Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2016 volume:28 issue:3

Article
Effect of Mouth Rinses on Surface Roughness of Two Methacrylate-Based and Siloraine-Based Composite Resins

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ABSTRACT Background: Various fluids in the oral environment can affect the surface roughness of resin composites. This in vitro study was conducted to determine the influence of the mouth rinses on surface roughness of two methacrylatebased resin (nanofilled and packable composite) and siloraine-based resin composites. Materials and methods: Disc-shaped specimens (12 mm in diameter and 2mm in height) were prepared from three types of composite resin materials: Filtek™ Z350 XT, Filtek™ P60 and Filtek™ P90.Thirty specimens were prepared from each composite type and subdivided into three subgroups (n=10) according to the type of treatment solution: distilled water (control), Listerine (alcohol-containing), Sensodyne Pronamel (alcohol free fluoride- containing).Each subgroup was immersed in 20 ml of treatment solutions and incubated at 37°C for 24 hr and then subjected to surface roughness test by profilometer .The resulting data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and LSD test at0.05 significance level. Results: The results of this study showed that both mouth rinses irrespective of the presence or absence of alcohol resulted in significant increase in the surface roughness of the tested resin composite materials compared to control with no significant difference between the two mouth rinses. Comparison among the three types of resin in each treatment solution showed that there was a statistically high significant difference in surface roughness between all subgroups Conclusion: Both alcohol-containing and alcohol-free fluoride containing mouth rinses cause highly significant increase in surface roughness of composite resins. Composite changes depended on the material itself rather than the mouth rinse solution used.


Article
Effect of Acidic and Energy Drinks on Surface Roughness of Three Types of Bulk Fill Composite Materials

Authors: Linz A. Shalan لنز شعلان
Pages: 8-14
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Background: This study aimed to study the effect of some acidic drinks (Vinegars and fresh Orange juice) and energy drinks (Red bull) on surface roughness of three types of bulkfill composite materials: Filtek posterior bulkfill (3M), Sonicfill (Kerr) and Filtek p60 (3M). Materials and Methods: Total number of 120 samples are prepared by using a mold of (12mm diameter and 3mm height), which were divided into three groups forty samples for each group: Group A: Filtek bulkfill posterior composite (3M), Group B: Sonicfill composite (Kerr), Group C: Filtek P60 (3 M) which then divided into four sub- groups (n=10) (1) samples were kept in distilled water as a control group (2) samples were immersed in Redbull (3) samples were immersed in fresh Orange juice (4) samples were immersed in Vinegars. Immersion of samples were made manually for 5 seconds for 10 cycles at room temperature daily for one month then surface roughness was measured by the use of profilometer ,The data were recorded and statistically analyzed, by the ANOVA and the Tukey test. Results: Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test which revealed that there were a high significant (p<0.001) increase in surface roughness of the three composite materials after immersion in Vinegar and Redbull drinks after one month with highest value for Filtek Bulkfill posterior composite (3M), than Sonicfill composite (Kerr) and Filtek p 60 (3 M) and there was non-significant difference (p> 0.05) in surface roughness value for the three composite materials after immersion in Fresh orange juice. Conclusions: The effect of energy and acidic drinks depend upon exposure time, composition of the composite material


Article
A Comparative Evaluation of Apical Seal Associated with Ultrasonic Retrograde Cavities Filled with Bioactive Material (In Vitro Study)

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Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the apical microleakage around retrograde cavities prepared with ultrasonic technique and filled with (Biodentine™) Materials and methods: 40 extracted single rooted human permanent maxillary teeth with mature apices were selected. The roots were prepared chemo-mechanically using k-files with crown-down technique and then obturated with lateral condensation gutta-percha technique. Teeth were divided into four main groups according to the cavity preparation method either manual or ultrasonic technique: Group A (n=10): A class I retrograde cavity at root end was prepared with traditional handpeice equipped and placement of Biodentine with manual condensation. Group B (n=10): A class I retrograde cavity at root end was prepared with Piezoelectric ultrasonic device equipped with ultrasonic tip with only manual compaction of the material. Group C (n=10): traditional handpeice and placement of Biodentine using both manual compaction and 5 second ultrasonic activation. Group D (n=10): Piezoelectric ultrasonic device and placement of Biodentine with both manual compaction and 5 second ultrasonic compaction. The teeth were immersed in 1% aqueous Methylene blue dye for 72 hr. Then they were sectioned longitudinally with a diamond disc and the depth of dye penetration was examined under high magnification 20X. Results: Statistical analysis showed a highly significant difference in microleakage among the tested groups in which Piezoelectric technique has proved superiority in retrograde cavity preparation and compaction of Biodentin when dye penetration scores were compared. So microleakage was highest with cavities prepared with handpeice and manual application of retrograde material group A (2.73±0.39) followed by microprepared cavities group C (1.86±0.16), and it was lowest with ultrasonically-prepared cavities group B (1.09±0.28) and group D (0.26±0.19). Conclusion: ultrasonic preparation produced significantly less microleakage than conventional method. Also less microleakage was observed with ultrasonic compaction of Biodentin when compared with conventional method of compaction.


