Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2015 volume:27 issue:3

Article
The Effects of Different Investment Materials on Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Roughness of Thermosens Maxillary Complete Dentures

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Background: Limited data are available on the dimensional stability and surface roughness of ThermoSens, which is a material used in denture processing. This study aimed to measure the vertical teeth changes and surface roughness of ThermoSens dentures prepared using three different investment materials. Materials and methods: For the dimensional changes test, 30 complete maxillary dentures were prepared using different investment methods: group I, dental stone; group II, silicone putty; and group III, a mixture of dental stone and plaster (ratio, 1:1; n = 10 for each group). Four screws were attached to the dentures: two were attached to the buccal surface of the canine and first molar, and the other two were attached in the flange areas of the canine and first molar in line with the previously mentioned screws. Measurements were made using a micrometer microscope in the wax stage before flasking and in the deflasking stage. The above investment techniques were also used to prepare samples for a surface roughness test (n = 10 per group). These samples were prepared according to the specifications of the American Dental Association. Data were examined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the least significant difference (LSD) test. Results: One-way ANOVA and LSD revealed that dimensional changes significantly differed among all groups, except that the vertical teeth changes on the left side did not differ between groups I and II for both the canine and molar regions. Surface roughness was significantly higher in group I than in group II, and in group III than in group II. Conclusion: The use of putty silicone for investing ThermoSens complete dentures reduced dimensional changes and resulted in dentures with a better fit. Surface roughness could be reduced by the addition of a putty silicone layer over the denture before the addition of the second investment layer during denture processing


Article
Evaluation of nano surface modification on CPTi dental implant using chemical method: mechanical and histological evaluation

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Background The application of nanotechnology to biomedical surfaces is explained by the ability of cells to interact with nanometric features. The aim of this study was to consider the role of nanoscale topographic modification of CPTi dental implant using chemical etching method for the purpose of improving osseointegration. Materials and methods: Commercial pure titanium rod was machined into 20 dental implants. Each implant was machined in diameter about 3mm, length of 8mm (5mm was threaded part and 3mm was flat part). Implants were prepared and divided into 2 groups according to the types of surface modification method used: 1st group (10 implant) remained without nano surface modification (control), 2nd group include (10 implant) etched with 15N H2SO4 and 30% H2O2, Surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Xray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), thickness measurement for the invitro experiments. While for invivo part tibia of 5 white new Zealand rabbits were chosen as implantation sites. The tibia of each rabbit received two screws. Biomechanical test was performed to understand the bone-implant interface, after two weeks healing periods. Implants from 4animals were tested for the torque required to remove the implant from the bone and the other one animal was prepared for histological examination. Results and Conclusion: For in vitro results, scanning electron microscope showed that the chemical etching of Ti substrate becomes highly porous and has surface consisting of nanosized pits. Removal torque means value after 2 weeks of implantation mentioned that, there was a gradual increase in the removal torque mean values as a follow (M±SD): 12.625(N.cm) ± 0.517, 30.500(N.cm) ± 4.071for machined surface(X), nano chemically etched (X1) respectively. In addition, the histological analysis showed improved quality of bone in response to the nano modified screws, that the chemically treated implants shows trabeculated thread


Article
Effect of addition ZrO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles mixture on some properties and denture base adaptation of heat cured acrylic resin denture base material

Authors: Ali MA Aljafery --- Basima MAH
Pages: 15-21
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Background: The PMMA polymer denture base materials are low mechanical properties, adaptation of the denture base to underlying tissue is important for retention and stability of denture. The aim of the study was toevaluate the effect of mixtureZrO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles on impact strength, transverse strength, hardness, roughness, denture base adaptation of heat cured acrylic resin denture base material. Materials and methods: One hundred (100) specimens were prepared, the specimens were divided into five groups (20 specimens to each) according to the test type, each group was subdivided in to two subgroups (control and experimental) each subgroup consist of 10 specimens, the experimental group included mixture of 2% (ZrO2- Al2O3ratio2:1) by weight. Theimpact strength was measured by Charpy's impact testing machine, the transverse strength was measured by Instron testing machine while the hardness was measured byshore D durometer and roughness was measured by Profilometer. Denture base adaptation was measured by digital microscope and evaluated by computerized tomography (CT). Results: Highly significant increaseofimpact and transverse strength, non-significant increase ofhardness, significant increase ofroughness andreduction of denture base adaptation (measured at 3 point A, B and C) occurred in experimental groupwhen compared to control group. CT evaluation, gap between the denture base and master cast (control and experimental groups) increased from the anterior to posterior side of palate and from the alveolar ridge to the mid palatal line. Conclusion: The polymer nanocomposites had mechanical properties higher than neat PMMA at same time less denture base adaptation


Article
Studying the effect of addition a composite of silanized Nano-Al2O3 and plasma treated polypropylene fibers on some physical and mechanical properties of heat cured PMMA denture base material

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Background: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most commonly used material in denture fabrication. The material is far from ideal in fulfilling the mechanical requirements, like low impact and transverse strength, poor thermal conductivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition a composite of surface treated Nano Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) filler and plasma treated polypropylene fiber (PP) on some properties of denture base material. Materials and methods: One hundred fifty prepared specimens were divided into 5 groups according to the tests, each group consisted of 30 specimens and these were subdivided into 3 groups (unreinforced heat cured acrylic resin as control group),reinforced acrylic resin with( 0.5%wt Nano Al2O3 and2.5%wt plasma treated PP fibers) group and reinforced acrylic with(1%wt Nano Al2O3 and 2.5%wt plasma treated PP fibers group).The tests were impact strength, transverse strength, indentation hardness(shore D), surface roughness thermal conductivity. The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: A highly significant increase in impact strength, surface hardness, thermal conductivity with the addition of 0.5%wt. (Al2O3) and 2.5%wt PP fiber to(PMMA),also there is a significant increase in surface roughness and non significant increase in transverse strength. At the concentration of 1%wt nano (Al2O3)and 2.5%wt PP fiber there is a highly significant increase in impact strength surface hardness and thermal conductivity. Non-significant differences were shown in transverse strength and significant increase in surface roughness. Conclusion: The addition of a composite of Al2O3 nanoparticles and PP fiber to PMMA improves the impact strength, surface hardness and thermal properties, surface roughness while non-significant difference in transverse strength


