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MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL

مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان

ISSN: 18138500
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

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SCIENTIFIC AND REFERRED DENTAL JOURNAL

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Table of content: 2015 volume:12 issue:1

Article
The Incidence of dentinal root defects caused by different Nickel Titanium instruments

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Abstract

The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the effect of different Nickel Titanium instruments on the root dentin in term of dentinal defects. Seventy-five palatal roots of maxillary first molars teeth were selected for the study. Fifteen roots were left unprepared to serve as a negative control group; the remaining 60 roots were divided into four tested groups. Group (I) prepared using ProTaper Universal, group (II) prepared by EndoSequence, Group (III) prepared by ProTaper Next and finally group (IV) prepared by RECIPROC systems. After preparation the roots were embedded in clear acrylic and then sectioned at different levels (apical, middle and coronally) and examined under Stereomicroscope. Results: No cracks were observed in the negative control group, while dentinal defects were observed in roots prepared with ProTaper Universal, EndoSequence, ProTaper Next and RECIPROC systems (28.88%, 8.89%, 11.11% and 33.33% respectively). The results showed a nonsignificant difference between EndoSequence and Protaper Next groups and between ProTpaer Universal and RECIPROC groups (p > 0.05), ProTaper had a significant difference with EndoSequence and ProTaper Next groups (P < 0.05) While The RECIPROC group had a highly significant difference with EndoSequence and ProTaper Next groups (P < 0.01). Conclusion, all instrumentation systems used in this study created cracks in the root dentin. The EndoSequence and ProTaper Next instruments tended to cause least dentinal cracks compared with the ProTaper Universal and RECIPROC instruments


Article
Assessing the radiopacity of new root end filling materials using digital radiography technique

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Abstract

Background: Radiographic discrimination of root end filling materials from surrounding tooth structure is clinically relevant for assessing the quality of retrograde treatment. The present study aimed at evaluating the radiopacity of Biodentine™ and Pro Root MTA as root end filling materials using a digital radiography technique. Materials and Methods: Specimens of BiodentineTM and Pro Root MTA test materials with 1mm thick and 10 mm internal diameter were prepared for digital radiographic analysis using an aluminum washer. The radiopacity of the Biodentine™ and Pro Root MTA was assessed using dental radiography equipment in combination with a phosphor plate digital system and a grey scale value aluminum step wedge with thicknesses varying from 1 mm to 10 mm in steps of 1 mm each. The degree of radiopacity of the test materials were radiographed and compared together with the aluminum step wedge on a computer screen using image J software. Radiopacity was expressed in mm of equivalent aluminum step wedge. The radiopacity values of Biodentine™ and Pro Root MTA were statistically analyzed using the one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc test (Bonferroni test), the level of significance was set at 0.05 (P<0.05). Results: The radiographic data showed that the degree of radiopacity of Pro root MTA is significantly higher than that of Biodentine™ (P<0.001). The current study reported that the ProRoot MTA showed requisite radiopacity around 5.86 mm when compared with aluminum step wedge steps, whereas the radiopacity of Biodentine™ determined around 2.46 mm of equivalent aluminum. Conclusion: The radiopacity of Pro Root MTA is clinically relevant that allows for clear distinction between the material and the surrounding tooth structure enabling it to be used as root end filling material. However, Biodentine showed reduced radiopacity that needs further improvement.


Article
Evaluation of the effect of dentin treatment with CO2 laser and air abrasion on the microleakage of composite restoration.

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Abstract

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the microleakage of composite restoration at dentin following treatment with CO2 laser, Air Abrasion, Combination between them and acid. Methods: 100extracted maxillary premolars (caries free), stored in distilled water, were used. Flat occlusal dentin surfaces were grounded wet on 600- grit silicon carbide paper. Cube cavities were prepared at the center of the occlusal surfaces. Teeth were then distributed randomly in to five groups, 20 teeth each: Group A: Teeth were treated by CO2 laser (with 10.6 μm wave length, 6 W, 0.2 s and 2 H z). Group B: Teeth were treated by air abrasion (using aluminum oxide particles size 50 micrometers and air flow handy device at 1.2 cm distance with 15 seconds perpendicular application, air pressure was 2.75 bar and water pressure was 0.6 bar). Group C: Teeth were treated by 37% phosphoric acid for 20 seconds. Group D: Teeth were treated by CO2 laser and 37% phosphoric acid. Group E: Teeth treated by air abrasion and 37% phosphoric acid. All the cavities were restored with the same bonding and composite materials and stored in distilled water in an incubator at 37o C. Half of each group were stored for 1 day and themocycled between 5-55oC, (10 cycles) while the other half were stored for 14days and thermocycled between 5-55oC, (140 cycles). Then teeth were immersed in the 2% methylene blue dye and the extent of the dye penetration was recorded according to an ordinal scale. Data were analyzed using non- parametric statistical tests (Chi-square and Mann-Whitney) Results: Microleakage in acid etched cavities was significantly higher than that achieved after laser treatment or air abrasion either isolated or followed by acid etch. Conclusion:The use of CO2 laser, air abrasion to condition dentin significantly reduced the microleakage of composite restoration, while there was no significant decrease in microleakage when using acid etching on dentin following CO2 laser or air abrasion. There was statistically increase in microleakage with in times when using acid to condition dentin.


