Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2016 volume:28 issue:2

Article
An Evaluation of Gutta-Percha Penetration Depth into Simulated Lateral Canals by Using Three Different Obturation Techniques (A Comparative Study)

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Background:sThe aims of this study were to evaluate and compare the ability of three different techniques to obdurate simulated lateral canals, evaluate the effect of the main canal curvature on obturation of lateral canals and compare the gutta-percha penetration between coronal and apical lateral canals. Materials and methods: Resin blocks with 30 straight and 30 curved were used in this study. Each canal has two parallel lateral canals. The main canal has 0.3 mm apical diameter and 0.04 taper. The canals were divided into six groups according to canal curvature and obturation techniques used (n=10): Groups C1 and C2: straight and curved canals obturated with continuous wave technique using E&Q masterTM system. Groups O1 and O2: straight and curved canals obturated with Obtura II. Groups T1 and T2: straight and curved canals obturated with Thermafil obturators. Soapy water was used to simulate sealer in all obturations performed. The depth of gutta-percha penetration into lateral canals was measured using computerized stereomicroscope. Results: There were very highly significant differences between the obturation techniques at each lateral canal level in both straight and curved canals. Continuous wave using E&Q masterTM system exhibited the greatest guttapercha penetration into lateral canals with very highly significant difference from both other techniques at majority of lateral canals. There was non- significant difference between Thermafil and Obtura II except at coronal lateral canal of straight main canals where the difference was very highly significant. The gutta-percha depth was greater in coronal than apical lateral canals in all groups of both straight and curved canals, and gutta-percha depth was greater in straight than in curved canals within each obturation technique. Conclusion: This study showed that all the three obturation techniques used were able to obturate simulated lateral canals with the continuous wave technique being the best. Gutta-percha depth was less in the apical than the coronal lateral canals. Canal curvature can influence the gutta-percha depth


Article
The Effect of Ceramic Thickness and Number of Firings on the Color of Two All-Ceramic Systems Measured by Spectrophotometer

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Background: This in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the effects of various veneering dentin ceramic thicknesses and repeated firings on the color of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max Press) and zirconium-oxide (IPS ZirCAD) all-ceramic systems, measured by clinical spectrophotometers (Easyshade Advance 4.0) . Materials and methods: The 72specimens cube-shaped have the dimension of about 11 mm in width, 14 mm in length, 1mm in thickness, these cores divided into 3 groups according to the type of material each group have (24)core specimens. Each group had been divided into three sub-groups (each having 8 specimens) according to veneering with dentin ceramic thicknesses: as 0.5, 1, or 2 mm (n=8). IPS e.max press and ZirCAD cores group had been veneered with IPS e.max Ceram dentin ceramic shade A2 according to manufacturer’s instructions and the metal group had been veneered with IPS classic dentine ceramic with shade A2 according to manufacturer’s instructions. Repeat firings (3, 5 and 7 times) had been applied on all the specimens. Color differences among ceramic specimens had been measured using a clinical spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade); the color data had been expressed according the Vita Classic shade guide. Results: The shade of all specimens had been compared inside the subgroups and with the main groups. The percentage of color agreement among the subgroups showed the color of all ceramic systems had been affecting by firing interval, the ceramic thickness and brand of ceramic. The number firings intervals applied on the all ceramic system has a significant effect on the final color, the increase of firing number change the color to a darker and reddish color. The 5th firing interval is the point at which the major color changes happened (darker shade), and in next interval (7th firing) less color changes happened. The thickness of veneering ceramic affected the color significantly. The 0.5 mm specimens in all groups showed the highest percentage of agreement (less color changes) after firing intervals, then the 1mm came and the least percentage of agreement ( highest color changes ) was the 2 mm specimens. The Brand of veneering ceramic and the type of core record a significance difference in color changes when exposed to firing heat. Conclusion: With limit of this study, the final color of the all ceramic system definitely affected by the number of firing cycle exposed to, and the veneering ceramic thickness have a clear effect on the final shade of the all ceramic tested.


Article
Evaluation of the Efficiency of Three Different Obturation Techniques to Obturate the Isthmus Area of Roots Canals Prepared by Two Different Instrumentation Techniques (An In Vitro Study)

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Background: The isthmus is a difficult area in the root canal complex to manage. The research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of three different obturation techniques (lateral condensation, EandQ (thermoplasticized gutta percha system) and Soft Core (thermoplasticized core carrier gutta percha system)) to obturate the isthmus area of roots prepared by two different instrumentation techniques (rotary ProTaper universal and ProTaper Next systems). Material and method: Sixty freshly extracted teeth were randomly divided into two main groups (A and B) of 30 teeth each. Group A was prepared by rotary ProTaper Universal whereas group B was prepared by ProTaper Next system. Each main group was then randomly subdivided into three subgroups of 10 teeth each, to be obturated with the three obturation techniques. All specimens were then placed in cold cure acrylic mold just from the side of the crown leaving the root unmolded to facilitate the sectioning process, then three sections were obtained from each specimen by using microtome at 2, 6 and 10 mm from the apex. Each section was viewed under stereomicroscope(40X) and imaged with digital camera(4X). Each image was managed with image J program to calculate the surface area of the whole isthmus and that of the gutta percha and/or sealer extended into the isthmus so the collected data represented the percentage of extension degree of gutta percha and /or sealer into the isthmus(EDGS). Results: The highest mean value of (EDGS) was evident with Soft Core technique in the apical area and was significantly higher than that of the EandQ and lateral condensation techniques. Conclusion: Under the conditions of this study, Soft Core system showed a higher efficiency in obturating the isthmus area than the other obturation techniques