Article
The effect of adding single walled carbon nanotube with different concentrations on mechanical properties of heat cure acrylic denture base material

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Background: The most widely used material for fabrication of denture base is poly methyl methacrylate, despite its popularity, the main problems associated with it as a denture base material are poor strength particularly under fatigue failure inside the patient mouth, impact failure outside the patient mouth, which are the main causes for fracture of denture, several studies was done to increase mechanical properties of denture base. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effect of addition single walled carbon nanotubes in different concentrations to polymethyl methacrylate on some mechanical properties (surface hardness, surface roughness, impact strength and transverse strength). Materials and methods: Forty eight samples were prepared for pilot study divided into four groups according to the concentrations of singled walled carbon nanotubes ( 0%, 0.5%, 1% & 1.5%) added to heat cure acrylic resin , each group was divided into four subgroups according to the tests conducted (Surface hardness , surface roughness, impact strength and transverse strength) and the results obtained were evaluated to determine the concentration of singled walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTS) that improve the mechanical properties of heat cure acrylic resin to be used to complete our study, so another 80 samples were made divided into two main groups (0% SWCNTS as control group) and (1.5% SWCNTS test group) and all the tests were done again. Results: Impact strength and transverse strength were significantly increased after adding 1.5% SWCNTS While surface hardness was significantly decreased and surface roughness was non-significantly affected when compared with control group. Conclusions: Impact strength and transverse strength of hot cure acrylic resin reinforced with 1.5% SWCNTS were greatly increased


Article
The influence of adding of modified ZrO2-TiO2 nanoparticles on certain physical and mechanical properties of heat polymerized acrylic resin

Authors: Tiba A. Salman --- Hanan A. Khalaf
Pages: 33-39
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requirements of denture base materials. The purpose of this study was to produce new modified polymer nanocomposite (PMMA /ZrO2-TiO2) andassess itsimpact strength, transverse strength and thermal conductivity in comparison to the conventionalheat polymerized acrylic resin. Materials and Methods: Both ZrO2 and TiO2nano fillers were silanized with TMSPM (trimethoxysilyl propyl methacrylate) silane coupling agent before beingdispersed by ultrasonication with the methylmethacrylate (monomer) and mixed with the polymer by means of 2% by weight in (1:1) ratio, 60 specimens were constructed by conventional water bath processing technique and divided into 2 groups: 30 specimens for control group 0% nanofillers and 30 specimens for experimental group 2% of (1:1) ZrO2 and TiO2nano fillers then each group was subdivided into3 subgroups according to the test to be conducted with 10 specimens for impact, transverse and thermal conductivity test. Results: The interaction of TMSPM silane and the nanofillers was confirmed by FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infra-red spectrophotometer). High significant increase in impact strength (9.838) Kj/m2 and transverse strength (101.705) N/mm2 and non-significant increase in thermal conductivity (0.286) W/m.C° of heat cured acrylic resin of the new polymer nanocomposite were observed. Conclusions: The addition of 2 wt.% of ZrO2:TiO2 by means of 1:1 ratio considerably improved the impact and transverse strength and had a positive effect on the thermal conductivity


Article
Evaluation of olive oil as a separating medium and its effect on some physical properties of processed acrylic resin denture base (A comparative study). Part one

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Back ground: During acrylic resin processing, the mold must be separated from the surface of the gypsum to prevent liquid resin from penetrating into the gypsum, and water from the gypsum seeping into the acrylic resin. For many years, tin foil was the most acceptable separating medium, and because it's difficult to apply, a tin-foil substitute is used. In this study, olive oil is used as an alternative to tin foil separating medium for first time, so the aim of the study was to evaluate its effect as a separating medium on some physical properties such as (surface roughness, water sorption and solubility) of acrylic resins denture base comparing it with those processed using tin-foil and tin foil substitute such as (cold mold seal) separating medium. Materials and methods: One hundred forty two acrylic resins samples (124) were prepared falling in two main groups: [heat and cold-cured acrylic denture base resins ], for each group three types of separating medium were used and five tests (10 samples) for each test were carried out , and (4) samples for the chemical composition. Result: From the result obtained, tin foil is one of the most satisfactory separating media in getting the best properties when using it as a separating medium, while, a statistically no-significant difference have been noticed between olive oil and cold-mold seal samples concerning physical and mechanical properties of tested groups. Infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that, no changes were found in the chemical composition of both heat and coldcured acrylic resins denture base after using olive oil as a separating medium. Conclusion: Lastly, from the results of this study it may be concluded, that olive oil may be used as a substitute for tin foil and cold – mold seal separating medium in processing both heat and cold – cure acrylic resin denture base


Article
The effect of addition of hydroxyapatite microscopic fillers on surface roughness and some mechanical properties of heat cured acrylic resin

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Background: this study aimed to evaluate the effect of addition of hydroxyapatite micro filler in three concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%) on surface roughness, impact strength, flexural strength and hardness. Material and methods: One hundred sixty acrylic samples were used in this study,40 samples were used for each test(impact strength ,flexural strength ,hardness and surface roughness).The test group divided into four subgroups(n=10) for controlgroup,5%,10% ,15%H,A.concentration addition groups .Impact testing device, flexural strength testing device, shore hardness tester and profilometer device were used to measure the four tests examined in this study. Results: the results showed a significant increase in impact strength, hardness in all concentrations added to heat cured acrylic resin, highly significant decrease in flexural strength, a non-significant difference in surface roughness test in 5% concentration while there was a significant differences in other two concentration in the same test. Conclusion: the 5% concentration hydroxyapatite addition was the concentration of choice to be used to increase the mechanical properties (impact strength) of heat cured acrylic resin without increasing the surface roughness of the material.