Article
Evaluation The Effect of Three Types of Light Curing Systems On Temperature Rise intrapulpally and at the tooth surface during resin-based composite polymerization

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Abstract

Fifteen human premolar teeth freshly extracted were used. Standardized class V was prepared on the buccal and palatal surfaces of each tooth, the teeth randomly divided into three groups according to the curing mode of composite resin: group I cured with quart-tungsten halogen, group II cured with Soft Start While group III cured with Plasma Arc. The increase in temperature internally (inside the pulp chamber) and externally (at the outer surfaces of the tooth) for each sample of the three groups was measured by using two K type thermocouple connected with electrical thermometer. Results: revealed a very high significant differences (P= 0.0001) among the three groups . Conclusion: Plasma Arc light curing unit showed significantly the highest increase in temperature, while the Soft Start gave lower value and Quartz Tungsten Halogen unit with lowest temperature rise internally and externally.

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Article
Renal Fluoride excretion in children following topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride and sodium fluoride

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Abstract

Abstract The aim of this study was to demonstrate that if there is an increase in urinary fluoride and creatinine excretion and F/ Cr ratio after application of acidulated phosphate fluoride APF and sodium fluoride NaF fluoridated gel. The sample chosen consisted of 80 children randomly selected, aged 9-11 years old, lived in Baghdad city with non-fluoridated water areas. The children were divided into two groups, the study group which consists of 60 children who received the topical fluoridated gel, the acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) and the sodium fluoride (NaF).Urinary samples were taken from them before the topical application of dental fluoride gel APF and NaF and 2 hours afterwards. In an age matched control group of 20 children from the same community, who received no treatment, samples were taken at the same way. The urinary excretion of fluoride was analyzed by determining fluoride ion (F-) level and fluoride/ creatinine (F/ Cr) ratio in the urine. Results showed that the mean F ion before and 2 hours after acidulated phosphate fluoride application APF was (1.74 and 2.36) respectively, this difference was statistically highly significant (p<0.001). While the F/ Cr ratio before and 2 hours after APF application was (1.01 and 1.07) respectively, with no significant difference (P<0.05). The mean of F ion before and 2 hours after sodium fluoride application NaF was (1.74 and 3.18) respectively, the difference was highly significant (p<0.001). While the F/ Cr ratio before and 2 hours after NaF application was (1.16 and 1.33) respectively with no significant difference (p<0.05). In the control group no significant changes occur (p<0.05).

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Article
Evaluation of Some Properties of Iraqi Plaster by Using Some Additives and Microwave Drying Technique

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Abstract

Aims of this study:1- Evaluation of some properties of Iraqi plaster, compressive strength & surface roughness. 2- Improving the quality of Iraqi plaster by incorporation of some additives. 3- Studying the effect of microwave drying on the compressive strength & surface roughness of Iraqi plaster. Methods: 56 samples of Iraqi plaster used in this study, divided into two main groups according to the main tests used, 28 samples for compressive strength & 28 samples for surface roughness. Samples of each test were divided into two groups (each group 14 samples). The first group was without additives, while the second includes the modified gypsum products (Iraqi plaster) with additives, (Gum Arabic 0.5%, calcium oxide 0.75%, and ferric oxide 0.2%). Samples of each subgroup are subdivided into two subgroups also according to the drying method of Iraqi plaster, Open air drying method & Microwave drying method (7 samples for each) Measuring of both tests was done in Technology University in Baghdad. Compressive strength measurement by using (unconfined compression machine), while, surface roughness of the samples was measured by Profilometer. Results: The results showed that incorporation of additives to Iraqi plaster result in changing their evaluated properties & Comparing with open air drying method, microwave drying enhanced the properties tested in this study. Conclusions: incorporation of additives to Iraqi plasters result in (Improvement of the compressive strength, reduction of the surface roughness and increase smoothness).


