Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2015 volume:27 issue:4

Article
The Effect of Remineralizing Toothpastes on Enamel Surface Roughness after Hybrid Laser Bleaching (An In vitro Study)

Authors: Bahar Jaafar Selivany --- Fadi Al-Hano
Pages: 1-7
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Abstract

Background: one of the complications of power bleaching is surface roughness of enamel which increases the possibility of post bleaching teeth discoloration. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of toothpaste containing nano hydroxyapatite, NovaMin and kin sense fluoride on surface roughness of human tooth enamel after laser bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel. Materials and Methods: Twenty human enamel incisors were cleaned and their labial surface polished up to #1200, then categorized into four equal groups; first group kept without bleaching as a control group, while the remaining three experimental groups were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide, and each group treated with a restore paste containing one of the following: nano hydroxyapatite, NovaMin, and Kin fluoride. Bleaching was done with laser hybrid system (DMC Whitening Lase II, Sao Paulo, Brazil). Enamel roughness values assessed by an atomic force microscopy (AA3000, Bosten, USA) before and after treatment with restore tooth paste. Results: Paired t-test used to compare the mean roughness values before and after treatment with each restore paste. One-way analysis of variance and Duncan post hoc tests used to determine the differences between mean roughness values of the groups. A p-value of 0.05 or less considered a significant. The results showed a highly significant statistical differences of remineralization of all types of restore tooth pastes. Conclusions: Nano hydroxyapatite past exhibiting a higher ability to reduce the surface roughness after laser bleaching than other tested pastes.


Article
The Influence of Different Fabrication Techniques and Preparation Designs on the Marginal Adaptation of Ceramic Veneers (An In vitro Comparative Study)

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Background: Ceramic veneers represent the treatment of choice in minimally invasive esthetic dentistry; one of the critical factors in their long term success is marginal adaptation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the marginal gap of ceramic veneers by using two different fabrication techniques and two different designs of preparation. Material and methods: A typodont maxillary central incisor used in the preparation from which metal dies were fabricated, which were in turn used to make forty stone dies. The dies divided into four experimental groups, each group had ten samples: A1: prepared with butt-joint incisal reduction and restored with IPS e.max CAD, A2: prepared with overlapped incisal reduction and restored with IPS e.max CAD. B1: prepared with butt-joint incisal reduction restored with IPS e.max press. B2: prepared with overlapped incisal reduction and restored with IPS e.max press. The marginal gap was measured with direct view technique using digital microscope at a magnification of 230x. Measurements were recorded for four surfaces for each sample and the maximum value was taken to represent that sample. Results: The data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and independent samples t-tests. These tests revealed highly significant effects of both the preparation design and the technique of fabrication on the marginal gap (p=0.00), with CAD/CAM veneers, group A1 recorded the least marginal gap and pressing group, B2 showed the highest gap values. There was no significant effect of the interaction between the two parameters on the marginal gap. Conclusion: the CAD/CAM veneers with butt joint incisal reduction produced the most accurate margins while the least favorable combination was the pressable ceramic veneers with overlapped incisal reduction


Article
An Evaluation of the Solubility of Four Endodontic Sealers in Different Solvents (An In Vitro Study)

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Background: Complete removal of filling material from the root canal is an essential requirement for endodontic retreatment. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate and compare the dissolving capabilities of various solvents (Xylene, Eugenate Desobturator, Eucalyptol, EDTA and Distilled water (as a control)) on four different types of sealer (Endofill, Apexit Plus, AH Plus and EndoSequence bioceramic sealer). Materials and method: Eighty samples of each sealer were prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions and then divided into ten groups (of 8 samples) for immersion in the respective solvents for 2 and 5 min immersion periods. Each sealer specimen was weighed to obtain its initial mass. The specimens were immersed in the tested solvents for 2 and 5 min, followed by rinsing with double distilled water and blotted dry with an absorbent paper, then they were reweighed to determine its final mass. The mean of weight loss was determined for each material in each solvent during the specified immersion period, and the values were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Clear differences were shown in the solubility profile of these root canal sealers in the tested solvents. The result of the present study shows that Xylene had the greatest capacity for dissolving Endofill, Apexit Plus and AH Plus. Eugenate Desobturator, Eucalyptol and EDTA showed a highly significant dissolving capability on these sealers with variations between these subgroups; EndoSequence BC sealer is insoluble in these tested solvents. Regarding the immersion time, higher values of solubility were obtained at 5 min than that at 2 min immersion time. Conclusion: The results showed that Xylene, Eugenate Desobturator, Eucalyptol and EDTA can be used for the removal of Endofill, Apexit Plus and AH Plus during endodontic retreatment with variations between these subgroups; D.W (control group) showed the least capacity for dissolving these sealers. EndoSequence BC sealer is insoluble in the tested solvents


Article
A Micro Computed Tomography Assessment of New Carrier-Based Root Canal Fillings

Authors: Raghad A. Al-Hashimi
Pages: 21-24
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Background: The main aim of the present study is to qualify and quantify voids formation of root canals obturated with GuttaCore (GC) and experimental Hydroxyapatite polyethylene (HA/PE) as new carrier-based root canal fillings by using micro computed tomography scan. Materials and methods: In the present study, eight straight single-rooted human permanent premolar teeth are selected and disinfected, then stored in distilled water. The teeth decoronated leaving a root length of 12mm each. The root canals instrumented by using crown down technique and the apical diameter of the root canal prepared to a size # 30/0.04 for achieving standardized measurements. A 5mL of 17% EDTA used to remove the smear layer followed by 5mL of 2.5% NaOCl and rinsing with normal saline. Then the shaped root canals were randomly subdivided into two groups of 4 teeth each according to the carrier-based obturation system use, GuttaCore or experimental HA/PE. Afterwards, the obturated roots stored at 37°C with 100% humidity for 72 hours to allow for complete setting of the sealer. Micro-CT was then scanned to quantify the voids within the root canal space. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc comparison tests (α=0.05). Results: The root canals obturated with both obturation systems, GuttaCore andexperimental HA/PE showed voids formation, particularly at the apical third of the root canal. GC obturation showed a lower percentage of voids volume (1.54%) than the experimental HA/PE obturation (2.3%). The void volume percentage in the GuttaCore system, however, was non-significantly different (P> 0.05) in comparison with the experimental PE/HA system. Conclusions: GuttaCore and experimental HA/PE obturators exhibited voids formation within the entire root canal space. The experimental HA/PE obturator is comparable to the GuttaCore obturator in terms of voids qualification