Article
Study of salivary IgA concentrations, salivary flow rate in patients with β –thalassemia major in Missan Governorate

Authors: Jamal M. Diwan --- Zaheda J. Mohammad
Pages: 55-57
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Background: Beta-thalassemia major is the most common monogenic known disorder in the Middle East, characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic Individuals. This study aimed to evaluate salivary flow rate and salivary IgA in β-thalassemia major patients. Since many oral and systemic conditions manifest themselves as changes in the flow and composition of saliva the dental practitioner is advised to remain up-to-date with this issue. Materials and methods: The study samples consist of (60) subjects, patients group composed of (30) patients with β – thalassemia major, age rang (5-23) years and (30) healthy locking subject of both sexes as control group, with age range from (5-25) years. Results: Most patients were in the first and second decade of life (90%) this indicate a reduced life expectancy in those patients, laboratory investigations for salivary IgA concentrations revealed a significant increase in means of this marker in compare with control group and this difference is statistically significant, (p= 0.05) at P value ≤ 0.05.Regarding the salivary flow rate there was a statistically significant decrease in mean of salivary flow rate in patients group as compared with control group (P= 0.013). Conclusions: Beta-thalassemia major affects salivary flow rate and SIgA concentration


Article
Histological evaluation of the effect of topical application of Curcumin powder and essential oil on skin wound healing

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Background: Herbal medicine can be called one of the branches of medicine in various forms. Turmericcurcumin has proved its efficiencies a coloring, flavoring agent and has been traditionally used in medicine, exhibiting remarkable anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The varied biological properties of curcumin and lack of toxicity even when administered at higher doses makes it attractive to explore its use in various disorders like diseases of skin. It is good potential agent for wound healing. Materials and methods: Sixty four new Zealand rabbits were used in this study ,they were divided into four groups,each group was subdivided as follows: Experimental groups(8 rabbits) right facial side of animals for essential oil application and left facial side animals for curcumin powder application, 8 animals as control group(right facial sides) .Histological assessment regarding the count of inflammatory cells was performedon all studied samples for the healing intervals (3, 7, 10, and14 days). Results: Histological findings of the study showed that re-epithelialization, wound contraction were accelerated after topical application of curcumin material especially the essential oil at wound site. Conclusion: Topical application of curcumin essential oil was significantly effective in skin wound healing as compared to curcumin powder


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of Cyclin D1 in mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands

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Background: Cyclin D1 proto-oncogene is an important regulator of (G1 to S) phase progression in many different cell types. The Aims of this study were to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Cyclin D1 in mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands and to correlate the immunoexpression of this protein with the clinicopathological findings. Materials and methods Retrospectively, twelve of archival formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples of salivary Mucoepidermoid and fourteen blocks of adenoid cystic carcinomas obtained from the archives of the department of oral pathology / college of dentistry / Baghdad university, Al-Shaheed Ghazi hospital, were included in this study. Five micrometer sections obtained and immunostained using monoclonal antibody against Cyclin D1. The immunoexpression was detected by the presence of brown stain in the nucleus of tumor cell. The proportion of cells that expressed the stain was correlated with the clinicopathological data of the patients. Results: Cyclin D1 expression was found positive in all cases of MEC and AdCC localized in tumor cells. Nonsignificant statistical relation (p=0.588) was detected regarding Cyclin D1 expression in both types of tumor. Significant relation was found with stage of AdCC (p=0.04) and non-significant concerning other clinicopathological parameters in both tumor types. Conclusion: Weak expression of Cyclin D1 in MEC and AdCC might be explained by Cyclin D1 does not represent an exclusive factor consequently; other factors might be involved in the proliferation, progression and metastasis of both tumor types.


Article
The role of topical application of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) on bone healing on rabbits (Immunohistochemical study on TGF-β 3 & IGF-1R)

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Background: Bone is essentially a highly vascular, living, constantly changing mineralized connective tissue. It is remarkable for its hardness, resilience and regenerative capacity, as well as its characteristic growth mechanisms. This study aimed to: 1. To evaluate the effect of bone morphogenetic protein7 (BMP7) on bone healing in artificially created intrabony defect in rabbits upper diastema, histologically. 2. To study the immunohistochemical expression of TGF-β3 and IGF-1R as bone formation markers in experimental and control groups during bone healing. Material and method: Forty male rabbits, was used in this study, 8 rabbits for each healing interval (3 days, 1,2 ,4 and 6 weeks). In each rabbit two bone holes were created on the right and left sides of the maxilla.BMP7 was applied to the bone hole in the left side while bone hole in the right left for normal healing. Routine processing and sectioning technique performed for histological evaluation. Immunohistochemical analysis utilized to localize the expression of TGF-β3 and IGF-1R in experimental and control groups for all animals. Results: Histological findings indicated that bone defect coated with BMP7 illustrated an early bone formation, mineralization and maturation in comparison to control group. Immunohistochemical findings revealed high positive expression for TGF-B3 and IGF-1R in experimental in comparison to control group. Conclusion: The study concluded that BMP7 protein enhance bone healing and maturation, also it regulate the expression of TGF-B3 and IGF1R in bone.