Article
A Study the Effect of Addition of Silanized Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles on Some Properties of High-Impact Heat-Cured Acrylic Resin

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Background: The incorporation of rubber has not been entirely successful because it can have detrimental effects on the transverse Strength and hence the rigidity of the denture base. Materials and methods: Zirconium oxide nanoparticales were coated with a layer of trimethoxysilylpropylmethacrylate (TMSPM) before sonication in monomer (MMA) with the percentages 3% by weight then mixed with powder using conventional procedure.(100) samples were prepared and divided into five groups according to the test performed ,Each group consisted of 20 specimens and these were subdivided into 2 groupsGroup (A): control group (10 specimens of high impact acrylic resin without zirconium oxide) and Group (B):zirconium oxide group(10 specimens of high impact acrylic resin with 3% wt zirconium oxide).The tests conducted were impact strength, transverse strength, indentation hardness(shore D), surface roughness, water sorption and solubility. The results were statistically analyzed using Dunntt t-test. Results: Highly significant increase in impact strength and transverse strength occurred with the incorporation of 3% wt Zirconium oxide nanofiller. A highly significant increase in surface hardness, but the water sorption and solubility were significantly decreased with the addition of silanized (ZrO2) Nano particles compared with the control group.no significant statistical difference in surface roughness. Conclusions: The addition of silanized ZrO2 Nano particles to high impact heat cure acrylic resin material improves the impact strength, transverse strength and surface hardness of high-impact heat-cure acrylic resin at the same time this addition decreases water sorption and solubility. On the other hand there was no change in surface roughness with the addition of 3% wt of silanized ZrO2Nano particles


Article
Management of Independent Middle Mesial Canal in Mandibular First Molar Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography Imaging as an Adjunct – A Case Report

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The primary objective of root canal therapy is adequate biomechanical preparation of root canal system followed by 3D obturation.in clinics we are encountered with several anatomical variations, which we need to manage efficiently. One of the major factors responsible for failure of root canal therapy is missed canals. Recent technological advances have given the clinician opportunity to identify anatomical variations and treat them to satisfaction


Article
The Marginal Fitness of CAD/CAM All Ceramic Crowns Constructed by Two Types of Direct Digitization Techniques (An In Vitro Study)

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Background: In capturing a negative image, the digital impression secures a digital record for the purposeof designing and creating restorations. The introduction of scanning system presents a paradigm shift in the way of the dental impression procedure and encourages the accuracy of obtained restoration especially in the marginal area as a result of producing accurate final impression The digital system offers many advantages over the Conventional method.. The objective of this present in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal fitness of all ceramic crowns fabricated by direct digital scanning of the prepared tooth using two types of intra-oral cameras (Bluecam camera with strip light projection technique and Omnicam camera with video sampling technique). Materials and Methods: Sixteen sound upper first premolar teeth of comparable size were collected. Standardized preparation of all teeth samples were carried out to receive all ceramic crown restoration with deep chamfer finishing line (1mm), axial length (4mm) and convergence angle (6◦). The specimens divided in to two groups according to the type of digital impression technique: Group A, eight prepared teeth scanned directly by Bluecam camera; Group B, eight prepared teeth scanned directly by Omnicam camera. Then CAD/CAM all ceramic crowns constructed for each tooth sample. Marginal discrepancy was measured at Sixteen points per tooth using digital microscope at (120X) magnification. Results: Independent sample t-test was used to identify and localize the source of difference among the groups. It was found that there is statistically non- significant difference in the marginal gap mean values between (group A and group B). Conclusions: From the above result we can conclude that the two types of direct digitization techniques have the same accuracy


Article
An Immunohistochemical Expressions of BAD, MDM2, and P21 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Afrah A. Khalil --- Seta A. Sarkis
Pages: 34-39
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Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignancy characterized by poor prognosis and low survival rate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Immunohistochemical expressions of BAD, MDM2, and P21as apoptotic markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and methods: This study was performed on forty formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks which histopathologically diagnosed as Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. All cases were collected from the Histopathological Laboratory from patients treated surgically at Maxillofacial surgery Department at Ramadi Teaching Hospital, Iraq. Results: The immunohistochemical staining of BAD showed positive expression in 39 (97.5%), MDM2 showed positive expression in 39(97.5%) and P21showed positive expression in 34(85%) of the collective cases. Conclusion: A statistically significant correlation was found regarding MDM2 with the tumor site, P21 with tumor grade.