Article
An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Gingival Retraction Materials on the Gingival Tissue Displacement (A Comparative In Vivo Study)

Authors: Zainab M. Dawood --- Manhal A. Majeed
Pages: 25-31
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Background: An accurate adaptation of the crown to the finish line is essential to minimize cement dissolution and to preserve periodontium in fixed partial denture cases. An accurate adaptation of crown is possible only when preparation details are captured adequately in the impression and transferred to cast. For these reasons, gingival displacement is necessary to capture subgingival preparation details.The aim of the present study is to measure in vivo the horizontal displacement of the gingival sulcus obtained by using three new cordless retraction materials (Magic Foam Cord®, Racegel and Astringent Retraction Paste) in comparison to medicated retraction cord. Materials and method: Thirty-two patients requiring porcelain fused to metal fixed partial denture for replacement of a missing maxillary posterior tooth (either one of thepremolars or the first molar). The patients are randomly divided into four groups of eight patients each according to the type of gingival retraction material used as follows: Group I: Medicated retraction cord (racemic epinephrine hydrochloride 0.3 ± 0.2 mg per inch of cord, #00), Group II: Magic Foam Cord® (expanding polyvinyl siloxane), Group III: Racegel (25% aluminum chloride gel) and Group IV: Astringent Retraction Paste (15% aluminum chloride paste). Three depth orientation grooves were prepared in the buccal and palatal surfaces of a maxillary premolar parallel with the long axis of the tooth, extending from the middle third to the gingival third with the level of the free gingiva using a flat-ended diamond fissure bur. Impression of the gingival sulcus was then made using monophase polyether impression material (Impregum™ Penta™ Soft, 3M ESPE, Germany), before and after gingival retraction with either of the aforementioned gingival retraction materials. The sulcus width, before and after gingival retraction was measured on the master cast (in μm), after its sectioning longitudinally bucco-palatally at the middle of the prepared grooves using a rotary diamond disc. The measurement carried out by using digital microscope (Dino-Lite)at a magnification of 230X. The horizontal gingival displacement (the distance from the end of each prepared groove to the crest of the gingiva) measured by subtracting the gingival sulcus width after retraction from that before retraction. Results: The findings of the present study showed that the highest mean of horizontal gingival displacement is recorded by Group IV (Astringent Retraction Paste) (250.7900 μm), whereas the lowest mean of horizontal gingival displacement is recorded by Group III (Racegel) (78.0988 μm). One-way ANOVA test showed statistically highly significant differences among groups (p< 0.01). Least Significant Difference test (LSD test) was also used to make multiple comparisons among groups and revealed a statistically highly significant difference between each two groups (p< 0.01). Conclusion: The two new gingival retraction pastes (Astringent Retraction Paste and Magic Foam Cord®) could be used for gingival retraction as alternatives to medicated retraction cord. They offer advantages of simplified placement technique and shorter application time with greater gingival retraction. Meanwhile, the use of Racegel alone is not recommended for gingival retraction since it provides the least gingival displacement.


Article
Preparation and Evaluation of Some Properties of Heat Cured Acrylic Based Denture Soft Liner

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Background: The base of the denture is largely responsible for providing the prosthesis with retention, stability, and support by being closely adapted to the oral mucosa. However; the process of bone resorption is irreversible and may lead to an inadequate fit of the prosthesis; this can be overcome by relining. Materials and methods: Acrylic based soft denture liner is prepared by preparing polymer from purified methylmethacrylate monomer with (10-2) initiator and (30%) dibutylphthalate plasticizer concentrations. Biological properties were evaluated in comparison with the control material through subcutaneous specimens' implantation in the New Zealand rabbits. Excisional biopsies were taken after (1, 3, days 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks) period. Microscopically, sections are studied to explore the consequences of thecontact with tested material and tissue response. Tensile strength, percentage of elongation, compressive, bond, and peel strengthwere evaluated; as well as water sorption and solubility is compared with the control material. Results: Histological study of the sections contained experimental and control materials showed normal tissue response by normal infiltration of the inflammatory cells; acute in the first days then chronic inflammatory cells were seen in the subsequent periods. Finally capsular enclosure of the specimens was well characterized and seen after 4 weeks. Results of the mechanical properties showed non-significant differences for the tested properties except the percentage of elongation; control material recorded significantly higher value. Moreover, statistically; water sorption of the experimental material was significantly lower than the control material; while the tested materials showed nonsignificant differences regarding the solubility test. Conclusion: The recommended formula of preparing heat-cured; acrylic based denture soft liner showed acceptable properties. Further evaluations of the experimental material were suggested


Article
The Effect of Zirconium Silicate Nanopowder Reinforcement on Some Mechanical and Physical Properties of Heat Cured Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) Denture Base Materials

Authors: Saja Kareem --- Mohammed Moudhaffer
Pages: 37-43
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Background: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has relatively unsatisfactory mechanical properties such as low flexural strength and impact strength also dimensional instability. Material and method: Zirconium silicate nanoparticles were coated with a layer of trimethoxysilylpropylmethacrylate (TMSPM) before sonication in monomer (MMA) with the percentages 1% and 1.5% by weight then mixed with powder using conventional procedure, (150) samples were prepared and divided into three groups, each group consisted of (50) samples, the first group prepared from PMMA without addition (control), another group with the addition of 1% wt Zrsio4 nanoparticles (experimental) and the third one with 1.5% wt Zrsio4 nanoparticles (experimental). Each group was divided into 5 sub-groups according to the test performed. The tests conducted impact strength, transverse strength, indentation hardness (shore D), surface roughness, water sorption and solubility. The size, shape and distribution of nanofiller were estimated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) .The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and LSD test. Result: Highly significant increase in impact strength, transverse strength and surface hardness occurred with the incorporation of 1.5% wt Zirconium silicate nanofiller but non-significant increase in impact strength, significant increase in transverse strength and highly significant increase in surface hardness occurred with the incorporation of 1% wt Zrsio4 nanofiller. Non-significant increase in surface roughness with both 1% and 1.5% wt Zrsio4 . Highly significant decrease in water sorption and solubility with 1.5% wt Zrsio4 nanofiller and non-significant decrease in water sorption and solubility with 1% wt Zrsio4 compared with control group. Conclusion: The maximum increase in impact strength, transverse strength, and surface hardness was observed in denture base nano composite containing 1.5% Zrsio4. In addition, highly significant decrease in water sorption and solubility and non-significant increase in surface roughness was also noticed