Article
Evaluation of surface roughness and Candida albicans attachment on light cured and heat cured acrylic denture base resin using Corega, Fittydent and Lacalut denture cleansers

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Background: Denture cleansers are the most widely used by the patients to maintain clean denture as the presence of Candida albicans on the surfaces of denture-base acrylic resins is strongly related to the development of oral stomatitis but the cleansers may have harmful effect on some properties of the denture. So the aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the effect of different denture cleansers on the surface roughness and adherence of the Candida albicans on the light and heat cured acrylic resin materials. Materials and methods: Eighty specimens were made from two different denture base materials for each test. Forty specimens were made of light cured acrylic and forty specimens were made of heat cured acrylic resin. Each material group was subdivided into four subgroups according to the type of the denture cleansers and the distilled water that was used as control group. Antimicrobial activity and the surface roughness test were measured for each specimen to show the effect of each denture cleansers on surface of the denture base materials. Results: The results showed that there were highly significant differences in the antimicrobial activity before and after the use of denture cleansers while there were no significant differences in surface roughness between before and after immersion in the denture cleansers for both acrylic specimens. While the surface roughness and the Candida albicans attachment to light cured acrylic was significantly higher than that of heat cured acrylic specimens. Conclusion: It was concluded that the Candida albicans attachment was effected by the immersion in the denture cleansers while the roughness of acrylic materials was not affected by immersion in denture cleansers as well as it was found that the Candida albicans attachment and the surface roughness of the light cured was higher than the heat cured acrylic denture base.


Article
The effect of oats on compositional changes after wearing complete dentures MDJ

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Twenty fully edentulous subjects ranging from 50-80 years old .The subjects were selected from patients attending the prosthetic department in medical technical institute Baghdad in middle technical university . The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of oats on the changes in composition (zn) (mg) in saliva of edentulous patients after wearing of new complete dentures. The results suggest that (Oats) diet exerted significant influence in concentration mg in edentulous patient and significant difference in concentration of Zn in the treatment group who received new complete dentures.

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Article
Adhesion strength of silicone-based skin adhesive combined with stone-wool fibers

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Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate and improve the adhesion strength of the silicone-based skin adhesive for the appropriate functioning time. Method: Two groups of samples were prepared, six samples per group, and a human surrogate skin samples were used made from cross-linked polyamide polymer resembling the stratum corneum layer of the human skin. A 180 degree peel test was performed to measure the adhesion strength. Results and conclusion: The results showed that there was a statistically significant different in the amount of adhesion strength between the two groups which confirmed that the stone-wool fiber addition had increased the adhesion strength of the silicone-based skin adhesive.


Article
Evaluation of salivary cortisol level in patient's pre and post insertion of removable partial and complete dentures

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The aim of our study was to analyze the stress and anxiety in patients undergoing routine denture insertion, by the assessment of cortisol in saliva, which can be considered as one of the major hormones that is released during stressful events. Stress is defined as an organism's total response to an environmental condition or stimulus, also known as a stressor. Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is one of the stress hormones, and is produced at higher levels in individuals who are prone to stress. Aside from contributing factors such as work and emotions, it is also produced at greater levels by people who work early morning shifts. After obtaining the ethical approval and the patients were consented for their role in this study, we examined 22 patients (8 males, and 14 females).The age ranged from 22-74 with mean age of 59.6 & 42.6. I collected two salivary samples from each patient using spitting methods; one hour pre and one hour post insertion of removable partial and complete dentures (R.P.D. & R.C.D.). The samples were assessed and analyzed using ELISA test. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software (version 19).ANOVA and t-test was applied to obtain the significance and correlation between the examined samples. Statically significant association regarding the difference of mean (post and pre using of denture) of cortisol level regarding the gender of the patients, where the difference of mean of female was higher than that of male patients (0.2, 0.14) respectively, p =0.001.My study revealed that salivary cortisol is within its highest levels after insertion of R.P.D. & R.C.D. in one hour. Significant association regarding the age was reported and the R.C.D group has had higher mean than that of R.P.D group.