Article
A Salivary α-Amylase Level in Relation to the Oral Health Parameters among Children in Baghdad City

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Background: Saliva is a specific bio-fluid with important biomarkers. Analyzing any alternation in these markers could give valuable information, in relation to oral health status parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of α -amylase in unstimulated whole saliva of healthy, primary school children in relation to some oral health parameters. Materials and Methods: A questionnaires consisted of demography and medical histories of participants were filled by children families. Saliva samples were collected for 5- minutes between 9:00 -11:00 AM from 114 healthy students aged 6-13 years, divided into four age groups. Flow- rate, Plaque and Gingival Index were assessed and dentition status was investigated by DMFT/dmft using WHO criteria. Salivary amylase was analyzed in unite per litter, using quantitative colorimetric amylase determination at 585nm. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between age and salivary flow-rate, (r=0.362, P < 0.001). Salivary α-amylase concentration increased significantly with age (P< 0.001). For each one year there is an increase in age, amylase level is expected to increase by 5.2 U/L. A male gender is expected to reduce salivary α -amylase level by 10.6 U/L compared to female, however the effect was not significant. Gingival index was positively, although nonsignificantly associated with salivary α -amylase concentration. DMFT showed a significant weak positive linear correlation with salivary amylase level (r=0.309, P<0.001), while deciduous teeth decay experience and plaque index were significantly and negatively associated with salivary amylase. Conclusion: Results emphasize the importance of salivary amylase, as a non-invasive biomarker in regulating oral and dental health status in children


Article
An Extrafollicular Cystic Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor of the Mandible Associated with Clear Cell Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor: A Rare Case Report

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Background: The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a relatively rare benign epithelial odontogenic tumor. It contains both epithelial and mesenchymal components. Few cases presented as an extrafollicular lesion or involve the mandible or associated with other odontogenic lesions. This paper represents a rare case of an extrafollicular AOT. Case presentation: A 24-year-old female had a painless swelling on the right side of the lower jaw since one-month duration. Intraorally there was a well defined fluctuant-blue swelling in the right alveolar premolar region measuring 1×2 cm obliterating the right lower buccal vestibule. Grade II mobility in the vital 44 and 45 teeth were observed. Panoramic radiographs showed a well-defined pear shaped radiolucent lesion without calcifications between the roots of 44 and 45 that cause roots divergence. The lesion totally enucleated with the tooth 44 which showed root resorption. Microscopically, a cystic lesion lined by simple odontogenic epithelial cells with areas of polygonal nodular proliferation (sheets, whorled masses with few duct-like structures and clear cells) and amorphous eosinophilic material. This material was PAS –negative, and Congo red positive. The case diagnosed as a cystic extrafollicular variant of AOT with CEOT-like areas. Conclusions This case report describes the first known case of extrafollicular combined AOT/CEOT associated with root resorption and clear cells. The existence of clear cells suggest a possible aggressive nature and long follow up recommended


Article
A Comparative Study of Immunohistochemical Expression of Moesin, Cytokeratin 14 andMMP7 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Oral Verrucous Carcinoma

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Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most prevalent malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity that exhibits certain histological variations. Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is an uncommon exophytic low-grade welldifferentiated variant of SCC. Cellular differentiation and morphology play important roles in cell functions and maintenance of structural integrity .As the cancer is a malignant process in which disorder of the cell growth and behavior occurs, such changes may differ in different tumor types and within different grades of the same tumor. Materials and Methods:Forty two formalin – fixed, paraffin – embedded tissue blocks were included in this study (30 blocks were diagnosed as OSCC and 12 blocks were diagnosed as OVC). An immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti moesin, anti CK14 and anti MMP7 monoclonal antibodies. Results: Moesinimmunoreactivity was recognized in all the studied groups with predominant cytoplasmic expression in OSCC & membranous expression in OVC. No difference was noticed between 2 studied groups &between different grades of OSCC. Cytokeratin 14 positivity was noticed in all studied groups with significant difference between OSCC&OVC (p=0.012) & there was a significant difference between the different grade of OSCC (p=0.047). MMP7 expression was observed in the all studied groups with predominant cytoplasmic pattern in OSCC & nuclear pattern in OVC. No difference was found between the 2studied groups &between the different grades of SCC. A Strong positive linear correlation between MMP7&CK14 was noticed. Conclusion: Verrucous carcinoma has a specific pattern for moesin and MMP7 that differs from OSCC, however; the difference is not significant. CK14 immunoreactivity indicated a significant difference in the degree of cellular differentiation between OSCC &OVC


Article
An Assessment of Sagittal Condylar Position of TMJ Dysfunction in Centric Occlusion by Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

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Background: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a compound articulation formed from the articular surfaces of the temporal bone and the mandibular condyle.CBCT imaging of TMJ is that it allows accurate measurements of the volume and surface of the condyle. The aim of the study is to assess the sagittal position of mandibular condyle in patients with temporomandibulardysfunction using Cone Beam Computed Tomography in centric occlusion. Materials and Methods: CBCT images for all patients were obtained in an upright position using New Tom Giano CBCT with different field of view (11 x 8), (11 x 5), and (8 x 8) and exposure factors was changed accordingly using NNT version 5.1 software for sagittal reconstruction, anterior, superior and posterior joint spaces was measured. Results: There was a significant change in the anterior, posterior and superior joint spaces when compared to normal functioning TMJ. The sagittal position of the condyle in glenoid fossa could be affected by TMJ dysfunction and it would be positioned centrally but slightly inferior to the normal position according to the results of this study. There was no significant difference in the sagittal condylar position in glenoid fossa between sexes. There was significant difference in the value of anterior, posterior and superior TMJ spaces between right and left sides of the mandible in both normal cases and TMJD. Conclusion: Sagittal section of Temporomandibular joint revealed that TMJ dysfunction affects the joint spaces in sagittal plane. It means significant changes occur in the value of anterior, posterior and superior joint spaces when compared to normal functioning TMJ