Article
The Effect of Plasma Treatment on Shear Bond Strength of High Impact Acrylic Resin Denture Base Lined with Two Types of Soft Lining Materials after Immersion in Distilled Water and Denture Cleanser

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Background: In dentistry, dentist takes the advantages of soft lining materials due to the viscoelastic properties. The major problem is the adhesion of the soft liner with the denture base material. Materials and Methods: Heat cured of high impact acrylic resin specimens prepared with dimensions 75x13x13mm for shear bond strength test, soft lining material (Refit and Mollosil) with a 3-mm thickness and used to join each two acrylic blocks. Also four specimens with the same previous dimensions utilized for chemical and physical surface analysis. The specimens grouped as control (without plasma) and experiment (with oxygen plasma) treated high impact acrylic specimens. Results: Plasma treatment increased the shear bond strength for both Refit and Mollosil soft lining material after immersion in distilled water for 30 days as compared with the control group, also there was decrease in shear bond strength for both Refit and Mollosil soft lining material of the experimental group after immersion in denture cleanser for 30 days as compared with the control (without plasma treated) group. AFM analysis revealed that oxygen plasma treatment led to formation of (pits and protuberances) that increase the surface area and increase the shear bond between soft liners and high impact acrylic denture base. Conclusions: Oxygen plasma surface treatment was an effective method for increasing adhesion by physical topographic surface (due to the plasma etching process which in turn led to removal of some material from the surface and this led to increase the bond strength).


Article
An Evaluation of Olive Oil as a Separating Medium and Its Effect on Some Mechanical Properties of Processed Acrylic Resin Denture Base (A Comparative Study). Part Two

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Background: During acrylic resin processing, the mold must be separated from the surface of the gypsum to prevent liquid resin from penetrating into the gypsum, and water from the gypsum seeping into the acrylic resin. For many years, tin foil was the most acceptable separating medium, and because it's difficult to apply, a tin-foil substitute is used. In this study, olive oil is used as an alternative to tin foil separating medium for first time, and evaluating its effect as a separating medium on some mechanical properties such as (indentation hardness and transverse strength) of acrylic resins denture base comparing it with those processed using tin-foil and tin foil substitute such as (cold mold seal) separating medium. Materials and Methods: One hundred Twenty four acrylic resins samples (124) were prepared falling in two main groups: (heat and cold-cured acrylic denture base resins), for each group three types of separating medium were used and five tests (10 samples) for each test were carried out, and (4) samples for the chemical composition. Results: Tin foil is one of the most satisfactory separating media in getting the best properties when using it as a separating medium, while, a statistically no-significant difference have been noticed between olive oil and coldmold seal samples concerning mechanical properties of tested groups. Infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that, no changes were found in the chemical composition of both heat and cold-cured acrylic resins denture base after using olive oil as a separating medium. Conclusion:The present study concluded that olive oil may be used as a substitute for tin foil and cold – mold seal separating medium in processing both heat and cold – cure acrylic resin denture base.


Article
An Evaluation of Some Mechanical Properties of Autopolymerizing Acrylic Resin with the Modified One after Changing the Curing Environment: (In vitro Study)

Authors: Intisar J. Ismail
Pages: 62-71
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Background: Studying and investigating the transverse strength(Ts), impact strength(Is), hardness (Hr) and surface roughness(Ra) of conventional and modified autopolymerizing acrylic resin with different weight percentages of biopolymer kraftlignin, after curing in different water temperatures; 40°C and 80°C. Material and Methods: Standard acrylic specimens were fabricated according to ADA specification No.12 for transverse strength, ISO 179 was used for impact testing, Shore D for hardness and profilometerfor surface roughness. The material lignin first dispersed in the monomer, then the powder PMMA is immediately added. Lignin added in different weight percentages. Then cured using pressure pot (Ivomet) in two temperatures;40°C and 80°C under 2 bar pressure, for 30 minutes.Atotal of 144samples were prepared for this study. Ts, Is, Ra, and Hr were tested, by using Instron universal testing machine, charpy impact tester, shore D tester, and profilometer respectively. Results: The transverse strength increased in both the conventional and modified onewhen compared with that cured in air. The addition of 0.5wt% lignin gave the higher effect (78.0017MPa) with highly significant difference found between groups at 40°C polymerizing temperature. While the impact strength in both temperatures in the modified resin revealed increased results than conventional one, 1.25wt% of kraft lignin gave the highest value (12.7355KJ/m2) with highly significant differences found between groups at 80°C polymerizing temperature. Hardness and surface roughness showed also highly significant differences found between groups at 40°C polymerizing temperature, all the groups had increased Hr. than the control one (78.95), while the Ra. decreased for 1.0% ,1.25,1.50 and 1.75 wt% lignin content to (0.26,0.10,0.063, 0.12μm) respectively in 40°C polymerizing temperature, the lowest value present in 1.75 wt% lignin (0.05 μm) at 80°Cpolymerizing temperature. Conclusions: It seems that increasing the polymerizing temperature to 40°C had a positive effect on the mechanical properties of autopolymerizing acrylic resin and the one enforced by kraft lignin biopolymer in low percentages. Increasing the polymerizing temperature to 80°C will doesn’t have much positive effect but it doesn’t deteriorate the mechanical properties. However, when submitted to increasing the temperature to 80°C, specimens showed a significantincrease in impact strength


Article
Validity of 3D Reconstructed Computed Tomographic Image in Using Craniometrical Measurements of the Skull for Sex Differentiation (An Iraqi Study)

Authors: Noor M. Sadeq --- Ahlam A. Fatah
Pages: 72-77
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Background: The skull offers a high resistance of adverse environmental conditions over time, resulting in the greater stability of the dimorphic features as compared to other skeletal bony pieces. Sex determination of human skeletal considered an initial step in its identification. The present study is undertaken to evaluate the validity of 3D reconstructed computed tomographic images in sex differentiation by using craniometrical measurements at various parts of the skull. Materials and Method: 3D reconstructed computed tomographic scanning of 100 Iraqi subject, (50 males and 50 females) were analyzed with their age range from20-70 years old. Craniometrical linear measurements were located and marked on both side of the 3D skull images. Results: For the all parameters measured for sexes the mean value for Male had significantly greater than females with (p value < 0.001). A receiver operating characteristic curves was obtained for each variable to observe their overall performance in sex determination. The area of mastoid triangle was found the best variable in sex differentiation (ROC area =0.97 for unilateral skull measurements and 0.98 for bilateral measurements).while EU-EU was found to be the least one. Conclusion: 3D reconstructed Computed tomography scanning is a good diagnostic method for analyzing the craniometrical measurements of sex determination. sex differentiation for isolated part of the skull when only the fragmentary crania is available, could be achieved and the highest accuracy in sex determination can be obtained whether part or complete skull available


