Table of content

Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science

مجلة علوم المستنصرية

ISSN: 1814635X
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

An Iraqi scientific Journal has been issued by College of Science since 1977. Our Journal publishes the academic researches in pure and applied sciences seasonally with 4 issues minimally.

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mustscjo@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq
mustjsci@yahoo.com
009647711184399

Table of content: 2016 volume:27 issue:4

Article
دراسة المسببات البكتيريةوالعوامل المؤثرة في التهابات العيون لدى مستخدمي العدسات اللاصقة في مدينة الرمادي

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Abstract

جاءت هذه الدراسة لغرض عزل وتشخيص البكتريا المسببة لالتهابات العيون لدى مستخدمي العدسات اللاصقة والعوامل المؤثرة في إحداث الالتهابات ودراسة حساسيتها المضادات الحياتية. إذ تم جمع 122 عينة باستخدام المسحات الجاهزة (Swabs) من المرضى الوافدين الى مستشفى الرمادي العام للفترة ما بين تشرين أول 2012 ولغاية آب 2013، تحت إشراف اختصاصي العيون. أظهرت نتائج الزرع والتشخيص المختبري وجود 89/122 (72.9%) عينة موجبة للزرع المختبري، منها 81 عزلة بكتيرية و 8 عزلات فطرية. توزعت العزلات البكتيرية بين 53 عزلة موجبة لملون كَرام و28 عزلة سالبة لها إذ ساد جنس Staphylococus بعدد عزلات بلغ 31 بتفوق للنوع S. aureus (17 عزلة). تلتها 12 عزلة لجنس Streptococcus منها 6 عزلات للنوع S.pneumonia . ثم 10 عزلات من عصيات Bacillusspp. فيما ساد النوع Ps.aeruginosa للبكتريا السالبة لملون كَرام بعدد عزلات بلغ 15 عزلة تلتها 4 عزلات لبكتريا Proteus spp.. كما أظهرت النتائج أن أعلى نسبة (45.9%) للاصابة كانت لمستخدمي العدسات ضمن الفئة العمرية من 11-20 سنة، كما ان أعلى نسبة (89.3%) للاصابة كانت بسبب ارتداء العدسات اللاصقة اللينة الممتدة الاستعمال وأن أعلى نسبة (70.5%) كانت بين المدخنين. واظهرت الدراسة فعالية مضادي سيروفلوكساسين ونورفلوكساسين تجاه العزلات البكتيرية الموجبة لملون كَرام وبنسبة 83% و 66% على التوالي. فيما كانت 92.8% و 89.2% من العزلات السالبة لملون كَرام حساسه لهما على التوالي. وبينت الدراسة فعالية مضادات توبرامايسين، نيتالميسين وجنتامايسين تجاه البكتريا السالبة لملون كَرام بنسب حساسية بلغت 82.1%، 78.5% و75% على التوالي.

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Article
Electricity generating by Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Shaimaa Nghamish Mizil
Pages: 1-3
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In this study we tried to convert the chemical energy to electrical energy by using microbial fuel cell (MFC) consist of two chambers (anode and cathode) in presence of bacteria (Escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeroginosa ) and yeast (Saccharomyces cervesia) in the anode chamber to generate electrons. The system was started with glucose concentration 5gm/l in different pH value from (5-8). From the results we get the great generation of electricity with S. cervesia at pH 5 and the maximum voltage was 833mv. In case of bacteria that used in our experiment, the suitable pH for generation the electricity was.(7)

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Article
Biological effect of Lawsoniainermis plant

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This study was compared the antimicrobial effectiveness ofLawsoniainermis plant extract( alcoholic, aqueous and silver nanoparticles) on the growth of different types of Gve+ bacteria and Gve- bacteria at concentration 80 mg / L . It was noted that the ( alcoholic , hot and cold water) extract have highest impact recorded in the growth of bacteria S.aurous with inhibition zone (26mm) followed by the bacteria P.aueroginosa at inhibition zone reached (22mm) and finally the yeast C. albicans at inhibition zone reached (17mm), while silver nano-particles of the plant extract the most influence on the bacteria, it gave the highest Inhibition area reached (30mm) on the growth of the S. aurous, followed by the inhibition area of P.aueroginosareached (26mm) then Strep. pyogein (25mm), and finally the yeast C. albicans reached (18 mm). With regard to the complex (alcoholic extract and antibiotic Amoxylein) its effects has varied upon microorganisms, there is a synergistic effect on the growth of the yeastC. albicans at inhibition zone (30mm) while it has been observed inhibitory effect of this complex on the growth of p. aeroginosa with inhibition zone amounted to (15mm), but did not show any significant impact on the growth of both bacteria (K. pneumonia, E.coli Strep. Pyogein& P. aeroginosa,), while the (alcoholic extract and antibiotic Erythromycin) showed inhibitory and synergistically effect on each of the bacteria (E.coli, S. aurous, yeast C. albicans and P. aeroginosa) respectively. According to obtained results the antibiotic Erythromycin shows higher inhibitory effect than antibiotic Amoxylein. It has also been investigated the lower values of absorbance at the wavelength of 260 nm with increasing the concentration of crude alcoholic extract, this reveled the ability of henna extract in the removal of free radicals liberated from photolysis of hydrogen peroxide compound .