Article
Evaluation of the Level of Melatonin, Cortisol and IgA in Saliva of Patients with Oral Lichen Planus Lesions

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Back ground: Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the mucous membrane of the mouth. Several researchers suggest that oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of this disorder. It has been hypothesized that melatonin is powerful anti-oxidants and can easily cross the cell membrane and is considered a free radical scavenger of Hydroxid, Oxygen and Nitrogen dioxide, cortisol as a stress hormone and the immunoglobulin A as first line of defense and protection to the mucous membrane of the mouth are interrelated factors for the emergence of oral lichen planus. Aim of this study was to evaluate the level of melatonin, Cortisol and IgA in saliva of patients with oral lichen planus lesions in comparison with participants with normal oral mucosa. Materials and methods: In this study seventy five subjects with age 18 and over were included. The subjects were divided into two groups; control group, this group comprised of 41 subjects with normal oral mucosa and the study group, which comprised of 34 subjects with clinically and histopathologically diagnosed oral lichen planus lesion. The samples were selected from patients attending College of Dentistry/University of Baghdad and cases that recruited to the AL-Emmam Ali hospital / in Baghdad /Dermatology Department. Samples collection started from 2/ may 2013 to 23/ January 2014.Saliva samples were collected between 10-12 Am. High performance chromatography (HPLC) analyzing technique was used for estimating the salivary melatonin and cortisol level. IgA level was measured by ELIZA method. Results: The mean salivary melatonin level in patients with oral lichen planus was 4.786 μg/ml and the mean saliva melatonin level in normal person was 8.759 μg/ml. significant difference (p<0.01) was observed in the salivary melatonin levels between the study and control group. The mean salivary cortisol level in patients with OLP was 0.730 μg / ml and the mean saliva cortisol level in normal persons was 0.165 μg/ml. significant difference (p<0.01) was observed in the salivary cortisol levels between the study and control, group. The mean salivary IgA level in patients with OLP was 221.4 μg/ml and the mean saliva IgA level in normal person was 125.8 μg/ml. There was a high significant difference (p<0.01) the study and control groups. Conclusions: The level of salivary melatonin was lower in patients with oral lichen planus, however cortisol and IgA was higher when comparing the salivary level with that of the control groups

Keywords

lichen planus --- melatonin --- cortisol --- sIgA


Article
Photodynamic Therapy and Periodontology

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This review highlights the importance of photodynamic therapy in periodontology. It can be confirmed that the photodynamic therapy as adjunct to classical scaling and root planing can be recommended as treatment option, which can by no means replace the classical therapy concepts. But even over an observation period of six months a slightly higher improvement of the clinical parameters was achieved than with SRP alone


Article
Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Serum and Salivary Interleukin-2 Levels in Chronic Periodontitis

Authors: Haween T. Nanakaly
Pages: 73-78
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Background: Interleukine-2 is a multifunctional cytokine, considered a central regulator of host resistance against a variety of pathogens and has been recently demonstrated to exert an active role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of scaling and root planning on level of IL-2 in serum and saliva of patients with chronic generalized periodontitis, in relation to clinical parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 subjects were enrolled, of which 25 had chronic generalized periodontitis and 25 periodontally healthy subjects as control. The clinical parameters included: gingival index, pocket probing depth, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing. The level of IL-2 in serum and saliva was estimated by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit at baseline and after 4 weeks of the treatment (scaling and root planning). Results: Mean IL-2 level in serum and saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis at baseline(382.15± 96.02 and 501.82± 88.08 ng/L) were significantly higher than in controls (10.98± 3.04 and 20.89 ± 7.16 ng/L; p=0.001) respectively. Post-periodontal therapy, IL-2 levels in serum and saliva increased significantly (534.18 ± 127.70 and 710.87 ± 198.15; P= 0.001.) compared to basal levels, as well as to control group (p< 0.001). Statistically significant positive association was found between salivary IL-2 level and the pocket depth in the chronic periodontitis post therapy (r = 0.45, p= 0.02). Conclusion: Short-term nonsurgical periodontal therapy leads to in a significant improvement in clinical periodontal parameters and a marked increase in IL-2 levels


Article
The Systemic Host Modulation Therapy of Periodontal Diseases

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Background: The systemic host modulation therapy is new approach in treatment of periodontal diseases. Materials and methods:The target of this treatment is the host response to microbial infection because at present time,it is well known that most of damage found in periodontal diseases cause by the inflammatory -immune response to periodontal infections.Sub-antimicrobial-dose Doxycycline (SDD) is a 20-mg dose of Doxycycline (Periostat) that is approved and indicated as an adjunct to scaling and root planning (SRP) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Results:At present, SDD (Periostat) is the only systemically administered agent that is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and accepted by the American Dental Association (ADA

Keywords

Periostat.