Article
Histological evaluation of local application of collagen I and /or vascular endothelial growth factor (An experimental study in rats)

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Background: The study was designed to evaluate the effect of local application of exogenous VEGF/collagen I separately and as a combination in socket healing. Sixty male Albino Wistar rats were subjected for a surgical tooth extraction of upper 1st molar of both sides (right side was considered as experimental site, while left be the control one, treated with 1μL of normal saline). The rats were scarified at 3, 7, 14, 28 days post extraction. Socket healing was histologically examined with immunohistochemistochemical localization of ALP&FGF2. Materials and Method: Sixty male Albino Wistar rats were subjected for a surgical tooth extraction of upper 1stmolar of both sides (right side was considered as experimental site, while left be the control one). The animals were divided into following groups according to the applicable of biomaterials. A. Control group the tooth socket treated with 1μL of normal saline B. Experimental group includes • Group I contains (20) rats, the tooth socket treated with 1μL of VEGF • Group II contains (20) rats the tooth socket treated with 1μL of collagen type I • Group III contains (20) rats, the tooth socket treated with 1μL of a combination of VEGF and collagen I. Results: At 28 days all groups show re-epithelization but in different thickness, and with newly bone apposition and with different maturity. For positive cells expressed ALP, VEGF group records a high mean values at 3, 14, 28 days periods and with high differences in comparison to other groups while control group reports a high mean value at 7 days. For positive cells expressed FGF2. Control group illustrates a high record for the mean of positive cells expressed FGF2 at 3,7days periods and with high differences in comparison to other groups, while combination group reports a high mean value at 14 days . Conclusion: Results, high lighted on the effect of local application of VEGF in extracted tooth socket that facilitate epithelization, while combination of (collagen and VEGF) shows a high mineralization zone


Article
Establishment of the possible association between the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the saliva and gastric biopsy by using polymerase chain reaction technique in association with oral manifestation of peptic ulcer disease

Authors: Sabaa R. Thamer --- Sahar Al-Ani
Pages: 85-88
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Background: Helicobacter pylori are important gastrointestinal pathogen associated with gastritis, peptic ulcers, and an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. There are several popular methods for detection of H. pylori (invasive and non-invasive methods) each having its own advantages, disadvantages, and limitations, and by using PCR technique the ability to detect H. pylori in saliva samples offers a potential for an alternative test for detection of this microorganism. Materials and methods: The study sample consists of fifty participants of both genders, who undergo Oesophageogastrodudenoscopy at the Gastroenterology Department of Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital Baghdad/ Iraq, during five months period from January 2014 to May 2014. They were grouped into 32 participants with PUD (case group) and 18 healthy participants (control group). A full-mouth examination was performed for every patient; saliva and gastric samples from both groups were obtained. Helicobacter pylori were detected in gastric biopsies by histological examination by using H & E stain, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was carried out on the oral samples. Results: Helicobacter pylori DNAwas determined by PCR in oral samples in 88% patients and in gastric biopsies by histology in 86% patients, and in both samples in 84% patients.It was highly significant to find simultaneous presence for those have H. pylori in stomach also have such microorganism in the mouth P < 0.05 and there was an excellent correlation between detecting H. pylori simultaneously in both stomach and mouth. If we screen for stomach H. pylori through detecting this microorganism in the mouth; saliva samples is highly sensitive (98%) but not very specific. Conclusion: Helicobacter pylori saliva test has high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in Iraqi population. The test can be clinically applied as a routine diagnostic tool for H. pylori infection this could permit not only a target for therapeutic procedures but also a monitoring tool for the efficacy of therapy. It seems to overcome some limitations of the conventional invasive techniques


Article
Comparison between powerful Waterpik flosser with dental floss as an adjunct to tooth brushing

Authors: Hadeel M. Akram
Pages: 89-92
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Background: Removing dental plaque is important to maintain a good oral hygiene and prevent periodontal disease; this could not be accomplished by the use of toothbrush alone, it needs the help of interdental aids or intraoral irrigator devices. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of using Waterpik flosser as adjunct to tooth brushing than using the dental floss with the brushing. Materials and methods: A single blind, six weeks study included 45 subjects divided into three groups of 15 subjects at each group. Group B (brushing) was instructed to use the toothbrush only, group BF (brushing & flossing) was instructed to use dental floss and tooth brushing while group BW (brushing and Waterpik flosser) was instructed to use Waterpik flosser in addition to the toothbrush. Plaque index, gingival index and bleeding on probing were measured at the 1st visit, after 3 weeks (2nd visit) and finally after 6 weeks (3rd visit). Results: The plaque index was significantly reduced in group BF and BW at the 3rd visit, while it showed no significant differences in group B. The mean percentage reduction of gingival index at the 3rd visit was higher in group BW than group B and group BF. Using the chi-square test, bleeding on probing showed no significant difference in group B, while there was significant reduction in group BF and highly significant reduction (p<0.001) in group BW between the visits. Conclusion: Waterpik flosser was more effective in reducing dental plaque and bleeding than dental floss


Article
Clinical importance of gingival biotype (Review of literature)

Authors: Hiba M. Jameel --- Maha Sh. Mahmood
Pages: 93-101
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This review discusses the gingival biotypes, their characteristics, analysis based on the measurement of the dentopapillary complex. Also discuss their response to inflammation, surgery, and ridge healing after tooth extraction, their influence in the behavior of the peri-implant tissue


Article
Antibacterial effects of green tea extracts on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (In-Vitro study)

