


Article
Adsorption of Fluoroquinolones Antibiotics on Activated Carbon by K2CO3 with Microwave Assisted Activation

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Abstract

The preparation of low cost activated carbon from date stones and microwave method by using K2CO3 as chemical activator were investigated. The prepared activated carbon was used to remove fluoroquinolones antibiotics from aqueous solution. The characterizations of the activated carbon is represented by surface area, pore volume, ash content, moisture content, bulk density, and iodine number. The adsorbed fluoroquinolones antibiotics are Ciprofloxcin (CIP), Norfloxcin (NOR) and Levofloxcin (LEVO). Different variables as pH, initial concentrations and contact time were studied to show the efficieny of prepared activated carbon. The experimental adsorption data were analyzed by Lungmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm. The experimental results are described by Lungmiur isotherm. The kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-first order kinetics, pseudo-second order kinetics and interparticle diffusion model. The kinetic adsorption data were best fitted by psuedo-second order kinetic.


Article
Radiological Assessment and Mechanical Separation of NORM Contaminated Soil from Iraqi Oil Fields

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Abstract

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) contaminated sites at Al-Rumaila Iraqi oil fields have been characterized as a part of soil remediation project. Activity of radium isotopes in contaminated soil have been determined using gamma spectrometer High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe) and found to be very high for Al-Markezia, Al-Qurainat degassing stations and storage area at Khadhir Almay region. The activity concentration of samples ranges from 6474.11±563.8 Bq/kg to 1232.5±60.9 Bq/kg with mean value of 3853.3 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 843.59±8.39 Bq/kg to 302.2±9.2 Bq/kg with mean value of 572.9 Bq/kg for 232Th and 294.31±18.56 Bq/kg to 156.64±18.1 Bq/kg with mean value of 225.5 for 40K. Six hazard indexs radium equivalent, representative level index, adsorbed dose rate in air, annual effective dose equivalent, external hazard index, and internal hazard indexes were calculated to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and dose rate associated with it and found to be high. Screening of contaminated soil was performed to evaluate the feasibility of particle size separation. The fractions obtained varied between 75 µm (200 mesh) to 300µm (48 mesh).The results show that the largest weight percent in fine particle size cut ( -75, -125+75, -250+125) µm is 73.9% and all radium isotopes are concentrated in 37.5µm particle size while small fluctuations are observed in the other particle size cuts.


Article
The Effect of Asphaltene on the Stability of Iraqi Water in Crude Oil Emulsions

Authors: Sawsan A.M. Mohammed --- Sally D. Maan
Pages: 37-45
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Abstract

In the present work, asphaltenes and resins separated from emulsion samples collected from two Iraqi oil wells, Nafut Kana (Nk) and Basrah were used to study the emulsion stability. The effect of oil resins to asphaltene (R/A) ratio, pH of the aqueous phase, addition of paraffinic solvent (n-heptane), aromatic solvent (toluene), and blend of both (heptol) in various proportions on the stability of emulsions had been investigated. The conditions of experiments were specified as an agitation speed of 1000 rpm for 30 minutes, heating at 50 °C, and water content of 30%. The results showed that as the R/A ratio increases, the emulsion will be unstable and the amount of water separated from emulsion increases. It was noticed that the emulsion of Nk crude oil became more stable at basic pH range, and reached to completely stabilized emulsion at pH=12. Whereas Basrah emulsion was stable in both acidic and basic pH ranges. Results indicated that toluene gave a good solubility for asphaltene, and a higher water separation for both crude oil emulsions. A mathematical model to determine the kinetic constants that characterize the coalescence in the emulsions was also developed.


Article
Study the Efficiency of Drilling With Casing Operation in an Iraqi Oil Field

Authors: Ayad A. Alhaleem
Pages: 47-52
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Abstract

Drilling with casing (DWC) can be considered as a modern drilling technique in which both of drilling and casing operations done in the same time by using the casing to transfer the hydraulic and mechanical power to the bit instead of traditional drilling string. To overcome oil well control, minimizing the total cost through enhancing drilling efficiency, drilling with casing was proposed as an enabling technology. Two surface sections (17 1/2 - and 12 1/4- inch) were drilled successfully in Rumaila oil field with casing strings which reached 655m and 1524m measured depths respectively. By using DWC technique, the total drill/case phase time was reduced up to 20% comparing to conventional drilling in the same field . Drilling both sections with DWC system eliminating the number of trips and nonproductive time (NPT) related to wellbore instability.

Keywords

casing drilling --- BHA --- drill string --- tripping --- CDS.


Article
Thermal Osmosis of Mixtures of Water and Organic Compounds through Different Membranes

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Abstract

The present work aimed to study the efficiency of thermal osmosis process for recovery of water from organic wastewater solution and study the factors affecting the performance of the osmosis cell. The driving force in the thermo osmosis cell is provided by a difference in temperature across the membrane sides between the draw and feed solution. In this research used a cellulose triacetate (CTA), as flat sheet membranes for treatment of organic wastewater under orientation membrane of active layer facing feed solution (FS) and draw solution (DS) is placed against the support layer. The organic materials were phenol, toluene, xylene and BTX (benzene, toluene, and xylene) used as feed solution. The osmotic agent in draw solution was sodium chloride salt. The membranes have high rejection percentage for NaCl and organic materials. In this research, the operating conditions that have been studied are: temperature of draw and feed solution (18 – 45 °C) and the operating time of process was (0 – 3) hours. It was found that water flux in thermal osmosis process increases with increasing temperature of draw and feed solution ( by average ratio 1:2), and decreases with increasing operating time.


Article
CFD Simulation of Air Flow Patterns in a Spray Dryer Fitted With a Rotary Disk

Authors: Saad Nahi Saleh --- Laith Amjad Hameed
Pages: 69-77
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Abstract

The air flow pattern in a co-current pilot plant spray dryer fitted with a rotary disk atomizer was determined experimentally and modelled numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) (ANSYS Fluent ) software. The CFD simulation used a three dimensions system, Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes equations (RANS), closed via the RNG k −ε turbulence model. Measurements were carried out at a rotation of the atomizer (3000 rpm) and when there is no rotation using a drying air at 25 oC and air velocity at the inlet of 5 m/s without swirl. The air flow pattern was predicted experimentally using cotton tufts and digital anemometer. The CFD simulation predicted a downward central flowing air core surrounded by a slow recirculation zones near the walls for both conditions. Analysis of CFD simulation revealed that rotation of atomizer resulted in a swirling motion of the central air core. Simulations results were in good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords

CFD --- Spray --- Rotary --- Dryer --- Simulation.


Article
Determination of the Optimum Conditions for the Production of Gamma Alumina (ɤ-Al2O3) By the Precipitation Method of the Sodium Aluminate Solution

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Abstract

Design of experiments (DOE) was made by Minitab software for the study of three factors used in the precipitation process of the Sodium Aluminate solution prepared from digestion of α-Al2O3 to determine the optimum conditions to a produce Boehmite which is used in production of ɤ-Al2O3 during drying and calcination processes, the factors are; the temperature of the sodium aluminate solution, concentration of HCl acid added for the precipitation and the pH of the solution at which the precipitation was ended. The design of the experiments leads to 18 experiments. The results show that the optimum conditions for the precipitation of the sodium aluminate solution which leads to the production of gamma alumina are 6.5 pH, Temperature of solution is 90 C and the concentration of the hydrochloric acid (HCl) is 21%. While all other conditions lead mainly to other phases of alumina which is mainly epsilon- alumina (ε-Al2O3).

Keywords

Gamma alumina --- Precipitation --- XRD

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