Article
The Clinical Approach and Treatment of Benign and Malignant Parotid Masses

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Background: Parotid gland tumors account for 80% of all salivary gland neoplasms, 20% of these are malignant, but in daily clinical practice most parotid masses are operated on before obtaining the final histological diagnosis. This clinical setting further complicates the critical point of parotid surgery, which is the management of the facial nerve. Materials and methods: 45 patients underwent parotidectomy for benign and malignant neoplasms. A complete history is collected from the patients with the duration and the site of the tumor, the facial nerve examined and its associations, a medical consultation done for opinion and management. Clinical examination with facial nerve was mandatory to avoid any mistakes that may occur. The most significant single parameter in this series of malignancies regarding disease specific survival was the clinical involvement of the facial nerve. Also for this reason, as there is no evidence that the facial nerve sacrifice improves prognosis, when it is not clinically involved, every attempt is made to dissect and preserve it. A treatment plan was contemplated regarding nerve preservation for malignancy or with nerve sacrifice. Result: This study showed that females (62%) are more affected than males (38%),tumors occur at left parotid gland (65%) more than right parotid gland (35%), a malignancy affected the left parotid gland more than the right one and a malignancy affected females more than males. Pleomorphic adenomas are the most frequent benign tumors while the adenocarcinoma most frequent malignant tumors. Conclusion: The most complicated situation concerning nerve preservation may be the recurrence of a benign tumor, in particular pleomorphic adenoma, which, in our series, has a higher incidence (62.5%) of permanent facial dysfunction, than surgery with nerve preservation for malignancy (37.5%) and to resects the nerve when is clinically involved and when is totally embedded in a clearly malignant neoplasm with attempt to preserve it in all other


Article
A Comparative Study between Flapped and Flapless Surgical Techniques in Dental Implant Stability According to Resonance Frequency Analysis

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Background: Recent implant surgical approach aims to cause less trauma, invasiveness and pain as much as possible and to reduce patient and surgeon discomfort, time of surgery and time needed for functional implant loading. Flapless surgical techniques considered recently as one of the most popular techniques that may achieve these aims especially enhancing osseointegration and subsequently implant stability within less time than the traditional flapped surgical technique. So this study aimed to make a comparison between flapped and flapless surgical techniques in resulted implant stability according to resonance frequency analysis RFA and in duration of surgical operation. Materials and methods: A total of 26 patients with 41 implants (one implant in the study group failed so it was excluded from the statistical analysis) were randomized into two groups: control group which involved 20 implants inserted by conventional flapped surgical approach and study group which involved 20 implants inserted by flapless surgical approach. Estimation of alveolar bone was done for study group by bone (ridge) mapping procedure. Duration of surgical operation for each implant, Implant stability was measured at three time intervals (at surgery, two months and three months after surgery). Results: After three months interval of surgery the mean implant stability of the study (flapless) group achieved significant higher implant stability than control (flapped) group (P< 0.05) and the difference in measured implant stability was (5.05) implant stability quotient(ISQ). The time of surgical operation for implants in the study group significantly was less than that of control group (P< 0.01). Conclusions: Implants placed with flapless surgical technique can produce high implant stability in shorter time and consume prominently shorter time for surgical operation compared to those placed with conventional flapped technique


Article
The Dental Caries and Some Salivary Constituents among a Group of Ten Years Iraqi Passive Smokers

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Background: Passive smoking and dental caries affect the integrity of the health of individuals and both of them affected by sociodemographic characteristics of those individuals. This research aimed to investigate the severity of dental caries in relation to salivary magnesium and zinc of stimulated whole saliva of a group of 10 years passive smokers in comparison with normal subjects. Materials and methods: the study group included 40 subjects (20boys and 20 girls), with an age of 10 years of passive smokers determined by a questionnaire. The control group included 40 normal subjects of the same gender and age of the study group. The diagnosis and recording of dental caries was measured by (D1-4MFS & d1-4mfs) index according to the criteria of Muhleman (1976). The collection of stimulated whole saliva was performed under standardized condition. The salivary samples were chemically analyzed for measuring of Zn and Mg. Results: The caries experience among study group was lower than that of control group for primary dentition but without significant difference while for permanent dentition it was equal. Salivary magnesium ions concentration was lower among study group compared with control group with high significant difference. Concerning salivary zinc ion concentration it was higher among study group with high significant difference among females and significant among males. Among males of study group, magnesium correlated negatively significantly with D1, the same correlation was recorded among females where it was with D1and D2 while it was correlated positively highly significantly with d1 of control group and significantly with d1 and D3 among males of control group. For salivary zinc it was correlated negatively highly significantly with D3 of study group. Conclusion: Passive smoking has no effects on dental caries rather than it affects certain salivary constituents


Article
The Measurements of Maxillary Alveolar Bone Density at 13- 15 Years Age by Using Spiral Computerized Tomography

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Background: Bone density is a major factor that affect mini implant primarily stability; no Iraqi studies have evaluated bone density related to mini-implant placement for orthodontic anchorage at age 13 -15 years. The present research aims to evaluate gender, side and site differences in the bone density at various orthodontic implant sites for the maxillary alveolar bone. Materials and methods: Twenty nine individuals (16 males and 13 females) had subjected to clinical examination, then 64-multislice computed tomography scan data were evaluated and bone density was measured in Hounsfield unit at 21 points (9 points for each side and 3 points between the right and left central incisors) . Results: The results obtained showed that there are no significant differences in bone density between males and females and between the left and right sides were found. There was no significant differences in bone density between the maxillary buccal cortical bone and the palatal cortical bone were generally except that at lateral incisor and canine point where the palatal side had higher bone density than buccal side. The mean bone density of the cancellous bone in the anterior part was higher than that in the posterior of the maxilla. Conclusions: When orthodontic, mini implant are indicated, no gender and side difference affect the success rate regarding bone density