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Background: Green Tea is made from the leaf of the plant “Camellia sinensis”. Green tea is reported to contain thousands of bioactive ingredients including catechins which have shown great promise for having antimicrobial effects. Periodontal diseases represent one of the most prevalent diseases around the world and the main etiologic factor behind it, is plaque accumulation, in addition certain kinds of bacteria have been detected frequently in subjects suffering from periodontitis, Several studies suggested that the outcome of periodontal treatment is better if particular pathogens including Aggregatibacteractinomycetemcomitans can no longer be detected after therapy. Materials and Methods: plaque samples were collected from 20 patients suffering from chronic periodontitis with probing pocket depth of at least 6 mm, Aggregatibacteractinomycetemcomitans (A.A) was isolated and diagnosed according to morphological characteristics and biochemical tests. Green tea leaves were extracted by using water and alcohol. The first experiment involved testing the sensitivity of A.A to different concentrations of the extracts using agar well diffusion method,the second experiment involved determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration and then determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration of the extract against the bacteria, laboratory analysis of green tea extracts using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed. Results: Both green tea extracts were effective in inhibition of Aggregatibacteractinomycetemcomitans using agar well diffusion method, 90% and 100% concentrations of alcoholic extract showed larger inhibition zones than chlorhexidinegluconate 0.2% with statistically significant difference, CHX showed higher inhibition zones than all aqueous extract concentrations.The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of alcoholic green tea extract that inhibit Aggregatibacteractinomycetemcomitans growth was 60%, The MIC of aqueous green tea extract that inhibits Aggregatibacteractinomycetemcomitans growth was 70%.The MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) of alcoholic green tea extract that killsAggregatibacteractinomycetemcomitans was 80%, the MBC of aqueous green tea extract that kills Aggregatibacteractinomycetemcomitans growth was 90%. HPLC analysis of aqueous and alcoholic green tea extracts revealed that alcoholic extract contained higher concentration of EGCG while aqueous extract had higher content of catechin and epicatechin. Conclusion: Green tea extracts were effective against Aggregatibacteractinomycetemcomitans, alcoholic green tea extract showed inhibition ability more than the aqueous green tea extract and more than CHX and it showed bactericidal activity at 80%,90% and 100% concentrations


Article
Assessment of dental implant stability during healing period and determination of the factors that affect implant stability by means of resonance frequency analysis (Clinical study)

Authors: Noor S. Ibraheem --- Sahar S. Al-Adili
Pages: 109-115
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Background: Implant stability is considered one of the most important factors affecting healing and successful osseointegration of dental implants. The aims of the study were to measure the implant stability quotient (ISQ) values during the healing period and to determine the factors that affect implant stability. Materials and methods: Thirty patients enrolled in the study (17 female, 13 male). They received 44 Implantium® Dental Implants located as the following: 22 implants in maxillary jaw, 22 implants in mandibular jaw from them 17 implants in anterior segment and 27 in posterior segment. The bone density determined using interactive CT scan and classified according to the Misch bone density classification (29 implants in (D3), 15 implants in (D4)). Resonance frequency analysis was used for direct measurement of implant stability on the day of implant placement and 8, 16 and 24 weeks after implant placement. Results: The lowest mean of average ISQ was at the 8th week (69.5) and then the mean increased to reach at the 24th week (76.8). Mandibular implants showed significantly higher ISQ values than maxillary implants. Implants placed in the posterior segment of the jaw had significantly higher ISQ values than implants in the anterior segment. A significant, positive linear correlation was observed between the implant diameter and the implant stability (r=0.343 p<0.001). Conclusion: Resonance frequency analysis was non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting changes in implant stability during the healing period. The factors that affect implant stability were implant diameter and implant location (maxilla mandible, anterior posterior).


Article
The effect of cigarette smoking on salivary IgA and periodontal disease

Authors: Omar Husham Ali عمر هشام علي
Pages: 116-119
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Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of tissues supporting the teeth. Salivary compositions have been most intensely studied as a potential marker for periodontal disease. In this study, analysis of saliva provides a simple and non-invasive method of evaluating the role of salivary IgA (s-IgA) levels in periodontal disease by detecting the level of (s-IgA) in patients with chronic periodontitis smokers and non smokers patients and correlate the mean (s-IgA) levels with clinical periodontal parameters Plaque index (PLI) gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Materials and Methods: The study samples consists of (15) patients with chronic periodontitis who were non smokers (Group I) and (15) patients with chronic periodontitis who were smokers (Group II) of both gender with an age ranged (35-45) years were the periodontal parameters used in this study (PLI, GI, PPD and CAL), unstimulated salivary sample were collected from all subjects and the levels of salivary IgA (s-IgA) in each sample were analyzed for each group by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. A statistical analysis was done by using excel 2013. Results: There was a significant difference with high mean level in the clinical periodontal parameters in smokers group compared to non smokers with chronic periodontitis (PLI, PPD and CAL) except GI which showed no significant difference between the same groups. The biochemical finding showed significant difference with low mean level for (s-IgA) in smokers group compared to non smokers. Conclusion: The findings in this study showed that the concentrations of salivary IgA might be used as an indicator for periodontal disease progression in smokers with chronic periodontitis as a resultant to the effect of smoking which lowering the concentration of the salivary IgA and subsequent reducing of the host’s defense lead to increase in the progression of periodontal disease


Article
Measurement of salivary Immunoglobulin A of participants with a healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis conditions