Article
Thickness of Buccal Bone at Various Sites of the Mandible and Its Clinical Significance in Monocortical Screws Placement Using Multi-Slice Computed Tomography

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Background:Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of using miniplates and screws is the treatment of choice of mandibular fractures. It is important to know both: the region where the bone provides a firm anchorage, and the topography of the dental apices and inferior alveolar nerve to avoided imaging them when inserting the screw. The aim of this study is to determine the thickness of buccal cortical plate and that of buccal bone at the parasymphysis and mandibular body, thereby determining the area that provide a firm anchorage and the maximum length of mono-cortical screws that can be safely placed in these regions without injuring the tooth roots or mandibular nerve. Materials and Methods: The sample of the present study was 110 Iraqi subjects (77 males & 33 females) aged (18-35) years old who admitted to Computed Tomography scan unit in AL-Sadr Teaching Hospital in Al-Najaf city to get Computed Tomographic examination of facial bones. The conventional sections of CT (axial, coronal) used to do the measurements and dental planning analysis also used. The thickness of buccal cortical plate and the thickness of buccal bone were measured at the level of root apex of (canine, first premolar, second premolar) and at the level ofroot apex and inferior alveolar canal in mesial and distal root of first and second molar. Results: There was no statistical significant difference in buccal cortical plate and buccal bone thickness between age and gender at most measured sites. Using of 4mm screw is safe in distal root region of 2nd molar at the level of apex and that of inferior alveolar canal for both males and females. Moving slightly forward in position to the mesial root of 2nd molar 1mm will be lost from safety margin, while making only the 3mm screw is safe. For the remaining anterior positions only the minimum screw length of 2 mm is safe. Conclusions: Thickness of buccal cortical plate and buccal bone in various sites could be measured precisely using Multislice Computed tomography which can guide surgeons in selecting the proper screw length without causing injury to tooth apex or inferior alveolar nerve.


Article
An Assessment of Oral Health in Hypertensive Patients Treated with HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins)

Authors: Amir A. M. Al-Joboury --- Rafil H. Rasheed
Pages: 85-89
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Background: Hypertension is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated, it's classified as either primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension, and it increases the risk of ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and other cardiovascular diseases. Several classes of medications collectively referred to as antihypertensive drugs like beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, renin inhibitors and statins (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor. Statin medication may have some beneficial effects when subjects have dental plaque or signs of periodontitis as gingival bleeding. The purpose of this study were to assess the oral health in hypertensive patients are treated with statins in terms of salivary flow rate, pH and oral health indices. Materials and Methods: Ninety saliva specimens collected from three groups of subjects (thirty healthy patients "control" Group I), thirty hypertensive patients treated with anti-hypertensive medications without taking statins (Group II) and thirty hypertensive patients treated with anti-hypertensive medications with statins (Group III). Unstimulated saliva was collected from each patients and participants for assessment of salivary flow rate and salivary pH. Results: Salivary flow rate is reduced in Group II and III patients compared with Group I. Significant low salivary flow rate observed in Group III patients (hypertensive treated with statins) compared with Group II (hypertensive untreated with statins) and Group I (healthy subjects); The median value of gingival index is significantly higher in Group II compared with corresponding value in Group I, while it attended a significant low value in Group III patients; There is no significant difference in DMF score between Group I and Group III, while a significant high score observed in Group II compared with Group I ; The percent of carries restoration in patients of Group II is significantly low compared with corresponding value of Group I . Although the percent of carries restoration in patients of Group III is less than corresponding value of Group I but it does not reach significant level. Conclusions: Patients using statins therapy are more likely have an improvement in gingival index, DMF score and carries restoration. The salivary flow rate is reduced in patients treated with statins medications, statins therapy have a beneficial effect on the oral cavity


Article
An Assessment of Alpha-Amylase as Salivary Psychological Stress Marker in Relation to Temporomandibular Disorders among a Sample of Dental Students

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Background: University dental students perceived a higher level of stress prior to the final exam associated with raised salivary alpha-amylase levels which could be considered as a useful noninvasive biomarker for measuring acute stress. Using a Helkimo anamnestic and clinical dysfunction scoring for temporomandibular disorders can give a better insight about the association of this marker and temporomandibular disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluation level of salivary alpha-amylase in stressor students with temporomandibular disorders and the relation between the marker in relation to temporomandibular disorders severity. This might give a better understanding to the role of psychological stress as an etiological factor for developing temporomandibular joint problems. Materials and Methods: A total eighty participants aged between 20 to 24 were recruited for this study. The participants were University dental students under graduate students at final examination period who were examined and gave saliva samples in final examination period. Salivary assay kits as alpha-amylase was used to measure those variable and a Helkimo anamnestic and clinical dysfunction scoring for temporomandibular disorders. Results: The group of participants with stress and temporomandibular disorders showed significantly higher levels of salivary alpha-amylase than the control group, the salivary alpha-amylase has statistically non-significant correlation with Helkimo anamnestic categories (Di-I mild, Di-II moderate and Di-III severe. Salivary alpha-amylase levels show non-significant and weak association with two categories of clinical dysfunction criteria in Helkimo index system, which are Muscle pain and temporomandibular joint pain on palpation. Conclusion: This study concluded that University students perceived a high level of stress before the final examination. Salivary alpha-amylase is now the stress biomarker that is most often used to measure acute stress. Helkimo anamnestic and clinical dysfunction scoring criteria for still the pioneer for measuring a TMD