Article
A Survey of Prosthodontics Techniques Applied by Dental Practitioners in Sulaimani City

Authors: Neda Al-Kaisy نداء القيسي
Pages: 22-29
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Background: Prosthodontic services have changed markedly due to an introduction of new materials, techniques and treatment options. The aim of this study were to identify the type of materials and the methods used by dental practitioners in their clinics to construct conventional complete dentures and to specify the type and design for removable partial dentures (RPDs); and to then compare them with those taught in dental schools. Materials and methods: A total of 153 dental practitioners in Sulaimani city completed a written questionnaire. The questionnaire included 19 questions regarding complete and RPDs fabrication. Results: Most of the practitioners provide complete dentures (81.6%) and RPDs (95.3%) in their clinics. Polyvinyl siloxane 38.4% and irreversible hydrocolloid 37.6% impression materials were most commonly used to make the preliminary and zinc oxide eugenol 52% for final impressions. The majority of participants did not disinfect their impressions (73.9%). In order to establish the vertical and centric relations, different methods were used. Many practitioners depend on dental technicians to determine the post-dum area (42.4%) and all of them faced different problems during fabrication of the complete denture. Acrylic RPDs were the main type of RPDs provided (89.7%), followed by flexible partial dentures (70.5%). The minority constructed cast metal RPDs (18.4%). Conclusions: Private practitioners did not perform most of the techniques nor use the procedures or materials that are being taught in dental schools. There is a need for continuing dental education programs for improving their clinical skills. Moreover reassessing of the prosthodontic curriculum of the related dental schools is required


Article
Evaluation of Mechanical and Histological Significance of Nano Hydroxyapatite and Nano Zirconium Oxide Coating On the Osseointegration of CP Ti Implants

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Background: Dental implant considers a unique treatment option for the replacement of missing dentition. The new trend of implants is looking for materials which accelerate bone formation in bone implant interface and enhance osseointegration to provide immediate loading directly after placement and decrease the time period which is disturbs patients and uncomfortable. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of nano zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and nano hydroxyapatite (Hap) mixture coating of screw shaped commercially pure titanium (cpTi) implants on bond strength at the bone implant interface with torque removal test and histological analysis in comparison with non coated implants. Materials and methods: Forty screws were machined from cpTi rods using a lathe machine. Then 20 screws coated by electrophoretic deposition method by a mixture of nano hydroxyl apatite and nano zirconium oxide, while the other 20 screws remain uncoated. The tibia of 10 adult white New Zealand experimental rabbits was chosen as implantation site, each rabbit tibia received 2 screws, one coated and the other uncoated. Torque removal test was performed to measure the torque required to remove the screw and histological analysis was performed to observe the new bone formation, after 2 and 4 weeks healing intervals. Results: Implant coated with a mixture of nano zirconium oxide and nano hydroxyl apatite showed a significantly higher removal torque values compared to uncoated one. There was more new bone formation with coated implants for both healing periods. Conclusions: Coating by electrophoresis considers a valuable process to coat metallic implants with a ceramic material and to form a uniform composite layer of coating. Osseointegration improved at bone-implant interface associated with the coated implants, which was illustrated by higher bone formation at the two intervals of time 2 weeks and 4 weeks.


Article
Mechanical Evaluation of Pure Titanium Dental Implants Coated with a Mixture of Nano Titanium Oxide and Nano Hydroxyapatite

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Background: The type of dental implant surface is one of many factors that determine the success of implant restoration. This study aimed to study the effect of mixture of nano titanium oxide with nanohydroxyapatite coating of screw shaped CPTi dental implant on bond strength at bone implant interface by torque removal test related to two healing periods (2 and 6 weeks). Materials and methods: Dip coating process was performed to get an even coating layer on CPTi screws. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and microscopical examination were performed on the coating surfaces of the CPTi. The tibia of 10 white New Zealand rabbits was chosen as implantation sites. The tibia of each rabbit received two screws, one was coated with mixture of nanoTio2and nanoHA and the other was coated with nanoHA and a total of 40 screws were implanted. Torque removal test was performed to measure bond strength between implant and bone, after 2 and 6 weeks healing periods. . Results: The results revealed, that the mean removal torque recordings for the mixture of nanoTio2and nanoHA coated screws was significantly greatly than the nanoHA covered screws over the two periods of time(2and6 weeks). There was an increase in the torque value with time. Conclusion: Commercially pure titanium implant coated with mixture of nanoTio2andnanoHApresented an increasing bond strength at bone implant interface than nanoHA , after 2 and 6 weeks (20.13±4.4 N.cm , 26.47±4 N.cm. ) in comparison to nanoHA coating after 2 and 6 weeks (15.16±2.5 N.cm , 20.12±2.3 N.cm)


Article
Immunohistochemical Expressions of AKT, ATM and Cyclin E in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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Background: Understanding the pathogenesis and molecular basis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) has increased rapidly over the past few years that is essential to improve patient's prognosis and treatment modalities. The purpose of this study to evaluate the Immunohistochemical expressions of AKT, ATM, AND Cyclin E in oral squamous cell carcinoma Materials and methods: This study was performed on a forty formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks which histopathologically diagnosed as Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. All cases were collected from the Histopathological Laboratory from patients treated surgically at Maxillofacial surgery Department at Ramadi Teaching Hospital, Iraq. Results: The immunohistochemical staining of AKT showed positive expression in 38 (95%), ATM showed positive expression in 38(95%) and Cyclin E showed positive expression in 36(90%) of the cases. Conclusion: A statically significant correlation was found regarding the immunohistochemical expression of AKT with tumor grade and stage, Cyclin E with the age group and ATM with the clinical appearance