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Background: Secretory Immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is a subclass of Immunoglobulin A (IgA), It is an antibody that plays an important role in mucosal immunity. It is the main immunoglobulin found in mucous secretions from mammary glands, tear glands and salivary glands, every pathologic process in the body involves the immune system, and periodontal inflammation is one of them and is not an exception. Material and methods: this study was consisted of 60 healthy male participants of an age ranged between (35-50) years old ; 25 of them with generalized moderate chronic periodontists(Clinical Attachment Loss equal to 3-4mm at ≥ 30% of the sites; 20 participants with plaque induced gingivitis and 15 participants had clinically healthy periodontium as control group. oral examination include Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Probing Pocket Depth and Clinical Attachment Level were conducted for all participants four sites were examined for each tooth (labial ,lingual, mesial and distal), 2ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected from all participants to measure Secretory Immunoglobulin A in μg /ml by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Results: salivary IgA(sIgA) mean was (356.3) μg /ml for the chronic periodontitis patients; while it was 202 μg /ml for plaque induced gingivitis patients and it was 129.2 μg /ml for the control group. Highly significant differences among the three group were recorded (P-value <0.001). For chronic periodontitis patients, the Plaque Index Gingival Index scores were positively highly significant correlated with Secretory Immunoglobulin A level in saliva. The Probing Pocket Depth scores were positively and significantly associated with Secretory Immunoglobulin A level. The Clinical Attachment Level scores were positively but non significant associated with Secretory Immunoglobulin A level. For the gingivitis and the control group they were positive non significant association between the periodontal parameters and the Secretory Immunoglobulin A level in saliva. Conclusion: there is a correlation between Secretory Immunoglobulin A level in saliva and the periodontal health status.


Article
Salivary tumor marker CA15-3 and selected elements in relation to oral health status among a group of breast cancer women

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Background: Breast cancer is the commonest type of malignancy worldwide and in Iraq. It is a serious disease that affects the general health and cause systemic changes that affect the physical and chemical properties of saliva leading to adverse effects on oral health. This study was conducted to assess the tumor marker CA15-3 and selected elements in saliva and their relation to oral health status among breast cancer patients compared to control group. Materials and Methods: The total sample consisted of 60 women aged 35-45 years. 30 women were newly diagnosed with breast cancer before taking any treatment and surgery (study group) and 30 women without clinical signs and symptoms of breast cancer as a control group. Dental caries was recorded using DMFS index of WHO1987, and periodontal parameters which include plaque index (PlI), calculus index (CalI), gingival index (GI), and Ramfjod index for the loss of periodontal attachment (CAL) were recorded. Stimulated salivary samples were collected and salivary flow rate, salivary CA15-3 and selected elements were determined. Results: Caries experience (DMFS) was higher among the study group compared with the control group but the difference was statistically not significant. The mean values of plaque index, calculus index, gingival index and loss of attachment were higher among the study group than the control group with a highly significant difference(P<0.01). The concentrations of the tumor marker CA15-3 in saliva of breast cancer patients were highly significantly higher than that of the controls. The salivary flow rate was observed to be lower among study group compared to control group with a highly significant difference (P<0.01). Higher concentrations of salivary phosphorus, copper and total proteins were recorded among study group compared to control with statistically highly significant differences concerning phosphorus and copper. While salivary calcium and zinc were lower among study group compared to control group with statistically highly significant difference concerning zinc Conclusions: This study showed that the breast cancer patients had poor oral hygiene and higher rates of periodontal diseases and dental caries. In addition, the results of this study could support the concept that salivary concentrations of CA15–3 might serve to be used in the detection of breast cancer and/or the post-operative followup of patients under treatment for carcinoma of the breast

Keywords

Breast cancer --- Oral health --- CA15-3.


Article
Orthodontic considerations of functional occlusion in Class І normal occlusion

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Background: The therapeutic goal of orthodontic treatment is to establish ideal occlusion which includes both static and functional aspects. The objective of this study was to clarify functional occlusal treatment goals by analyzing functional occlusion in subjects with established normal occlusion and identify the differences between canine protected occlusion and group function occlusion. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 62 subjects with normal occlusion and with an age range of (18-25 years).Functional occlusal contacts during lateral excursion were identified on a fully adjustable articulator, and then the samples were classified according to: 1) Type of functional occlusion: A) Canine protected occlusion group (canine protected occlusion on both working sides). B) Group function occlusion group (group function occlusion on both working sides). C) Mixed functional occlusion group (canine protected occlusion on one side and group function occlusion on the other side.) 2) Working side contact into: Canine protected occlusion (62 sides) and group function occlusion (62 sides). Then different variables were analyzed. Results: Results revealed that vertical canine overlap, position of maxillary canine and 1st molar mesiobuccal cusp tip to the center of opposing embrasure/groove, and arch form analysis had significant difference between groups. Adding to that, some of the maxillary and mandibular teeth were significantly differed between groups in regard to crown angulation and inclination. Conclusions: It was concluded that the vertical canine overlap, position of maxillary canine and 1st molar mesiobuccal cusp tip to the center of the opposing embrasure/groove, arch form harmony were important functional aspects of orthodontic treatment goals


Article
Evaluation of antibacterial effect of irrigant solutions (titanium tetra fluoride, green tea, sodium hypochlorite, normal saline) using real-time quantitative – polymerase chain reaction

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Abstract

Background: Removal of bacteria from the pulp system by instrumentation of an infected root canal, will be significantly reduced the number of bacteria, but it is well documented that instrumentation alone can-not clean and kill all bacteria found on the root canal walls. Antibacterial irrigants are needed to kill the remaining microorganisms. The aims of this study was to assess antibacterial effect of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) solution and brewing green tea against root canal bacteria and to compare with sodium hypochlorite and normal saline through microbiological and molecular studies. Materials and methods: Microbiological study was carried out to determine the concentration of titanium tetrafluoride and brewing green tea at which they exert antibacterial effect against ten swabs that had been taken from necrotic root canals that were incubated aerobically and anaerobically by paper disk diffusion test, whilemolecular study carried out among Forty children in which the antibacterial effect of titanium tetrafluoride and brewing green tea compared with sodium hypochlorite and normal saline were assessed by real time polymerase chain reaction using SYBR Green. Results: The microbiological study results showed that TiF4 achieved maximum antibacterial effect at concentration 5% against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria while green tea exhibited antibacterial effect when brewed for 20 minutes at concentration 100mg/1ml against staphylococcus aureus, but not active against other microorganisms like Escherichia coli and streptococcus. While results of molecular study illustrated that sodium hypochlorite remained the most effective endodontic irrigant solutions followed by titanium tetrafluoride then green tea while normal saline showed no antibacterial effect. Statistically titanium tetrafluoride, green tea and sodium hypochlorite have significant differences compared to normal saline. Conclusions: This study revealed that, titanium tetra fluoride and brewing green tea can be used as antibacterial irrigant solutions for root canal treatment in children