Article
P16 Protein and Human Papillomavirus (HPV16, 18) Expressions in Oral Lichen Planus and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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Background: Oral carcinogenesis is a molecular and histological multistage process featuring genetic and phenotypic markers for each stage, which involves enhanced function of several oncogenes and/or the deactivation of tumor suppressor genes, resulting in the loss of cell cycle checkpoints. The progression towards malignancy includes sequential histopathological alterations ranging from hyperplasia through dysplasia to carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma. The p16 gene produces p16 protein, which in turn inhibits phosphorylation of retinoblastoma, p16 play a significant role in early carcinogenesis. Human papillomavirus is a well established heterogeneous virus and plays an important role in oral cancers. The aims of the study were to evaluate, compare and correlate the immunohistochemical expression of p16 protein and HPV16/18 with each other in oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma, and with various clinicopathological findings. Materials and methods: Forty formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue blocks (24 cases of oral lichen planus, and 16 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma) were included in this study, an immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti p16 monoclonal antibody, and anti HPV16/18 monoclonal antibodies. Results: Positive IHC expression of p16 was found in 11 cases (68.75%) of OSCC, and in 19 cases (79.166%) of OLP. Positive IHC expression of HPV16 was found in 2 cases (12.5%) of OSCC, and in 1 case (4.16%) of OLP. IHC expression of HPV18 showed negative expression in all cases of OSCC, and found only in 1 case (4.16%) of OLP. Conclusions: This study signifies the statistically non significant correlation between p16 and HPV 16/18 in OLP and OSCC

Keywords

OLP --- OSCC --- P16 --- HPV


Article
The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Osseointegration Period of Dental Implants

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Background: The preparation of Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is minimally invasive way, simple, low cost to obtain natural autologous growth factors and is now being widely used in different fields of medicine for its ability to increase the regeneration potential of tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local application of autologous PRP gel on acceleration rate of osseointegration period by clinical assessment accomplished by determining the changes in implant stability during 3 months healing period using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Materials and methods: A total of 28 dental implants were inserted in edentulous maxillae or mandibles of 13 patients using a split mouth design, i.e. each patient was received at least two dental implants at the same session, one implant was implanted in association with PRP which was placed locally in one site, to serve as PRP group, and the other implant was placed without PRP, to serve as a control group. Both groups were followed with repeated implant stability measurement by means of resonance frequency analysis at different time intervals (at the time of implant placement, 8th week, and 12th week postoperatively). Results: There was no obvious statistically significant difference in mean ISQ between PRP and control groups (P > 0.05) at baseline, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, no appreciable clinical effect was observed to accelerate the rate of osseointegration of sandblasted acid-etched endosseous dental implants when using topical application of autologous PRP gel into the prepared drill holes


Article
An Assessment of Salivary Leptin and Resistin Levels in Type Two Diabetic Patients with Chronic Periodontitis (A Comparative Study)

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Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitusand chronic periodontitis hold a close relationship that has been the focus of many researches. Currently there is an appreciation to the role of adipose tissue-derived substances "the adipokines" in immune-inflammatory responses; also, there is an interest in using the simple non-invasive saliva in diagnosing and linking oral and general health problems. The current study aims to determine the periodontal health status in the chronic periodontitis patients with and without poorly or well controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus, measure the salivary levels of two adipokines "leptin and resistin", pH and flow rate and then correlate between these clinical periodontal, biochemical and physical parameters in each study and control groups. Materials and Methods: Seventy five males were recruited for the study, with an age range of (35-50) years. The subjects were divided into four groups: two non-diabetic groups: one of them with healthy periodontium and systemically healthy (Control, 15 subjects) and the other with chronic periodontitis (20 patients) and two type 2 diabetic groups: well controlled (20 patients) and poorly controlled (20 patients) both of them with chronic periodontitis.Unstimulated whole salivary samples were collected from all of the participants; salivary flow rate and pH were measured and then biochemically analyzed for assessment of resistin and leptin levels.Clinical periodontal parameters included: the plaque index, the gingival index, the bleeding on probing, the probing pocket depth and the clinical attachment level had been recorded for all subjects at four sites per tooth except for the third molars. Results: The results of clinical periodontal examination revealed that the group of chronic periodontitis with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus had the worst periodontal health status. The biochemical analysis demonstrated that the lowest level of salivary leptin was foundin the chronic periodontitis with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus group. In addition, the highest level of salivary resistin was demonstrated in chronic periodontitis with well controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus group. When the salivary flow rate and pH were measured, it was found that they were decreased in the study groups as compared to the control group. A non-significant moderate negative correlation between salivary leptin with pH in the control group was found. While, salivary resistin demonstrated a high significant moderate positive correlation with the gingival index in the non-diabeticchronic periodontitis group and a non-significant moderate negative correlation with salivary flow ratein the control group. Finally, the study found that the correlation between salivary leptin and resistin was non-significant weak negative in each of the study and control groups. Conclusion: It can be concluded that poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients have more periodontal tissue destruction and less salivary flow rate than well controlled type 2 diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients all of them with chronic periodontitis. Salivary Resistin and Leptin hormones may be useful biochemical markers of periodontal tissue destruction and this will provide better opportunities in early diagnosis, monitoring and efficient management of periodontal diseases and T2DM.

Keywords

T2DM --- CP --- resistin --- leptin and saliva


Article
Antibacterial Effect of Aqueous and Alcoholic Propolis Extracts on Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis (An In-vitro Study)

Authors: Saba S. Mahdi --- Liqaa’ M. Ibrahim --- Wifaq M. Ali
Pages: 115-118
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Background: Propolis has received great interest because of its wide range antimicrobial activity. Propolis also called (bee glue) due to its collection by (Apismellifera) honeybees from various plants resinous substance. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of propolis extracts (aqueous and alcoholic) on anaerobic periodontal pathogen namely Aggregatibacteractinomycetemcomitans. Materials and Methods: Strains of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans wasisolated from pockets of systemically healthy patients aged between 35-55 years old suffering from chronic periodontitis with pocket depths of 5-6 mm, the bacteria cultured on special blood Agar plates solid media. Propolis was extracted by using water and alcohol. Agar well technique was used to study the sensitivity of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to different concentrations of propolis extracts (70, 80, 90, 100, 125 and 150) mg/ml and other control agents (distilled water and chlorhexidine 0.2%). Results: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was sensitive to propolis extracts; alcoholic extract was more effective than aqueous extract.All concentrations of propolis extracts showed smaller inhibition zones than 0,2% CHX except 150 mg/ml concentration of aqueous extract ,(100, 125 and 150)mg/ml concentrations of alcoholic extract showed larger inhibition zones than 0,2% CHX. Conclusion: Propolis extracts were effective against anaerobic periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans).