Article
β- catenin Expression and Its Relation to Bryne’s Invasive Grading System in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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Background: Invasion in oral cancer involves alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions that accompanied by loss of cell adhesion. Catenins stabilize cellular adherence junctions by binding to E-cadherin, which further mediates cell-cell adhesion and regulates proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is one of the major signaling pathways in cell proliferation, oncogenesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Aims of the study: to detect immunohistochemical distribution pattern and different subcellular localization of β- catenin in oral squamous cell carcinoma and relate such expression to Bryne’s invasive grading system. Materials and Methods: This study included 30 paraffin blocks of primary oral squamous cell carcinoma. Bryne’s grading performed on routein stained slides. Immunohistochemical staining for anti β-catenin was done to illustrate its pattern and subcellular localization in malignant cells. The expression correlated with the invasive grading system. Results: β-catenin expression detected in all sample (100%). It was (23.3%) membranous, (60%) aberrant cytoplasmic and (16.7%) mixed expression. Diffuse strong homogeneous pattern was observed in (40%) of the cases. The cytoplasmic expression had significant high mean rank in score 3, diffuse strong homogeneous pattern and strong intensity. Well-differentiated carcinoma expressed great mixed membranous/cytoplasmic expression while poordifferentiated cases showed low membranous mean rank expression. The strong diffuse homogeneous pattern with strong staining was significantly frequent in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Increase cytoplasmic β-catenin expression is parallel with carcinoma dedifferentiation. Suggesting maintenance of its adhesive role with the inhibition of the normal degradation of free β-catenin in the cytoplasm, which might cause accelerated tumor cell proliferation


Article
Immunohistochemical Expression of MMP2, VEGF and D2-40 as Biological Markers of Local Invasion Potential, Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Verrucous Carcinoma

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Background: Verrucous carcinoma (VSCC) is considered as a rare well differentiated carcinoma variant of SCC with no metastatic potential. The aim of this study is to evaluate the Immunohistochemical expression MMP-2, VEGF and D2-40 expression in OSCC and VSCC. Materials and methods: Thirty formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of OSCC and another twelve VSCC were collected and Four micrometer thick sections were cut from each block and mounted on positively charged slides and stained immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies to MMP-2, VEGF and D2-40. Results: there is no statistical difference between SCC and VSCC regarding the immunoexpression of MMP-2 and VEGF. While the lymphatic vessels density were higher in SCC than VSCC Conclusions: OSCC and VSCC bear similar local invasion and angiogenesis potentials when quantified with MMP-2 and VEGF immunostaining respectively whereas OSCC have higher lymphatic vessels density than their VSCC as evaluated with D2-40 immunoexpression


Article
Salivary Immunoglobulin A Assessment in Lymphoma Patients before and after Chemotherapy

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Background: Lymphomas are group of diseases caused by malignant lymphocytes that accumulate in lymph nodes and caused the characteristics lymphadenopathy. Occasionally, they may spill over into blood or infiltrate organs outside the lymphoid tissue. The major subdivision of lymphomas is into Hodgkin lymphoma and non–Hodgkin lymphoma and this is based on the histologic presence of Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin lymphoma. Salivary immunoglobulin A is the prominent immunoglobulin and is considered to be the main specific defense mechanism in oral cavity. The aim of this study was to determine the level of salivary immunoglobulin A in lymphoma patients before and after chemotherapy treatment. Subjects, materials and methods: The study included 25 patients (15 male and 10 female) with non–Hodgkin lymphoma(B-cell type) , 25 patients( 16 male and 9 female ) with Hodgkin lymphoma and 25 (15 male and 10 female) healthy control group. Whole un-stimulated saliva was collected to determine the level of salivary immunoglobulin A, which measured by Enzyme Link Immunosorbent Assay. Results: The level of salivary immunoglobulin A was significantly higher in pre-treatment patients in comparison with control group, and there was a significant decrease after chemotherapy treatment when compared to their base line levels in both study groups. Conclusion: The salivary immunoglobulin A was higher in lymphoma patients than control, then its level showed obvious decrease after chemotherapy treatment.


Article
The Effect of Thymosin Beta 4 on Developing Dental Tissue (Experimental Study on Rats)

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Background: Odontogenisis is a complex process controlled by dynamic and reciprocal interactions that regulated by various molecules. Thymosin β4 is a small bioactive peptide with wide spectrum biological effects on much cell types. The present study was designed to highlight the effect of synthetic exogenous Tβ4 on developing dental tissue of the upper central teeth of rats, by histological examination and immunohistochemical evaluation of TGFβ1. Materials and method: Thirty six Albino Wister pregnant rat 18control group received intraperitoneal injection of normal saline and the others are experimental group received 50μg/300μl of Tβ4 injection. The animals were sacrificed at periods 16th and 18th day I.U.L and one day post natal, as six animals for each period. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation for expression of TGF β1 in dental tissue of upper central teeth of the rat were done Results: In-vivo results showed that experimental group had accelerated stages of tooth development with acceleration in deposition of dental hard tissue (enamel and dentin) with high positive expression of TGF β1by enamel organ, dental papilla and dental sac cells. Conclusion: these data suggest synthetic exogenous Tβ4 act as bioactive initiator enhances tooth development by stimulating proliferation and differentiation of both epithelial and mesenchymalcells.