Article
The relation of salivary glucose with dental caries and Mutans Streptococci among type1 diabetic mellitus patients aged 18-22 years

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Background: Diabetic is a chronic systemic disorder of glucose metabolism. That could be diagnosed using fasting and/or random plasma glucose and Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c). Several biochemical and microbial alterations of saliva could affect dental caries occurrence and severity among diabetic patients. The aim of the present study was to assess the relation of salivary glucose with severity of dental caries and Mutans Streptococci, among uncontrolled and controlled diabetic groups in comparison with non-diabetic control group. Materials and Methods: The total sample composed of adults aged (18-22) years. Divided into 25 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c > 7), 25 controlled diabetic patients (HbA1c ≤ 7), in addition to 25 non-diabetic healthy looking individuals. Fasting blood sugar was determined for the diabetic patients. The diagnosis and recording of dental caries was according to severity of dental caries lesion through the application of D1_4MFS (Manji et al, 1989) and stimulated salivary samples were collected under standardized condition (Tenovuo and Lagerlöf, 1994). Salivary glucose was estimated using spectrophotometric analysis. Viable count of mutans streptococci (on Mitis- Salivarius Bacitracin Agar) was determined. Results: salivary glucose among uncontrolled diabetic group and controlled diabetic group were highly significant higher than control group (p<0.01). Analysis among uncontrolled diabetic patients and non-diabetic control group revealed that the salivary glucose correlate positively highly significant with caries experience represented DMFS (p<0.01), while among controlled diabetic group the correlation was not significant in positive direction concerning DMFS (p>0.05). The correlation between salivary glucose and Mutans Streptococci among three groups was highly significant in positive direction (p<0.01). Conclusion: There are significant correlations between salivary glucose, severity of dental caries and mutans streptococci in uncontrolled diabetic group


Article
Enamel defect of primary and permanent teeth in relation to nutrients daily intake among Down's syndrome children in comparison to normal children

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Background: Any child with Down's syndrome does not develop in the same manner as normal child. Therefore, the child should not be viewed as being like everyone else. Developmental enamel defects in primary teeth have been found at least twice as frequently in disabled children as in control children. Down's syndrome consumed protein more than the recommended daily allowance compared to other disabled groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate developmental defects of enamel and their relations to nutrient intake among Down's syndrome children in comparison to normal children. Materials and Methods: A sample consisted of fifty institutionalized Down's syndrome children (study group) and 50 normal children (control group) aged 7-10 years old. Enamel anomalies were assessed according to criteria of WHO (1997). The dietary history was assessed through the use of food frequency questionnaire. Nutrients analysis was achieved by using a special software program designed by Diab (2003). All data were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Results: A higher percentage of children with enamel anomalies were recorded among study compared to control group. Demarcated opacities were the most distributed type in permanent teeth of the study group while diffuse opacities were the most distributed type among the control group. Most of nutrients showed weak negative non significant correlations with enamel defects (demarcated opacities, hypoplasia) of primary teeth in study and control groups (P> 0.05). Results revealed lower mean values of most of daily nutrients intake among the study group than the control group. Conclusion: This study reports a higher percentage of Down's syndrome children with enamel anomalies compared to normal children which may explain a negative correlation with most of daily nutrients intake, this may indicates that those population in need of preventive dietary program


Article
In-Vitro evaluation of load-deflection characteristics and force levels of nickel titanium orthodontic archwires

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Background: Nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires have become increasingly popular because of their ability to release constant light forces, which are especially useful during initial alignment and leveling phase. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the load–deflection characteristics of four commercially available NiTi archwires. Materials and methods: 200 NiTi 0.014, 0.016, 0.018, 0.016x0.022 and 0.019x0.025-inch nickel–titanium archwires from four different manufacturers (3M, Ortho Technology, Jiscop and Astar) were tested. The load-deflection properties of these archwires were evaluated by a full arch bending test in both palatal and gingival directions at 37°C temperature using a universal material testing machine. Forces generated at maximum loading of 2mm and at unloading of 1.5mm were measured. Results: All the tested NiTi wires showed an increase in loading and unloading force with increased wire dimension. Generally, 3M gave the most flexible round wires and relatively stiff rectangular wires; with linear load deflection curves. Ortho Technology wires were flexible. Jiscop gave the stiffest round wires and the most flexible rectangular wires. Astar wires were stiff which gave the highest force levels during unloading. Conclusion: Force levels vary greatly from brand to brand and so NiTi wire brands must be selected with consideration to their load-deflection characteristics and mechanical properties


Article
Dental caries among kindergarten children in relation to socioeconomic status in Al-Najaf governorate-Iraq

Authors: Suha M. Shubber --- Wesal A. Al-Obaidi
Pages: 165-168
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Background: Dental caries is the most common oral problem, although dental caries is not life threatening, it has a harmful effect on quality of life. Socioeconomic factors were found to be strong predictors of the prevalence of oral diseases in children, likes family income, occupational prestige, and education. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of socioeconomic factors on occurrence dental caries in their children. Materials and methods: The sample consists of 550 kindergartens children aged between (4-5) years were selected randomly, girls and boys. The kindergartens selection was randomly from different geographical areas in Al-Najaf governorate. Information was taken from children's parents using questionnaire with the help of the kindergartens managers. Examination of dental caries severity was performed according to the World Health Organization (1987). Children were examined in a suitable room in their school. Day light was used for illumination. Results: High caries prevalence was recorded (84.7%); females had higher caries prevalence as compared to males. Mean dmfs was (10.05±0.40) and ds value was the highest component. Age differences were recorded for both indicators with no gender differences. Secondary and high schools are the highest percentage of the education of the child’s parents and the differences were not significant regarding dental caries between parent factors. Conclusion: Children in this study were in need of preventive programs that are to say in need of recall for regular visits and the prophylactic application of fluoride therapy and fissure sealant to prevent initiation of dental caries