Article
The effect of nutritional status on mesiodistal and bucco/ lingual or palatal diameters of permanent teeth among fifteen years old students

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Background: Malnutrition during human growth affects the size of the tissues at different stages of life, body proportions, body chemistry, as well as quality and texture of tissues. Teeth are particularly sensitive to malnutrition. Malnutrition may affect odontometric measurement involving tooth size dimensions. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of nutrition on teeth size dimension measurements among students aged 15 years old. Materials and methods: This study was conducted among malnourished group in comparison to well-nourished group matching with age and gender. The present study included 167 students aged 15 years (83 malnourished and 84 wellnourished). The assessment of nutritional status was done by using body mass index (BMI). Odontometric measurements included three different orientations. For both upper and lower study models, photographs were taken using special photographic apparatus for each student, and the data were then analyzed using special computer software. For permanent dentitions, two linear measurements (mesiodistal and bucco lingual or palatal) were utilized, representing tooth diameters for each tooth. Results: Among students aged 15 years, the findings revealed that all means of mesiodistal and bucco-lingual diameters values of maxillary and mandibular teeth were lower among malnourished than well-nourished groups with statistically significant, except for mesiodistal diameters of both second molar, second and first premolar of maxillary teeth, second premolar, first premolar and lateral incisor of mandibular teeth and for bucco-palatal diameters of second and first premolar of maxillary teeth, second molar and lateral incisor of mandibular teeth. Conclusion: Malnutrition effect on minimize the odontometric measurements (mesiodistal and bucco-lingual diameters) among students aged 15 years


Article
Periodontitis among a Group of Type TwoDiabetic Patientsin Relation to Risk of Vascular Disease

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Background: Type two diabetic patients have higher risk of cardiovascular and periodontal disease. Furthermore, patients with more severe periodontal disease have higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to assess the association between periodontal health status and the risk of vascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and fifty apparently healthy males were enrolled in this study. Oral examinations conducted were; plaque Index, calculus index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level. For the assessment of vascular risk, arterial stiffness index was used. Results: According to arterial stiffness index, type 2 diabetic patients were categorized into two groups: Group A: type 2 diabetic patients without vascular disease risk. Group B: type 2 diabetic patients with vascular disease risk. The periodontal disease parameters including gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were higher in healthy controls in comparison to diabetics and in group B in comparison to group A. The difference between group A vs. group B for probing pocket depth is of highly significant (P<0.01) and for clinical attachment level is statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: The increase in severity of periodontal disease can be used as an indicator for the increase of risk for vascular disease in type 2 diabetes patients


Article
The Influence of Caries Infiltrant Combined with and without Conventional Adhesives on Sealing of Sound Enamel (In Vitro Study)

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Background: The formation of white spot lesions around fixed orthodontic attachments is a common complication during and after fixed orthodontic treatment, which hinders the result of a successfully completed orthodontic treatment. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the Caries Infiltrant (ICON®) on prevention of caries on the smooth enamel surface when applied alone or combined with conventional adhesives. Materials and methods: Seventy eight human premolar enamel discs were randomly assigned to six groups (n=13). The discs were etched and treated with resins of different monomer content forming the following groups: (1)Untreated etched samples served as the negative control, (2) ICON® (DMG), (3) Adper™ SB 2 (3M ESPE), (4) Heliobond (IvoclarVivadent), (5) ICON®+ Adper™ SB 2 and (6) ICON®+ Heliobond. Specimens were subjected to demineralization by immersion in hydrochloric acid (pH 2.6) for 18 days. Calcium dissolution into the acid was assessed by photometric test via spectrophotometer at 24 hour intervals. Results: The results revealed that, there was a highly significant difference between the sealed groups and the unsealed (untreated) one (p≤0.00) indicating that the unsealed specimens showed the highest amount of Ca ion loss among all other groups. Additionally, there was no significant difference between untreated specimens and the ICON® sealed ones. While, Heliobond decreased the Ca ion loss significantly compared to the untreated specimens and Adper™ SB 2 performed significantly better than both ICON® and Heliobond. Furthermore, the combination of ICON® with either Adper™ SB 2 or Heliobond served as the best protective measures and maintained the protective effect during the whole experiment period. Therefore, within the limitations of this in vitro study, it could be concluded that the use of Caries Infiltrant prior to the application of the tested conventional adhesives increases their protective effect against demineralization.


Article
Comparative Assessment of In Vitro Effect of Three Fluoride Releasing Agents on Enamel Demineralization around Orthodontic Brackets