Article
Panoramic study of third molar eruption for chronologic age assessment in Iraqi population

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Background: Age estimation plays a great role in forensic investigations, orthodontic, surgical treatment planning and tooth transplantation. The teeth are considered a reliable indicator of age and provide a number of parameters for age prediction. The purpose of this study was to estimate the chronological age based on the stages of mandibular third-molar eruption following the four stages given by Olze et al. Materials and methods: The sample consist of 150 Iraqi subjects have been chosen with known chronologic age (range: 6–26 years) and gender (70 males and 80 female), digital panoramic radiograph had been taken for each examined subject . Olze et al. stages has been used to assess third molar eruption. Results: Alveolar and occlusal eruption at 25% of males younger than females . Ttest between gender for minimum age was statistically significant difference only in stage (B) with p-value (0.042).The deviation around normal value mean in complete occlusal eruption was more in female compared with male. Conclusions: Radiographic evaluation of eruption stages of the third molars using dental panoramic radiographies can be an efficient tool for chronological age estimation in both forensic science and legal medicine. Complete occlusal eruption can be used to predict age equal or superior to 16 years.


Article
Body and local factors affecting eruption of third molar tooth

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Aim : The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of some local and body factors with third molar eruption and may cause delay eruption or impaction which represents one of most important problem in dental clinic. Method: 150 dental students volunteers participated in this study from both genders and aged between 18-27 years old. A clinical oral examination, body parameters measurements in addition to past dental history were used to assess certain parameters. Results and conclusions: among all the investigated body and local factors ; only age and body height were significantly affected the eruption of third molar tooth (P<0.05).


Article
Impact of stress on Geographic Tongue In Iraqi population

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Background:Geographic tongue or erythema migrans is fairly common benign condition that primarily affects the lateral aspect and dorsum of the tongue. The pattern of the lesion give the surface of the tongue the appearance of a map, the lesion persists for a short period in one area, disappears within a few days, and then recurs in another area with no apparent reason Although the etiology of the condition is unknown, it may be related to psychological factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between geographic tongue and stress. Method:This study was performed on 110 individuals; 60 cases with GT and 50 cases without GT. All of them filled a questionnaire of perceived stress scale (PSS) and evaluated by a psychologist. Results:Among 120 patients selected, 60 persons suffered from geographic tongue, showed significant relationship between the occurrence of geographic tongue and stress especially among females at their third decade. Conclusion:According to the results, there is a significant association between stress and GT and decreasing stress in GT patients can lead to the healing of the lesion.


Article
Comparative panoramic study of the elongated styloid process between male and female , their possible associations with age and Eagle’s syndrome symptoms in Iraqi dentulous subjects

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Background : The stylohyoid process is a cylindrical bony structure surrounded by important anatomical structures including vessels and nerves. Calcification and elongation of the stylohyoid ligament complex over 30 mm may be associated with neck and facial pain, known as Eagle’s syndrome . The aims of the study were to compare the elongated styloid process between male and female , their possible relations with age and Eagle’s syndrome symptoms in Iraqi dentulous population using panoramic radiographs . Materials and methods : Clinical and radiographical records of 70 patients (40 female and 30 male). The length of the styloid processes were assessed using panoramic radiographs . Measurements of the length of the styloid processes were made directly from its insertion site to the petrous part of the temporal bone to its tip. Results : There was highly statistically significant difference between male and female for right side and left side of the styloid process length p-value <0.01. Chisquare between present of symptoms and styloid process length of age showed statistically non-significant difference. Conclusion : Panoramic radiography is useful tool for detection of an elongated styloid process in patients with or without symptoms and can thus help avoid misinterpretation of the symptoms.


Article
The antibacterial effect of Ellagic acid on Lacto bacillus acidophilus in comparison to Chlorhexidine

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Ellagic acid is a natural herb extract were prepared from flesh pomegranate extract. The preparation and experiments were done and conducted in a laboratory of chemistry department of Ministry of Science and Technology. Biological activity of Ellagic acid to ward pathogenic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus) was studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of prepared Ellagic acid with different concentrations on growth of lacto bacillus acidophilus in comparison with Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% and deionized water. This in vitro bacteriological study was tested according to agar well diffusion technique. The results showed that a highly significant increase in mean values of Ellagic acid compared to Chlorhexidine and deionized water. The concentration, 5 mg/ml and10 mg/ml of Ellagic acid showed stronger effects in inhibition of lactobacillus acidophilus, than Chlorhexidine 0.2%. Ellagic acid 5and10mg/ml has the ability to interfere with the adherence of Lactobacilli in vitro. Previous study showed that Ellagic acid had antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mutans , Ellagic acid could be used as antibacterial mouth washes to prevent dental caries. Chlorhexidine.