Article
An Evaluation of Serum and Salivary Adipokines (Leptin and Resistin) Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease

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Background: With the start of the current century, increased the interest in the role of the adipose tissue derived substances that named adipokines in the inflammatory diseases of the human being including the inflammatory periodontal disease, but scientific evidences were not clearly demonstrate the association between these adipokines and periodontal pathologies. Materials and Methods: Forty two subjects male only with normal body mass index were selected for the study with an age ranged (30-39 years). Samples were divided into three groups of 14 subjects in each group based on clinical periodontal parameters; clinically healthy gingiva (group I), gingivitis group (group II) and chronic periodontitis patients group (group III), from whom saliva and serum samples were collected for estimating the levels of leptin and resistin using Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: The results showed that the serum level of leptin and resistin were significantly higher in chronic periodontitis patient (9.81 ng/ml, 6.55 ng/ml) respectively as compared to gingivitis and healthy control groups (leptin; 8.10 ng/ml, ng/ml, resistin; 5.85 ng/ml, 5.45 ng/ml) respectively. On the other hand the level of leptin in saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis (0.17 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that of its salivary levels in gingivitis and healthy control groups (0.21 ng/ml, 0.29 ng/ml) respectively. Whereas, salivary resistin levels was significantly higher in chronic periodontitis patient(14.45 ng/ml) when compared to the gingivitis group (11.59 ng/ml) and the health control group (6.43 ng/ml). Conclusions: Concomitant raise in serum leptin, serum resistin and salivary resistin, while a sensible reduction in salivary leptin with conversion from periodontal health state to periodontal disease state. These finding may draw a suggestion on the role of leptin and resistin in the relation between periodontal disease and the systemic health since the increase in their level were associated with a various systemic pathologies


Article
ABO Blood Type in Relation to Caries Experience and Salivary Physicochemical Characteristic among College Students at Al-Diwania Governorate in Iraq

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Background: (ABO) Blood type have an effect on general health including oral health as salivary physicochemical characteristics differ among different type of blood and as consequence these affect the severity of dental caries. The aim of the present study is to assess of the prevalence of caries experience among different blood type in relation to salivary physicochemical characteristic. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty females' college students in Al-Qadisyia University aged 18 years old were selected on random basis; they were divided to four groups according to their blood type, Dental experience was diagnosed and recorded according to DMFs Index (Mülemman, 1976), this allows recording decayed lesion by severity. A sub sample was pooled for salivary analysis. Results: In the present study the blood type O was more common followed by B and A, whereas the less common was AB type, caries experiences (DMFs) and Ds component were found to be statistically significant among different blood types. The most sever grade of dental caries D3 and D4 were higher among type AB and lowest sever grade D1 among B blood type. While salivary flow rate significantly differ among differ blood type, viscosity higher but not significant among type AB. While salivary concentration of calcium and total protein were differ but not significant, opposite to alkaline phosphatase which was highly significant among different blood types. Conclusions: ABO blood type has an effect on salivary physical and chemical characteristic of saliva as effect on prevalence of caries


Article
The Effects of Nano-Hydroxyapatite and Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate in Preventing Loss of Minerals from Teeth after Exposure to an Acidic Beverage (An In vitro Study)

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Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of antierosive agents (10% Nano-Hydroxyapatite (NHA), 10% Casein Phophopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP), and combination of 10% NHA and 10% CPPACP) on loss of minerals from enamel surface of permanent teeth treated with antierosive agents when exposed to an acidic beverage and investigate the morphological changes of treated enamel surface after demineralization with cola based beverage under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Sixty maxillary first premolars were randomly divided into four groups, 15 teeth for each group. Group I treated with 10% NHA, Group II treated with 10% CPP-ACP, Group III treated with 10% NHA and 10% CPP-ACP, and Group IV did not treat with any remineralizing agents. The teeth were immersed in the remineralizing solutions (10% NHA, 10% CPP-ACP, and combination of 10% NHA and 10% CPP-ACP) for 4 minutes twice daily for 28 days and then stored in the artificial saliva. The samples were immersed for 40 minutes in 20 ml Pepsi cola (PH=2.5). Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to record the calcium and phosphorus concentrationsin Pepsi cola before and after demineralization with cola based beverage. SEM also usedto examine the morphological changes occurs in enamel surface of each group after demineralization with cola based beverage. Results: Statistically, there is a highly significant increase in calcium concentration in Pepsi cola (mg/dl) after demineralization with cola based beverage. Group I showed the lowest changes in calcium concentration values among the three studied groups. Group II was the next, which also showed lower changes in calcium concentration values, then group III while the highest changes were recorded in group IV. There is a highly significant reduction in phosphorus concentration in Pepsi cola (mg/dl) after demineralization with cola based beverage. Group I showed the lowest changes in phosphorus concentration values among the three studied groups. Group II was the next, which also showed lower changes in phosphorus concentration values, then group III while the highest changes were recorded in group IV. Statistically, a highly significant difference was showed in calcium and phosphorus concentrations between the four studied groups after demineralization with cola based beverage. Group IV has a highly significant difference in comparison to group I, group II, and group III. Conclusions: Both the remineralizing agents (NHA and CPP-ACP) were found to be effective in inhibiting the demineralization caused by cola based beverage.The combination of NHA and CPP-ACP had no synergistic effect on remineralization


Article
An Oral Health Status and Treatment Needed in Relation to Dental Knowledge, Among a Group of Children Attending Preventive Department, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad

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Background: Oral health represents an important base for human well-being; the heath of the body begins from oral cavity. Great deal has been applied to increase knowledge in the field of oral health in order to develop appropriate preventive program. This study was conducted in order to estimate the percentage and severity of dental caries and gingivitis among children attending Preventive Department in Collage of Dentistry, University of Baghdad and to determine dental treatment need for those patients, further more to study the relation of these variables with dental knowledge. Materials and Methods: The study group consists of 163 children with an age ranged from 6 to 14 years, who attended the preventive clinic for the first time to be involved in preventive program. Plaque index and gingival index were applied for examination of dental plaque and gingivitis, dental caries and treatment need was recorded according to criteria described by WHO. Dental knowledge of each child was evaluated by ten questions prepared for this reason. Results: The results showed that caries-experience among permanent teeth represented by DS and DMFS were (3.22 ± 0.31 and 4.09 ± 0.35) respectively, while caries-experience among deciduouse teeth represented by ds and dmfs were (6.79 ± 0.61 and 9.03 ± 0.81) respectively. Analysis of variance (one way ANOVA test-) showed that caries experience among permanent teeth increased with age (P < 0.001), while caries-experience among deciduous teeth decreased with age (P 0.001). The majority of studied sample were in need for one surface filling (93%) followed by two or more surface filling (66%). High percentage of children involved in this study had mild accumulation of plaque and mild gingivitis (69.93% and 83.43%) respectively. Evaluation of dental knowledge among those children showed that 67% of them had good dental knowledge (scores 5), but weak correlations were recorded between good dental knowledge and caries experience for deciduous teeth(r=0.12, P > 0.05) and for permanent teeth (r=0.22, P<0.05).The same correlation was recorded between dental plaque and dental knowledge (r=0.05, P> 0.05). Conclusion: those children need further motivation and instructions to improve their dental knowledge and to improve their attitude to change their behavior towards further improvement of oral hygiene and oral health