Article
Histological Evaluation of Effect of beta-Tricalcium Phosphate on Bone healing in Alloxan-Induced diabetes

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Background: Improved glucose level control with insulin injections have allowed for the diabetic population to live longer and healthier lives. Unfortunately diabetes remains a worldwide epidemic disease with multiple health implications. Specifically, its effects upon fracture healing are compromised in diabetics with as high as 87% recovery delay relative to “healthy” counterparts. Current medical treatments for bone injuries have been largely focused on replacing the lost bone with allogenic or autogenous bone grafts, beta-tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP), a ceramic alloplast, has interconnected system of micropores, has been widely used as a biologically safe osteoconductive bone substitute. The aim of this study was histological evaluation of effect of topical application of β –TCP on bone healing of diabetic rabbit. Materials and methods: Sixty New Zealand rabbits used in this study were divided into three groups for four healing intervals the experimental groups were: 1-Control group(C).2-Diabetic rabbits received insulin treatment regarded as controlled diabetes mellitus (CDM)group.3-Diabetic rabbits did not receive any treatment regarded as uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (UDM)group. All animals subjected to surgical operation in right tibia, creating bone defect 3mm in depth and 4mm in diameter filled with β-Tricalcium Phosphate. Animals' scarifications were done in 5 day, 2, 4 and 6 weeks durations. Routine processing and sectioning technique was performed for histological evaluation. Results: Histological findings indicated that bone defects in control(C) and controlled diabetes mellitus (CDM) groups showed early bone formation, mineralization and maturation in comparison to healing of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (UDM) group. Histomorphometric analysis for all bone parameters examined in this study, showed variation in significance among all groups in different durations. Conclusion: The study revealed that application of β-TCP was more effective in enhancement of bone regeneration and in acceleration of bone healing process in controlled diabetes as compared to the uncontrolled one.


Article
Expression of Syndecan 1 on Periodontium treated with Topical Application of Aloe-Vera

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Background: Periodontium mainly exposed to injury by trauma or pathologic diseases, Aloe vera is a plant has many basic ingredients in its extracted gel that acts as wound healing accelerator in addition to that it's safe, and economical and without recordable of side effect. This study aimed is to evaluate the effect of topical application of Aloe vera on expression of syndecan -1 by periodontium tissue. Materials and methods: Thirty six male Albino rats were subjected for periodontium defect by electric scaler on the distal sides of both lower anterior teeth. The animals divided into two groups; control group (without treatment) and the experimental group treated with 1μLAloe vera gel/normal saline. Periodontal healing was examined at periods (3, 7, 14 days) for immunohistochemical localization of syndecan 1. Results: Immunohistochemical examination of this study revealed that the aloe vera treatment increase expression of syndecan 1 by epithelial cell, osteoblasts, fibroblast, stromal cells and with highly significant differences in comparison with control and saline. Conclusion: Aloe vera gel may affect the expression of syndecan 1 which seems to play a role in periodontium healing.

Keywords

Aloe vera --- periodontium --- syndecans


Article
Corrеlation bеtwееn Dual-Еnеrgy X-Ray Absorptiomеtry and Panoramic Mandibular Indicеs in Prеdiction of Bonе Minеral Dеnsity in Postmеnopausal Fеmalеs

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Background: Ostеoporosis is a systеmic disеasе of thе bonе that is charactеrizеd by rеducеd bonе mass, which lеads to incrеasеd bonе fragility and fracturеparticularly in postmеnopausal womеn.Thе aims of study was toеvaluatе thе rеlationship bеtwееn mandibular radiomorphomеtric indicеs obtainеd on digital panoramic radiographswith thе bonе minеral dеnsitiеs of thе lumbar spinееvaluatеd using dual-еnеrgy X-ray absorptiomеtry (DXA) scan, in a population of ostеoporotic and non-ostеoporotic fеmalеs. Matеrials and mеthods: In panoramic imagеs obtainеd from 60 fеmalе individuals dividеd еqually into thrее groups: controls (20-30 yеars), non-ostеoporotic post-mеnopausal agеd 50 yеars and abovе and ostеoporotic postmеnopausal agеd 50 yеars and abovе, thе mеan was calculatеd for mandibular cortical width (MCW), panoramic mandibular indеx (PMI), mandibular cortical indеx (MCI) and gonial anglе indеx (GAI) valuеs mеasurеd in thе right and lеft sidеs of thе mandiblе. Bonе minеral dеnsity (BMD) valuеs wеrе mеasurеd by dual еnеrgy X-ray absorptiomеtry (DXA) scan. Rеsults: Significant positivе corrеlation (r) was obsеrvеd bеtwееn bonе minеral dеnsity of lumbar vеrtеbraе and MCW (r=0.706) and PMI (r=0.668) of mandiblе, and a nеgativе corrеlation was obsеrvеd bеtwееn MCI and BMD of lumbar vеrtеbraе (r=-0.716). Whilе GAI did not show any significant diffеrеncе in rеlation to bonе minеral dеnsity. Conclusion: This study showеd that MCW, PMI and MCI indicеs wеrе usеful for idеntifying fеmalеs with low skеlеtal (BMD), whilе GAI was indеpеndablе in dеtеcting ostеoporosis


Article
The Usefulness of Mandibular Ramus as an Indicator in Sex Differentiation Using 3D Reconstructed Computed Tomography

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Background: Determination of sex from an unknown human bone is an important role in forensic and anthropology field. The mandible is the largest and hardest facial bone, that commonly resist postmortem damage and forms an important source of information about sexual dimorphism. Mandibular ramus can be used to differentiate between sexes and it also expresses strong univariate sexual dimorphism. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of mandibular ramus as an aid in sex differentiation using CT scanning among Iraqi population. Materials and methods: 3D reconstructed computed tomography scanning of 140 Iraqi Arab subjects, (7 0 males and 70 females) were analyzed with their age range from 20-60 years old. The linear measurements were located and marked on axial and sagittal sections including right and left sides of the mandible. Results: For the all measurements for sexes the mean value for male were highly significant than female with (P= value < 0.001).A receiver operating characteristic curves was obtained for each variable to observe their overall performance in sex determination. The area of maximum mandibular ramus height was found to be the best parameter according to ROC analysis to establish the diagnosis of male (ROC=0.952cm for both unilateral and bilateral measurements). Age showed no statistical difference in the current study. Conclusion: 3D reconstructed computed tomography scanning plays an important role as a diagnostic method for analyzing the linear measurements of the mandibular ramus in sex differentiation. Sex determination for isolated part of the skull (e.g. mandible) could be achieved, instead of complete skull, and the highest accuracy in sex determination can be obtained whether complete or part of mandible is available for examination