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Abstract

Background: White spot lesion considered as irreversible tooth demineralization presenting challenge to orthodontists during treatment schedules, fluoride was the most successfully used measure to overcome this challenge. Materials and method: A total of forty sound human permanent premolars were used in the present study and categorized into four groups, in one group the teeth were bonded with stainless steel brackets using Resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) and the other three groups the teeth were bonded with light cured composite Resilience® (Ortho technology Co., USA). Group A; Acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) topical gel (Mfg by DEEPAK PRODUCTS, INC, USA), fluoride ion 1.23% applied on examine area for four minute. Group B; RMGIC (GC Fuji Ortho LC, GC Corporation/Japan) used as bracket adhesive. Group C; Stannous and sodium phosphate fluoride gel yielding 0.72% fluoride ion (Mfg. for: dental resources DS-8) (0.4% Stannous fluoride, 1% sodium fluoride), was applied daily through the experimental study. D; the control group represents the conventional bonding procedure with no preventive method. The entire labial surfaces except 2 mm gingival to the bracket were isolated by acid resistance varnish. All the teeth were subjected individually during 30 days in to acid challenge cycle. After longitudinal sectioning of the teeth by using a hard-tissue microtome, the depth of the artificial lesion was estimated by taking the average of three penetration depths at the lesion centre under stereomicroscope. Also the enamel surface was classified according to acid etch pattern. Comparisons of the average caries penetration of the groups were submitted to ANOVA and LSD tests. The statistical significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: The results revealed that there were statistically significant differences among the tested groups. With different caries reduction abilities, APF group showed 14%, RMGIC Group 49%, group Stannous and sodium phosphate fluoride 39% depth reduction compared to the control group. Conclusions: While all the groups showed caries reduction by different fluoride agents used in this study, the less average lesion depth was found at group B making the RMGIG the best caries fighting fluoride measure


Article
An Evaluation the Effect of Alcohol Presence in Mouth Washes on Force Degradation of Different Configurations of Elastomeric Chains

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Abstract

Background: Elastomeric chains are one of the most commonly used force delivery systems. They have the ability to exert a continuous force, convenience of use, compatibility to oral environment and cost effectiveness but one of the inherited disadvantages is force degradation. Materials and methods: This in vitro study was designed to evaluate the effect of alcohol presence in mouthwashes on force decay of different configurations of clear elastomeric chains from (Ortho Technology company) which are: closed , short and long under the effect of time at (Initial, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks) intervals with exposure to different chemical solutions. A total (540) modules of elastomeric chains of three different types (long, short and closed) transparent in color, with an initial length (19mm) and about 50% extension (29mm) were used for the study. These elastomeric chains divided in to four groups and exposed to different chemical solutions (Listerine Original alcoholic mouthwash, Listerine Zero alcohol mouth wash, Ethanol 26.9%, distilled water) twice daily for 60 seconds according to manufacturer instructions to measure the amount of force degradation in different time intervals. These elastomeric chains were incubated in covered glass containers at 37C˚ for the entire testing period. Results: Statistical analysis showed that there was a highly significant difference in the mean percentage of force decay (P≤ 0.001). For all chemical solutions the highest percentage of force decay occurs in Listerine Original Alcoholic mouth wash. Also in all chemical solutions closed elastomeric chains has the least percentage of force decay. While closed configuration have the highest percentage of force decay. Conclusion: We can conclude that alcoholic mouth wash(Listerine Original) causes increase force degradation of all types of elastomeric chains while alcohol free mouth wash (Listerine Zero) causes less force degradation of all types of elastomeric chains. Also closed configuration elastomeric chains have the least percentage of force decay than other configurations


Article
Incidence of Cleft Lip and Palate in Al-Ramadi City (Descriptive Epidemiological Study)

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Background Birth defects are one of the causes of pediatric disability and mortality in all around the world. Data on birth defects from population-based studies originating from developing countries are lacking. Cleft lip (CL), cleft lip and palate (CLP), and isolated cleft palate (CP), collectively termed oral clefts, occur in all races, both sexes, and all socioeconomic groups and vary internationally (1). The main aim of this research is to establish the frequency of cleft lip and/or palate in the population of the Al-Ramadi City, and to characterize the demographic features of affected individuals and find possible risk factors. Materials and methods We conducted a survey of the Educational Maternal and Pediatric Hospital in Al-Ramadi city. The sample population comprised all 5100 babies born at Al-Ramadi City during the 5 months period 1 January 2013 to 31 May 2013. Statistical tests used Pearson’s chi-square test, Student’s t-test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient test according to the type of parameter tested. Results: During the study period 15 babies were born with oro-facial cleft. The overall incidence of cleft lip and palate was 2.94 per 1000. Cleft palate was significantly more frequent in male than female babies (P = 0.81). Conclusions: A high incidence of facial clefts in this city was seen. This change may be attributed to the wars that occur in Iraq in the last years so increased pollutions and decreased prenatal care in the Iraqi population as part of social and health-related behavior changes


Article
Salivary Oxidative Stress Markers in Relation to Vascular Disease Risk of Type Two Diabetes Mellitus

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Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Oxidative stress plays a major role in the development of CVD. Saliva has a diagnostic properties aiding in the detection of systemic diseases. This study aimed to assess the association between salivary oxidative stress markers and the risk of vascular disease (VD) in T2DM patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred T2DM patients and fifty apparently healthy males were enrolled in this study. Saliva sample was collected for assessment of oxidative stress markers including: lipid peroxidation plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), uric acid (UA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels. Arterial stiffness index (ASI) was used for the assessment of VD risk. Results: According to ASI, T2DM patients were categorized into two groups: Group A: T2DM patients without VD risk. Group B: T2DM patients with VD risk. The mean values of TBARS and UA of group B showed a statistically highly significant elevation compared to group A and controls (P<0.01). The mean value of TAC of group B showed a statistically highly significant decrease when compared to group A and controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: The increase in salivary TBARS and UA levels and the decrease in the TAC level can be used as an indicator for the increase of risk for VD in T2DM patients.