Article
Prevalence of Pacifier Sucking Habit and Its Effect on Occlusion in Children Aged 1-5 Years in Baghdad City

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Background: Non-nutritive sucking habits are common in infants and toddlers. One of the most common nonnutritive sucking habits is pacifier; its prevalence varies from one population to another. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of pacifier sucking habit among children aged 1-5 years old in Baghdad city and to assess its effect on the occlusion of primary dentition concerning posterior crossbite. Materials and methods: The study was carried out among 1222 children aged 1-5 years old, from which 50 children with continues pacifier sucking habit were chosen to be the study group, compared to 50 children without any sucking habit (control group) matching the study group in age and gender. Children were examined clinically to record the presence of posterior crossbite. Results: The prevalence of pacifier sucking habit was 24.54%; it is tend to decrease with age. Posterior crossbite was found in18% of the pacifier sucking group and all of these cases were unilateral, however, none of the control group had posterior crossbite. In this study girls had higher tendency to suck pacifier and to have posterior ccrossbite than boys. Conclusions: Prevalence of pacifier sucking habit was more among girls, it can cause posterior crossbite which is mainly unilateral and more among girls than boys


Article
Caries-Experiences and Dental Treatment Needs among (16-18 Years Old) in High School Girls in Al-Mussayb City, Babylon Governorate

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Background: Numerous epidemiological studies were conducted in Iraq, concerning dental caries and related etiological factors however; most of these studies were concerned with pre-and primary school children and/or those at index ages (12-15years old). At the time studies regarding older ages are very limited. This study was done to determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries and treatment need among high schools girls (16-18 years old) in Al-Mussayb city, Babylon Governorate. Thus, it can be considered as a base line data that allows studying dental caries among permanent dentition, also allows the comparison with other studies in other parts of the world. Material and Method: A total number of 900 high school girls were examined in their classroom following the method of WHO. Dental caries was recorded by application of DMFT/DMFS index, and dental treatment needs following criteria of WHO. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 70.5% with a mean DMFT/DMFS values (3.30 ±SE 0.091, 4.94 ±SE 0.161) respectively. A statistically highly significant increase of caries-experience was recorded with aging. The highest percentage of girls needed one surface restoration (60.8%). Conclusion: A relatively high caries – experience was present among high school girl in Al Mussayb city indicating the need for preventive programs


Article
Nasopharyngeal Dimensions in Relation to Some Dento- Cranial Variables in Class I and II Skeletal Patterns (A Comparative Cephalometric Study)

Authors: Ammar A. Fadel --- Fakhri A. Ali
Pages: 150-154
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Background: The size of the nasopharyngeal airway was believed to have an important role in the development of the dentofacial structure. This study was carried out to test the relation between the nasopharyngeal dimensions with some dento-cranial measurements in class I and II jaw relationship. Materials and Methods: This study was done on 60 subjects (30 males and 30 females) at age range 18-25 years. Cephalometric radiograph has been taken to each subject and the measurements were recorded. The sample was divided into two groups, class I skeletal relationship (15 males and 15 females) and class II skeletal relationship (15 males and 15 females). Comparisons between the different groups were undertaken. Results: In class I skeletal relationship, all the nasopharyngeal liner measurements and all the dento-cranium linear measurements are significantly higher in males than females, except lower airway thickness (PNS-ad1) and upper airway thickness (PNS-ad2) showed no significant gender difference. While all the angular measurements showed no significant gender difference. In class II skeletal relationship, most of the nasopharyngeal liner measurements have no significant gender difference, while all the dento-cranium linear measurements are significantly higher in males than females. Conclusion: In comparison for class difference between class I and class II skeletal relations in total sample, all the nasopharyngeal linear measurements have no significant class difference, except lower airway thickness showed significant difference which was higher in class II than class I and upper airway thickness showed significant difference which was higher in class I than class II. In the whole sample of the study, positive correlation was found between lower airway thickness and upper airway thickness

Keywords

Nasopharyngeal --- gender --- class I --- class II


Article
An Evaluation of Ion Released from Two Brands of Brackets in Three Types of Mouthwashes

Authors: Arwa Gh. Ahmed --- Iman I. Al-Sheakli
Pages: 155-160
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Background: Mouthwashes used widely as ancillary to mechanical oral hygiene methods. Little information provided about the effect of mouthwashes on ions released from orthodontic brackets. Therefore, the present study has been established to evaluate the effect of different mouthwashes on the ion release and the biocompatibility of two brands of brackets. Materials and Methods: Eighty premolar stainless steel brackets were used (40 brackets from Dentaurum and 40 brackets OrthoTechnology Company). They were subdivided into four subgroups (n=10) according to immersion media (deionized distilled water, Corsodyl, Listerine and Silca herb mouthwashes). Each bracket was stored in a closely packed glass tube filled with 15ml of the immersion media and incubated for 45 days at 37ºC. Chromium, nickel, copper and manganese ions release were measured using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, while iron ions release were measured by using Iron kit and spectrophotometer. For statistical analysis, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least significant difference (LSD) were used. Results: The results revealed that the ions released from Dentaurum brackets were significantly higher than that from OrthoTechnology brackets in all type of immersion media except for Chromium ions in Corsodyl mouthwash. The release of copper and chromium ions was significantly higher in Listerine and Corsodyl mouthwashes than in deionized distilled water being related to the pH of the immersion media. While, the release of iron, nickel and manganese ions in the three mouthwashes was comparable to that in deionized distilled water. Conclusions: The amount of released ions were below toxic levels and did not exceed the daily dietary intake, but it may be recommended to avoid prolonged use of Listerine and Corsodyl mouthwashes in patients allergic to chromium