Article
Radiological Assessment of Mandibular Retromolar Canal (MRMC) Using CBCT-Radiographs in a Sample of Iraqi Patients

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Background: Because of its clinical and surgical importance and lack of precise information about this rare and important anatomical landmark, this study was designed to detect the presence, configurations and length of Mandibular Retromolar Canal (MRMC) with aid of CBCT visualization. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study the data was obtained from Specialist Health Center in AL-Sadder city in Baghdad for (100) patients with 200 inferior dental canal, all of them referred to CBCT scan (Kodak 9500, French origin). The scanning was done with tube voltage 90 kVp, tube current with 10mA and exposure time was 10 s., the field of view was measured with 5cm x 3.7cmwith 0.03mm voxel size Results: In the present study the prevalence of MRMC was 12% , 2 patients have ( two ) bilateral MRMC and 10 patients have a unilateral canal, there was asignificant difference between two sides (left and right), the right side was 64.29% and left 35.71%, regarding to gender also there was a significant difference , female 33.3% and male 66.7%. In this study there were three types of MRMC and there was a significant difference between them, the mean length (hight) was 11.78 mm and mean horizontaldistance from canal to distal surface of the second molar was 18.5 mm. Conclusions: MRMC also detectedin this study within the global percentage and configurations and should be taken with consideration in oral surgical procedures and radiological interpretations.


Article
Evaluation of the Effect of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Stability of Dental Implant

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Background: The healing period for bone–implant contact takes 3–6 months or even longer. Application of Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (ErhBMP-2) to implant surfaces has been of great interest on osseointegration due to its osteoinductive potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ErhBMP-2 on implant stability. Materials and methods: A total of 48 dental implants were inserted in 15 patients. Twenty four implants coated with 0.5 mg/ml ErhBMP-2 (study group). The other 24 implants were uncoated (control group). Each patient was received at least two dental implants at the same session. Both groups were followed with repeated implant stability measurements by means of resonance frequency analysis at different time intervals (at the time of surgery, then at 6th and 12th week postoperatively). Results: there was no obvious statistically significant difference in mean of implant stability quotient ISQ between study and control groups (P > 0.05) at time of surgery, whereas the mean of ISQ values at 6th and at 12th week postoperatively were statistically highly significant in the study group compared to the control group (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The results of this study reveal that coating dental implants with ErhBMP-2 increases stability when compared with uncoated implants


Article
Evaluation of Systemic C-reactive Protein as a Systemic Inflammatory Marker in the Blood for Patients Undergoing Minor Oral Surgical Procedures

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Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein that its plasma levels increase after trauma or surgery so it is used as an indicator for the level of inflammation after surgery. The objective of this study is to investigate pre- and post-operative levels of CRP in three types of oral surgical interventions (Apicoectomy, Impaction, and Impacted teeth exposure). Materials and Methods: A total number of (48) healthy individuals aged (20-60) years who needed oral surgical intervention for either (removal of impacted third molars, exposure of an impacted canine, or Apicoectomy). A 4ml venous blood was obtained from each patient at two occasions (pre-operatively at the day of operation and postoperatively after 48 hours), then centrifuged for 15 minutes at (1000x g) and finally the sera were separated and stored at (-20º C) to be used for later analysis by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: There was statistically high significant increase in the level of CRP after oral surgical interventions in all types of operations (the CRP mean value pre-operatively was 2.407925 mg/L, post-operatively after 48hr was 8.486725 mg/L, and the P-value was 0.000). Also there was a high significant difference between apicectomy, impaction, and exposure operations in the level of CRP at day two postoperatively (P-value was 0.000). Conclusion: An inflammatory process develops after oral surgical interventions which necessitate the use of antiinflammatory agents after these procedures and that the severity of inflammation measured by means of CRP levels is correlated to the degree of swelling, length, and type of the surgical procedure


Article
The Efficacy of Polidocanol foam Sclerotherapy in Treatment of Infantile Hemangioma and Slow-Flow Vascular Malformation

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Background: Sclerotherapy is a simple treatment modality for treatment of infantile hemangioma and slow-flow vascular malformations; Polidocanol is a mild sclerosing agent that is traditionally used in treatment of varicose veins. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness, treatment outcome, and complications of polidocanol foam sclerotherapy for infantile hemangioma and slow-flow vascular malformations. Materials and methods: Between March 2013 and December 2014, seventeen patients with infantile hemangioma and slow-flow vascular malformations treated with polidocanol 1% foam sclerotherapy. Foam was prepared by Tessari’s method. Injection performed under general or local anesthesia, injections were repeated (if necessary) on monthly basis, assessment of lesion size and response to treatment was performed by ultrasonography. Effectiveness of polidocanol foam sclerotherapy was evaluated according to reduction in lesion size. Results: A total of 17 patients were enrolled, 15 of them (88.23%) were females and 2 (11.76%) were males, with age range from 10 months to 57 years old (mean age 21.69). Eleven patents (64.7%) had venous malformations while 6 patients (35.29%) had infantile hemangioma. Mean number of treatment sessions was 2.76. Nine patients had excellent outcome, 3 with good outcome, 3 with fair outcome and 2 had poor outcome in relation to lesion size. Complications were transient. Conclusions: Polidocanol foam sclerotherapy is an easy to perform procedure, safe, and repeatable, provide excellent outcome for venous malformations and good outcome for infantile hemangioma