Article
A Salivary Calcium Binding Protein in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Relation to Smoking

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Abstract

Background: Calcium binding protein regulates many important cellular functions such as cell proliferation, cell motility and differentiation. Over-expression of calcium BP was detected in different human cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of calcium binding protein in OSCC, quantified in stimulated saliva, and its association with smoking. Materials and methods: The present study included 20 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma who used to be smokers, and 40 control subjects. Calcium binding protein was assessed by ELISA technique, in stimulated saliva collected from all groups. Results: Salivary calcium binding protein was significantly higher in smoker patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma than smoker and non- smoker control healthy looking subjects. Conclusions: Salivary calcium binding protein play a significant role, as a non-invasive approach, in the early diagnosis and follow up of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients


Article
The Effect of Nutritional Status on Mesiodistal and Bucco- Lingual (Palatal) Diameters of Primary Teeth among Five Years Old Kindergarten Children

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Background: Malnutrition in human life may adversely affect various aspects of growth at different stages of life. Teeth are particularly sensitive to malnutrition. Malnutrition may affect odontometric measurement involving tooth size dimensions. The aim of this study is to estimate the effect of nutrition on teeth size dimension measurements among children aged 5 years old. Materials and methods: This study was conducted among malnourished group in comparison to well-nourished group matching with age and gender. The present study included 158 children aged 5 years (78 malnourished and 80 wellnourished). The assessment of nutritional status was done by using three nutritional indicators, namely Height-for-age, Weight-for-age and Weight-for-height. Odontometric measurements including two different orientations. For both upper and lower study models, photographs were taken using special photographic apparatus for each child, and the data were then analyzed using special computer software. For primary dentitions, two linear measurements (mesiodistal and bucco/lingual or palatal) were utilized, representing tooth diameters for each tooth. Results: Among children aged 5 years, the findings revealed that all means of mesiodistal and bucco-lingual diameters values of maxillary and mandibular teeth were lower among malnourished than well-nourished groups with statistically significant, except for mesiodistal diameters of both canine and lateral incisor maxillary teeth, canine of mandibular teeth and for bucco-palatal diameters of central incisor of maxillary teeth, canine, lateral incisor and central incisor of mandibular teeth. Conclusions: Malnutrition effect on minimize the odontometric measurements (mesio-distal and bucco-lingual diameters) among children aged 5 years


Article
The Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans of Human Saliva (In Vitro Study)

Authors: Suha T. Abd --- Abbas F. Ali عباس فاضل
Pages: 158-164
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Background: Nanotechnology represents a new science that promises to provide a broad range of uses and improved technologies for biological and biomedical applications. One of the reasons behind the intense interest is that nanotechnology permits synthesis of materials that have structure is less than 100 nanometers. The present work revealed the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on Streptococcus mutans of Human Saliva in comparison to de-ionized water. Materials and methods: Streptococcus mutans were isolated from saliva of forty eight volunteers of both sexes their age range between 18-22 years and then purified and diagnosed according to morphological characteristic and biochemical tests. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were prepared from the stock solution; all the experiments were conducted in vitro. Disk diffusion method was used to study the sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans to different concentrations of zinc oxide nanoparticles in comparison to effect of de-ionized water. Results: Streptococcus mutans were sensitive to concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5.8) mg / ml of the zinc oxide nanoparticles solution in comparison to de-ionized water, revealing a highly significant difference in all concentrations except for concentration (0.01) mg / ml which was showed no significant difference in comparison to de-ionized water. Conclusion: This study revealed that zinc oxide nanoparticles were effective against Streptococcus mutans


Article
An Impairment of Salivary Gland Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Association with Change in Salivary Biomarkers and Disease Activity

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Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by joint inflammation, involvement of exocrine salivary and lacrimal glands may occur as extra-articular manifestations in this disease. This study aimed to provide evidence of altered in function and composition of salivary gland in patients with rheumatoid arthritis by determine salivary flow rate and some biochemical parameters(total protein, amylase, peroxidase) and to investigate the relationship between disease activity and changes in function and composition of salivary gland. Materials and Methods: Fifty five patients with RA (7 males and 48 females) were enrolled in this study with age range (20-69) years. The patients were separated into two groups in proportion to their salivation: normal salivation group (37) and hypo salivation group (18). Thirty five (9 male and 26 female) apparently healthy volunteers were also participated in the study. Three ml of unstimulated saliva was collected from all patients and control to determine salivary flow rate on one hand and salivary total protein, α-amylase and peroxidase by colorimetric method on other hand. Results:Resultsshowed that there is highly significant decrease (P< 0.01; p< 0.001) in the median salivary levels of (flow rate, total protein, α-amylase and peroxidase) among RA patients when compared to control. There was highly significant reduction (P< 0.01) in median salivary levels of flow rate, total protein, α-amylase and peroxidase in two study groups (normal salivation and hypo salivation) as compared to that in control group. Also the levels of all these parameters (sialometry and sialochemistry) were significantly decrease (P =0.00) in RA patients with hypo salivation as compared to that in patients with normal salivation. There was strong positive correlation between total protein and salivary flow rate (r= 0.651, P=0.000), in one hand, and on the other hand, there was strong positive correlation between α-amylase and both salivary flow rate (r=623, P= 0.000) and total protein r=658, P=0.000). Conclusion: These findings indicate that the changes in salivary composition may represent involvement of salivary glands in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

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