Article
A Clinical Method for Prediction of Alveolar Bone Mineral Density in the Area between the Second Premolar and First Molar in Iraqi Adults with Class I Occlusion

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Background: Orthodontic mini-implants are increasingly used in orthodontics and the bone density is a very important factor in stabilization and success of mini-implant. The aim of this study was to observe the relationship among maximum bite force (MBF); body mass index (BMI); face width, height and type; and bone density in an attempt to predict bone density from these variables to eliminate the need for CT scan which have a highly hazard on patient. Materials and Methods: Computed tomographic (CT) images were obtained for 70 patients (24 males and 46 females) with age range 18-30 years. The maxillary and mandibular buccal cortical and cancellous bone densities were measured between 2nd premolar and 1st molar at two levels from the alveolar crest (3 and 6 mm). Face height and width were measured from CT. Clinically; Maximum bite force was measured on first molar region unilaterally by a digital device. The sample was divided into two groups according to the body mass index into; normal and overweight. Results: The results obtained showed that there were no statistical significant differences in MBF or bone density in both genders. Only the cortical bone density in maxilla in overweight group tended to be higher than normal BMI group. The face width and height correlated significantly negatively with MBF which correlated significantly positively with cortical bone density. Conclusions: It was concluded that a prediction of cortical bone density of preselected areas can be made from maximum bite force, body mass index and inter-zygomatic width


Article
The Effect of Acidity Level on Ions Released and Corrosion of Metal Orthodontic Appliances at Different Time Intervals (An In vitro Study)

Authors: Mohammed R. Thamer --- Sami K. Al-Joubori
Pages: 168-174
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Background: This study measured the effects of three parameters pH value, length of immersion and type of archwire on metal ions released from orthodontic appliances. Materials and Methods: Ninety maxillary halves simulated fixed orthodontic appliances that were immersed in artificial saliva of different pH values (6.75, 5 and 3.5) during 28 day period. Three types of archwires were used: stainless steel, nickel titanium and thermal activated nickel titanium. The quantity of nickel and chromium ions was determined with the use of atomic force spectrophotometer while iron ions by spectrophotometer. Each orthodontic set was weighted two times, before the ligation and immersion in the artificial saliva and after 28 days at the end of immersion period using analytic balance device. Results: The release different metal ions was observed: nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe)). Statistically analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test were used. Results showed that (1) the appliances released measurable quantities ofall ions examined; (2) the change in pH had a very strong effect on the release of ions; (3) the release of ions was dependent on wire composition, but it was not proportionalto the content of metal in the wire and (4) orthodontic samples showed decreases in the weight at the end of the study. Conclusion: Levels of released ions are sufficient to cause delayed allergic reactions. This must be taken into account when type of archwire is selected, especially in patients with hypersensitivityor compromised oral hygiene


Article
The Effect of Orthodontic Force on Salivary Levels of Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme

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Background: Orthodontic tooth movement is characterized by tissue reactions, which consist of an inflammatory response in periodontal ligament and followed by bone remodeling in the periodontium depending on the forces applied. These processes trigger the secretion of various proteins and enzymes into the saliva.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in saliva during orthodontic tooth movement using different magnitude of continuous orthodontic forces. Materials and Methods: Thirty orthodontic patients (12 males and 18 females) aged 17-23 years with class II division I malocclusion all requiring bilateral maxillary first premolar extractions were randomly divided into three groups according to the magnitude of the force application (40, 60 and 80gm). A sectional fixed appliance was bonded and designed to give labial force to the maxillary first premolar for three weeks. Unstimulated saliva was collected from the patients before force application, then 1 hour after force application, followed by 1 day, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days.Salivary levels of ALP were measured using spectrophotometer and compared with the baseline level. Results: The results revealed that ALP enzymelevel increased with increasing magnitude of orthodontic force (from 40 to 80gm). This was statistically insignificant after 1 hour and 1 day of force application, but significant after 7, 14 and 21 days.The ALP level significantly increased from baseline after 7 days of force application and peaked at 21 days for all the three force levels. Conclusions: The ALP level reflect the biological activity that takes place in the periodontium during orthodontic tooth movement, and therefore they can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring of correct orthodontic tooth movement in clinical practice


Article
The Effect of AcceleDent® Device on Both Gingival Health Condition and Levels of Salivary Interleukin-1- βeta and Tumor Necrosis Factors-Alpha in Patients under Fixed Orthodontic Treatment

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Background: Traditional orthodontic treatment takes a long time and this may lead to several disadvantages like higher predisposition to periodontal diseases and dental caries. Recently, many researchers focus on shorter orthodontic treatment time through different methods like the use of: vibration, surgical approach, adjunctive medicine, laser and others. This study aimed to determine the effect of Acceledent vibration device on the gingival health condition and the changes in levels of salivary IL-1β and TNF- α among patients under fixed orthodontic appliance during orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: A total of 32 adult patients with an age ranged between 19-23 years were participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: 14 patients under fixed orthodontic appliance with the use of Acceledent vibration device as study group and 18 patients under fixed orthodontic appliance only as control group. All patients were with Class I and /or Class II malocclusion cases requiring bilateral extraction of their maxillary first premolar teeth, underwent a session of professional oral hygiene and received oral hygiene instructions before and during the period of study. The collection of the unstimulated salivary samples from the individuals was performed at different times after placement of the fixed orthodontic appliance; base line (T0), after 1 hour (T1), after one week (T2), after two week (T3). The levels of salivary IL-1β and TNF-α were estimated by using commercially available ELISA kits. Oral cleanliness were determined by using of gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI). Results: For both study and control groups, results reported that the mean value of salivary IL-1-β (pg/ml) and TNF-α (pg/ml) were highest at T1, followed by T2, then T3 and lowest T0 with highly statistically significant difference (P<0.01).The mean value of both salivary IL-1-β (pg/ml) and TNF-α (pg/ml) among study group were higher than control group at T1, followed by T2, then T3 with statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Among study group only, results of this study recorded a negative direction correlation between both IL-1-β (pg/ml) and TNF-α (pg/ml) and gingivitis at the (T2 and T3) and (T3) with statistically highly significant and significant respectively. Conclusion: The application of Acceledent device play important role in improving the gingival health condition and increasing the levels of salivary IL-1β and TNF-α secretion among patients under fixed orthodontic appliance in comparison to other under fixed orthodontic appliance

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