Article
Correlation between Visfatin and Creatine Kinase Levels with Periodontal Health Status of Patients with Coronary Atherosclerosis and Chronic Periodontitis

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Background: Visfatin is a novel adipokine that mainly secreted by visceral adipose tissue, had an important role in inflammation and immune system. Creatine Kinase (CK) which is an enzyme that is involved in energy metabolism, found in large amounts in myocardium, brain and skeletal tissues. This study is carried out To evaluate the periodontal health status of the study groups (chronic periodontitis and chronic periodontitis with coronary atherosclerosis) and control groups, to measure the salivary levels of visfatin and Creatine Kinase in these groups and compare between them, and to determine the correlations between salivary visfatin and Creatine Kinase levels with the periodontal parameters in the three groups. Materials and Methods: eighty participants, males and females were recruited in this study with age ranged from (30- 60) years, they were divided into three groups: the first study group was the Chronic periodontitis group (n=30), the second study group was chronic periodontitis and coronary atherosclerosis (n=30) and the control group(n=20) which was healthy systemically with healthy periodontium. Periodontal health status was determined by measuring plaque index(PLI),gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth(PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinical attachment level (CAL),salivary samples were taken from each participants, salivary visfatin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay(ELISA) while the activity of salivary Creatine Kinase was determined spectrometrically by using the International Federation of the Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) method on Hitachi 911 Automatic analyzer. Results: The results of the study showed that the mean values of PLI, GI, visfatin, Creatine Kinase and the percentages of sites according to PPD scores, CAL scores, BOP were higher in the second study group with chronic periodontitis and coronary atherosclerosis than in the other groups with highly significant differences between the groups at (P≤0.01). Also by using Pearson Correlation Coefficient, salivary visfatin levels were correlated positively with all clinical periodontal parameters with a strong and positive correlation between salivary visfatin levels and CAL scores and PPD scores. Salivary Creatine Kinase levels were correlated positively with all clinical periodontal parameters with a strong and positive correlation between its levels and mean values of GI and percentages of BOP. Conclusion: The present study showed that salivary visfatin can be used as a marker for the development of coronary atherosclerosis and its levels are associated with the degree of periodontal destruction and showed that Creatine Kinase may be used as a marker for coronary atherosclerosis and chronic periodontitis.


Article
Assessment of Alkaline Phosphatase, Salivary Flow Rate and Salivary Potential of Hydrogen in Relation to Severity of Chronic Periodontitis

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Background: The cells of periodontium contain many intracellular enzymes like (alkaline phosphatase ALP) that are released outside into the saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after destruction of periodontal tissue. The aim of study was to determine the activity of this enzyme in saliva and its relation to the salivary flow rate, PH and clinical periodontal parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis. Subject, Materials and methods: Sample population consist of 75 individuals ;divided into four groups , the first group (15):control subject, the second group (20):mild chronic periodontitis, the third group(20) moderate chronic periodontitis and the fourth group (20) sever chronic periodontitis, Measurements of plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL), only male were included and saliva was collected from them and subjected to biochemical analysis of the alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP), and also measurement of salivary flow rate(FR) and PH. Results: Statistical analysis of the results revealed the presence of a highly significant difference in the enzymatic activity between healthy and chronic periodontitis subjects (mild, moderate, severe) with positive correlation between the activity of this enzyme and the clinical periodontal parameters, and negative correlation between this enzyme and Salivary flow rate and pH. Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that a number of markers show promise as sensitive measures of disease and the effectiveness of therapy. At this time enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase ALP, is good biochemical markers of screening chronic periodontitis. Also ALP can be used as a monitor for healthy individuals and patients with different periodontal diseases. Furthermore, analysis of saliva may offer a cost effective approach to assessment in controlling progression of chronic periodontitis in large populations


Article
Correlation between Caries Related Microorganisms in the Dental Plaque and Saliva with Dental Caries Level in the Upper and Lower Jaws in 5-9 Years Old Children in Baghdad City

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Background: The oral cavity is considered as a complex ecological niche, its complex microbial community is reflected to it. Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as one of the major etiological factor of dental caries. Tooth surfaces colonized with Streptococcus mutans are at a higher risk for developing caries, while lactobacilli are considered as the secondary invaders, not initiators of the carious lesion. The main purpose of this study was to correlate the dental caries (for primary and permanent teeth) in the upper jaw with the streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli count in the dental plaque and saliva, also to correlate the dental caries (for primary and permanent teeth) in the lower jaw with the streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli count in the saliva. Materials and methods: Forty seven children aged 5-9 years old were selected for this study. Dental caries recording was carried out by the dmfs index (decayed, missed, filled surfaces for primary teeth) to inspect the primary teeth and DMFS index (decayed, missed, filled surfaces for permanent teeth) to inspect the permanent teeth, by using the dental mirror and explorer. Collection of salivary samples was performed in the morning between (10-11) a.m. at least one hour after breakfast, then normal saline was added to have tenfold dilutions, for the purpose of full colony counting of the caries related microorganisms (streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli), then inoculation was done in the special selective media (for the streptococcus mutans is Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin agar, and for the lactobacilli is Rogosa agar). Counting of the colonies of the bacteria were estimated by the aid of dissection microscope Results: The highest level of dmfs means was found in primary upper teeth, it was 17.6383 ± 10.10 while for the permanent teeth the mean of DS and DMFS was highest in the lower teeth, it was 0.7391 ± 1. Pearson correlation was used to show the correlation between the ds and dmfs of upper and lower primary teeth with the level of streptococcus mutans in saliva (sm. Sal) and lactobacillus in saliva ,there was a significant correlation between the ds and dmfs for upper primary teeth at level 0.01 (2-tailed), and there was negative correlation between dsl and level of streptococcus mutans in saliva (sm. Sal) also there was negative correlation between dmfs for upper and lower primary teeth with level of streptococcus mutans in saliva, also the correlation between lactobacillus level in plaque with streptococcus level in plaque was negative, while for upper permanent teeth the correlation was negative with both type of bacteria level in plaque with the DSU and DMFSU Conclusion: The caries activity was more prominent in upper teeth than lower teeth, levels of streptococcus mutans were not associated with high caries activity, which emphasizes and consistent with the fact that the dental caries is a multifactorial disease, related to many factors