Article
Prevalence and severity of molar-incisor hypomineralisation with relation to its etiological factors among school children 7- 9 years of Al-Najaf governorate

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Background: Molar Incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is one of the biggest challenges with great clinical interest. Currently, the etiology of MIH remains unclear. There is no previous study concerning school children aged 7 – 9 years in Al-Najaf governorate in order to estimate the prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralisation and the possible associated risk factors. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, severity and the possible associated etiological factors of molar incisor hypomineralisation and also to study the correlation between body mass index and molar incisor hypomineralisation. Material and Methods: Across sectional study conducted at Al-Najaf Governorate. A total of 600 children were enrolled those who did not met the inclusion criteria were excluded. A structured self-administered validated Arabic language questionnaire and an examination sheet were used for data collection. Body weight and height were measured and the body mass index was calculated. Dental material and supplies were used in examination. The demarcated hypomineralization was recorded according to the 10 point scoring system depended on the EAPD evaluation criteria The severity was assessed according to the clinical evaluation of the examiner and the presence of opacities. Results: The response rate was 84.7% and the highest was in the 9-year-old children, the participants were 532 children, the prevalence of hypomineralisation defect was 22.9%. The prevalence of demarcated hypomineralisation was increased concomitantly with the age, and the 9-year-old children were the more affected. The overall prevalence of MIH among boys was lower than girls; (17.3%) and 22.6%, respectively. The severely affected teeth were 33/1464 teeth, represented 2.3%, severely affected molars were 25 (5.1%) and the severely affected incisors were 8 (0.8%). More severely affected teeth were found in obese and overweight children were also increased with the age of child. Conclusions: The prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation in this study was 22.9%, MIH was more prevalent among girls, the 9-year-old, normal body weight and urban residents children. The severely affected teeth represented 4.5% of the total number of teeth, molars were more severely affected than incisors, obese and overweight children and older children have more severe MIH. Further studies are suggested


Article
Comparison of enamel color alteration between bonded and free unbonded surfaces of maxillary anterior teeth after fixed orthodontic therapy (A prospective clinical study)

Authors: Yasir R. Abdulhuaasin Al-Laban
Pages: 174-178
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Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the color changes between the bonded middle third and the unbonded gingival and incisal thirds, fallowing fixed orthodontic treatment Material and method: The color parameter l, a, b has been recorded for each thirds in upper anterior teeth by mean of easy shad device. The has been calculated for gingival, middle and incisal thirds for the upper anterior teeth in 34 patient, 17 males and 17femals, those subject undergone fixed orthodontic treatment Results: The in middle bonded third is highly significant higher than that in incise and gingival thirds p<0.01 because the middle third isn’t expose to oral fluid and dental brushing since it covered by the bracket. Also there was no significant difference in between the 2 sex groups Conclusion: The discoloration that happened in teeth due to orthodontic treatment occur in middle thirds more than the incisal and gingival thirds and there no difference between the 2 sex groups


Article
Occlusal features, perception of occlusion and orthodontic treatment need and demand among 13 years aged Baghdadi students Part II: (Cross sectional epidemiological study)

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Background: The present study aimed to assess the distribution, prevalence, severity of malocclusion in Baghdad governorate in relation to gender and residency Materials and Methods: A multi-stage stratified sampling technique was used in this investigation to make the sample a representative of target population. The sample consisted of 2700 (1349 males and 1351 females) intermediate school students aged 13 years representing 3% of the total target population. A questionnaire was used to determine the perception of occlusion and orthodontic treatment demand of the students and the assessment procedures for occlusal features by direct intraoral measurement using veriner and an instrument to measure the rotated and displaced teeth. Results and conclusions: The presence of malaligned teeth was reported by 39% of the sample. The most prevalent reported types of malaligned teeth were spaced teeth (26.6%); Of the students who stated that they have malaligned teeth, 70.3% thought that it affected their appearance, 17.8% affected chewing, and 7.8% affected speech; The most common reasons for not seeking orthodontic treatment were the thought that treatment is not important or not possible (25.8%) and fear of pain (48.8%).One or more missing teeth due to extraction or trauma were found in 4.9% of the sample,the most common extracted tooth was the mandibular first molar. Crowding was more concentrated in the lower anterior segment while the spacing cases were higher and more concentrated in the upper anterior segment. A maxillary central diastema was found in 18.1 % of the sample with a mean of 0.306 mm. Anterior irregularities were found in (18.36 %maxillary and 26.84% mandibular),mean overjet 3.310 mm, mean overbite was 2.99 mm, Class I Angle class was found in 78.29%, class II in 19.5% and class III in 2.3%. Posterior crossbite found in 5.6%, anterior openbite (1.7%) and midline shift (54.34 %).Normal lip form was found in 86.6%, soft tissue impingement in 3.3%.The treatment need according to DAI show that 72.3% of the sample were found to have no or slight treatment need, 15.9% with treatment elective, 7.3% with treatment highly desirable, and 4.5% with treatment mandatory.Also increase the need and decrease demand for orthodontic treatment among adolescents in the Baghdad commune. This data will be useful for public oral health service and emphasize the need for orthodontic treatment among Baghdadi adolescents

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