Article
Effectiveness of fiberglass glass bur, ultrasonic and manual mechanotherapy on grade II furcation involved mandibular molars (An in vivo comparative study)

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Background: Access to the molars furcation areas is especially difficult for the patient and clinician alike due to the posterior location of molars, the dimension and position of furcation entrances, and the internal furcation surfaces that are frequently concave or irregularly contoured. The disparity between the size of commonly used scaling instruments and the size of the furcation entrance further complicates the situation. Materials and Methods: Thirty grade II furcation involved first and second mandibular molar teeth from seventeen patients. The clinical parameters that were measured included, Plaque index PI, Gingival index GI, Bleeding on probing BOP, Probing pocket depth PPD and Relative attachment level RAL. The furcation involved teeth included in the study were allocated in 3 groups according to the type mechanical treatment used. GROUP A (GA) :10 teeth treated by hand instrumentation by gracey curette. GROUP B (GB): 10 teeth treated by fiberglass rotary burs. GROUP C (GC) : 10 teeth treated by ultrasonic scaler with special furcation tip. The clinical parameters were recorded at day (0) (baseline visit,) prior to surgical operations and repeated at (4 weeks), and (12 weeks) after operations. Results: GROUP A, GB, and GC at (12 weeks) were respectively as the following: PLI (1.28, 1.03 and 0.56), GI (0.97, 1.12 and 0.60), BOP (37.88 %, 39.44 % and 11.66 %), PPD (3.11 mm, 2.8 mm and 1.28 mm) and RAL (3.36 mm, 3.47 mm and 2.7 mm). Conclusions: GROUP C Ultrasonic scaler revealed the highly significant reduction in the clinical parameters. Followed by fiberglass burs and lastly by the curette. Also the three groups showed a highly significant reduction in all parameters as the time interval progressed (4 weeks), and (12 weeks).


Article
The prevalence and relationship of root caries depth and gingival recession among different Iraqi groups

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Background: Root caries is considered as a major dental problem in persons with advanced age. It most often occurs at or close to the cemento-enamel junction. A dominating dental problem in the patients of periodontal diseases is the root caries. Specifically, gingival recession often results in root surfaces exposure and increase risk for root caries. The aim from this study is to determine the prevalence of the gingival recession and the root caries depth, and to find the relationship between root caries depth and gingival recession at different age stages for both genders using scores for both root caries depth and gingival recession. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of (144) patients was selected, aged (21-65) years old, from patients attending the Dental Clinics of Al- Mustansiriyah University, Alrafidain College and Althawra Dental Centers. Questionnaire case sheet forms were filled by dentist. For each patient, clinical examination was performed using a periodontal probe to measure root caries depth and gingival recession. Results: The prevalence of gingival recession and root caries was higher in male groups (1,3,5) in comparison with female groups (2,4,6) and increased with age in all teeth and surfaces. The study showed that females aged 21-35 years (group 2) had lower percentage of gingival recession (8% for teeth and 5.1% for surfaces) and root caries (6.9% for teeth and 5.3% for surfaces); while males aged 51-65 years (group 5) showed higher percentage of gingival recession (23.7% for teeth and 24.8% for surfaces) and root caries (30.6% for teeth and 25.3% for surfaces). Mandibular anterior teeth exhibited more gingival recession (22.1) than other teeth; while mandibular molar teeth exhibited more root caries (23.6%) than other teeth. The facial surfaces of maxillary and mandibular teeth were showed higher percentage of gingival recession (15.3% for maxillary, 17.2% for mandibular) and root caries (17.3% for maxillary, 20.5% for mandibular) in comparison with other surfaces. This study showed a significant difference between root caries depth scores (1,2,3), gingival recession scores (2,3) and also with the age; while there was non-significant difference between root caries depth scores (1,2,3) and gingival recession score (1). Conclusion: There was a positive relationship between root caries depth and gingival recession with advance of age. This can be related to that, patients with advance of age have susceptibility to expose for longer time to risk factors due to periodontal MDJdiseases that can lead to increased gingival recession and root caries. Gingival recession and root caries were found in males more than females.

Table of content: volume:12 issue:1