Article
The Effect of Upper Removable Orthodontic Appliances on Oral Candidal Mucosal Carriage

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Abstract

Background: Treatment of malocclusions using removable orthodontic appliances may prepare new stagnant areas susceptible for colonization and retention of Candida species, therefore; the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of upper removable orthodontic appliances on the mucosal Candidal count in group of apparently healthy orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods: Patients enrolled in this study were children aged 8-12 years having upper removable orthodontic appliances. Candidal counts at six mucosal sites were estimated using Imprint Culture method before, 14 and 28 days during orthodontic therapy. Results: Whole mouth and individual mucosal sites for Candidal counts increase significantly during treatment with upper removable orthodontic appliances. Conclusion: The results suggest that removable orthodontic appliances treatment promotes an increase in Candida counts. Furthermore, removable appliance therapy had a positive transient influence upon the prevalence and density of oral candidal carriage. This can indicate a more cautious approach when providing orthodontic treatments for immunocompromised children regarding the increased possibility of candidal infection


Article
Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Three Different Brackets Bonded on Zirconium Surfaces (In Vitro Study)

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Background: With the increased in the demands of adult orthodontics, the challenge of direct bonding to nonenamel surface (zirconium) had been increased. The present study was carried out to compare the shear bond strength of three different brackets (stainless steel, sapphire and composite) bonded to zirconium surface and study the mode of bond failure. Materials and methods: The sample was comprised of 30 models (8mm *6mm*1.5mm) of full contour zirconium veneers. They were divided into three groups according to the brackets type; all samples were treated first by sandblast with aluminum oxide particle 50 μm then coated by z-prime plus primer. A central incisor bracket of each group was bonded to the prepared zirconium surface with light cure adhesive resin (Transbond TM XT, 3M Unitek, USA). Shear bond strength was measured by using Tinius Olsen universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 0.5min. After debonding, each bracket and zirconium surface were examined using magnifying lens and adhesive remnant index was recorded. The difference in shear bond strength between main groups was analyzed by using ANOVA at p≤0.05. Results: The results revealed high significant difference among all tested groups and the highest value was for sapphire brackets (7.49±1.45 Mpa) of all groups followed by stainless steel brackets (6.46±1.43Mpa) and composite brackets had the least value (4.35±0.72). Non-significant difference in the site of bond failure among all groups of brackets and zirconium-adhesive interface failure (score III) was the predominant. Conclusion: the new zirconium prime plus primer can be successfully used in bonding stainless steel and sapphire brackets to zirconium surface.


Article
Assessment of Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIg A) Level during Fixed Orthodontic Treatment

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Background: The immune system of the oral cavity suffers alterations due to fixed orthodontic treatment which act as potent stimulus for oral secretory immunity. The aims of this study are to estimate the effect of fixed orthodontic appliance on the level of salivary sIgA at different time intervals, and to verify the gender difference. Materials and method: The patient's history, clinical examination, and fixed orthodontic appliances were placed for 30 Iraqi orthodontic adult patients had class II division 1 and/ or class I malocclusion (15 males and 15 females) aged 18-25 years old. The unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each sample immediately before wearing fixed appliance (control group T0 as base line), and after 2 weeks (T1),1 month (T2), and 1year (T3) of wearing fixed orthodontic appliance. The levels of salivary sIgA were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay kit (ELISA). Results: The mean value of salivary sIgA was elevated at T1 and reached the peak at T2 followed by declined at T3 to reach near the normal value at T0 (base line). Repeated measure ANOVA test showed statistically highly significant difference among four time intervals. The Bonferroni test after repeated measure ANOVA test showed highly statistical significant difference between each two time intervals except between T0 and T3 show significant difference. In addition there were no significant gender differences. Conclusion: In this study one can conclude that fixed orthodontic appliance acts as an immunological stimulant in the oral cavity that changes the level of salivary sIgA which evaluate the immunity status in the oral cavity


Article
Comparison of Immunoglobulin IgA Level in the Stimulated Saliva of Caries-Free and Caries-Active Children Aged 7-10 Years

Authors: Heba N. Yassin هبه ياسين
Pages: 155-158
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Background: Salivary immunoglobulin IgA plays an essential role in the immune response against dental caries. This studywas conducted to compare the salivary IgA levels and flow rate of stimulated saliva in caries active and caries free children. Materials and methods: The present study included sixty healthy children age 7-10 yearswho were divided into two groups. They were caries free and caries active children (30 children in each group). Assessment and recording of caries – experience were through the application of Decayed, Missing and Filled Tooth Index (DMFT) and (dmft) index, for permanent and deciduous teeth respectively. After dental examination, stimulated saliva samples were collected from the subjects and performed under standard condition following instruction cited by Tenovuo and Lagerlof, and chemically analyzed for the detection of salivary immunoglobulin (IgA).In addition, salivary flow rate for the children were evaluated. Data was then statistically analyzed using SPSSversion 18. Results: Salivary IgA levels were significantly higher in caries free children than caries active children and the flow rate were lower in caries active children in both gender as compared to caries free children. Conclusions: Within the limitation of this study, it can be concluded that that the flow rate and salivary IgA levels of the whole stimulated saliva have some role in protection against dental caries


Article
Asthma and Inhaled Corticosteroid Effect on the Dental Arch Morphology in Children

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Background: Asthma has an influence on craniofacial development. Recently evidences show that there is an association between oral health problems and chronic lung disease. The present study was designed to estimate the changes in arch dimension measurements among asthmatic children aged 12 years old who were collected from AL- Zahra Center Advisory for Allergy and Asthma and compare them with the non-asthmatic children of the same age and gender. Material and Methods: Fifty children (25 asthmatic and 25 non- asthmatic children) were included for the odontometric measurement. For both upper and lower study models, photographs were taken using special photographic apparatus for each child, and the statistical analysis were done by using SPSS version 19. For permanent dentition, two liner measurements were utilized for each dental arch including width and length. Results: The results of the current research revealed that the mean values of dental arch dimensions, width and length; for both maxillary and mandibular dental arches among asthmatic children were lower as compared to nonasthmatic children in both genders. Conclusions: The findings of the present study showed that asthma and inhalation treatment in asthmatic children played an important role to minimize odontometric measurement including dental arch dimensions


Article
Tooth Wear in Relation to Selected Salivary Variables among a Group of Older Adults

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Background: Tooth wear is one of the most concerning problems of the current dental practice especially among older subjects. The aim of this study is to determine the severity of tooth wear and its relation with selected salivary variables (salivary pH and vitamin C level) among a group of older adults in Mosul city/Iraq. Materials and methods: All subjects (30 subjects) of both gender tookpart in the current study; sixteen of them were older adults (55-65 years) and compared with fourteen middle-aged adults (30-40 years) at Textile factory in Mosul city/Iraq. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected and salivary pH was immediately measured. Salivary vitamin C level was determined colormetrically. Severity of tooth wear was determined according to Hansson and Nilner (1975) classification. Results: Results showed that all severity scores of tooth wear revealed higher percentage among older adults than middle-aged adults. Also all tooth segment types revealed higher percentage of tooth wear among older adults than middle-aged adults. Moreover regarding the highest score of tooth wear by subjects, higher percentage of tooth wear was found among older adults than middle-aged adults. Concerning the total sample results disclosed that wear of enamel only revealed higher percentage than one or more teeth worn into dentine and one or more teeth worn up to 1/3 of the crown. Also in the total sample the incisor region showed higher percentage of tooth wear while the least tooth wear percentage was found in the molar region. In both age groups no significant correlations were found between salivary pH and vitamin C with the highest score of tooth wear. Conclusion: Tooth wear is more severe among older subjects. Further study is needed with larger sample size and more precise index that measure the etiology of tooth wear


Article
Microleakage of Pit and Fissure Sealants after Using Different Occlusal Surface Preparation Techniques: An In Vitro Study

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Background: The marginal seal is essential for sealant success because penetration of bacteria under the sealant might allow caries onset or progression. The aim of the present study was to estimate and compare the microleakage of pit and fissure sealant after various methods of occlusal surface preparation. Materials and methods: Thirty non-carious premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were equally divided into three groups. In group one, occlusal fissures were opened with round carbide bur, in group two, occlusal surfaces of the teeth were cleaned with a dry pointed bristle brush and samples of group three were cleaned with a slurry of fine flour of pumice in water using rubber cup. Then fissures of all teeth were etched using 35% phosphoric acid gel prior to placement of Conseal F (SDI) light cured sealant, the teeth were thermocycled, then they were immersed in 1% methylene blue for 24hours. Each tooth was sectioned bucco-lingually to detect the microleakage. Results: Different levels of microleakage were observed among various groups, highest level was recorded for brushing group followed by pumice group, while round bur samples showed the least microleakage when compared with other groups. Statistically the difference was not significant between brushing and pumice groups, while it was significant between round bur and other groups Conclusion: Preparation of occlusal surface with round bur was very effective in reduction of microleakage in comparison with the traditional pumice slurry and bristle brush.


Article
Significance of Salivary miRNA 21 Determined by Real Time PCR in Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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Background: Salivary biomarkers, a non-invasive alternative method to serum and tissue based biomarkers and it is consider as an effective modality for early diagnosis. Salivary microRNA 21, a nucleotide biomarker, was reported to increase in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. This study was conducted to measure the fold change of microRNA 21 in stimulated saliva and to study its association with smoking and occurrence of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and methods: A 20 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma who used to be smokers was included in addition to 40 control subjects (20 smokers and 20 non- smokers health looking subjects). Stimulated saliva was collected under standardized condition. Salivary microRNA 21 was assessed by real time PCR. Results: MicroRNA 21 fold change was significantly higher in both smoker patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and in smoker control subjects compared to non-smoker control subjects. Conclusions: Salivary micrRNA21 can serve as a non-invasive tool aid in the diagnosis and follow up of squamous cell carcinoma patients.

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