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Article
التأثير التأزري بيه فتراث الاجهاد المائي وتراكيس كل مه عىصر السيليىىم وهرمىن البراسيىىلايذ في بعض المؤشراث المظهريت وتركيس الهرمىواث الذاخليت لىباث الكسبرة Coriandrumsativum L

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Abstract

اجريت التجربة في الحقل العائد لقسم علوم الحياة /كلية التربية للعلوم الصرفة-ابن الهيثم/جامعة بغداد لموسم النمو 2015 بهدف دراسة تأثيرفترات الاجهاد المائي ((14,8,2 يوم ورش تراكيزمتزايدة من عنصرالسيلينيوم (20,10,0) ملغم.لتر1- وهرمون البراسينولايد (1 ,0(2,ملغم.لتر1- في بعض المؤشرات المظهرية (محتوى الماء النسبي , عجزماء التشبع ) وتراكيز الهرمونات الداخلية (الجبرلين ,حامض السالسليك) لنبات الكزبرة Coriandrumsativum. صممت التجربة بنظام القطاعات العشوائية الكاملة وبثلاث مكررات وبواقع 81 وحدة تجريبية مساحة الوحدة منها1) م2) . اظهرت النتائج مايلي : -1 اثرت فترة الاجهادالمائي الشديد لمدة 14 يوم تاثيراً سلبيا في خفض متوسطات محتوى الماء النسبي وتركيز الجبرلين الداخلي. -2 ازدادت متوسطات عجزماء التشبع وتركيز حامض السالسليك عند التعرض للاجهاد المائي . -3 كان تأثيرعاملي عنصرالسيلينيوم وهرمون البراسينولايد ايجابيا في زيادة متوسطات محتوى الماء النسبي وتراكيز كل من هرمون الجبرلين وحامض السالسليك. -4 كان دور كل من عنصر السيلينيوم وهرمون البراسينولايد ايجابيا في التقليل من تأثير اجهاد الماء السلبي كما كان التداخل الثلاثي بين فترة الاجهاد الشديدة 14 يوم والرش بالتراكيز العالية من السيلينوم والهرمون ايجابيا في الحد من تأثير الاجهاد القاسي. الكلمات المفتاحية (الاجهاد المائي , السيلينيوم , البراسينولايد ,نبات الكزبرة ).

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Article
Determination of some virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from locally produced cheese in Diyala Governorate-Iraq

Authors: Suhail Jawdat Fadihl
Pages: 9-14
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Locally produced cheese which called (Gibin Al arab) is one of the most common dairy products in Iraq, it has an economic importance and great social value. This researchaimed to identify yeast species from locally produced cheese (Gibin Al Arab) in Diyala city which traditionally made and sold in markets of old town in Baquba, and study some of virulence factors (Esterase production, Phospholipase and Hemolytic production) of yeasts belong to genus of Candida . All cheese samples showed contamination with varying number of yeast, total 88 yeast isolates obtained from 70 cheese samples, they were Geotrichum candidum(20.5%), Rhodotorela species(19.4%), Candida parapsilosis (18%), Candida albicans (13.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.5%), Candida krusei (8%), Saccharomyces cerevisice (3.3%) and mixed yeast (un identified) at rate of (6.7%). Species of Candida formed half of the total isolates and the most prevalent isolate of Candida spp. was Candida parapsilosis .According to the results determining of (Esterase production, Phospholipase and Hemolytic production) as a virulence factors identifying Candida spp. these activities referred that all isolates of Candida spp. show one or more of these activities and that isolates of medically important species Candida albicans were the most virulent isolates. this referred to the importance of take attention about consuming of such types of dairy products and need for applying more hygienic measures during handling, processing of milk and form of storage and/or selling of cheese .

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Article
تحسين انتاج انزيم السراببتيز من بكتريا السراشيا باستخدام اشعة كاما

Authors: انتصار حسين علي
Pages: 14-16
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عزلة البكتريا التي تم الحصول عليها بعد تشخيصها بجهاز (Vitic) اثبتت القدرة على انتاج انزيم (STP), باستخدام الوسط الزرعي التربتون (Trypton) لكونة وسط مناسب لتنمية البكتريا واستخلاص الانزيم منها. اجريت عمليات تنقية جزئية للانزيم المستخلص من البكتريا باستخدام كبريتات الامونيوم, التبادل الايوني والترشيح الهلامي. وحددت الفعالية الانزيمية لكل خطوة تنقية. عرضت العزلة البكتيرية لاشعة كاما لغرض تطفيرها ومعرفة تأثير الاشعاع عليها وكان التعريض لأشعة كاما باطوال موجية مختلفة لمعرفة اي طول موجي يؤثر بشكل اقوى على الجين المسؤول عن انتاج الانزيم في البكتريا, وهل هذا التأثير سيزيد من الانتاج الانزيمي ام ينقصه. فكانت الاطوال الموجية المعرضة بحدود (1000-6000CGY) بأستخدام العنصر المشعCO60 وكان افضل طول موجي مؤثر في حدود (3000CGY) لكونه اعطى اعلى فعالية انزيمية للانزيم المستخلص من البكتريا بعد تعريضها للاشعاع .

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Article
Evaluation of Some Pesticide Residues in Fruits import by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: LameesMunef Abdul- Latef Salman
Pages: 15-20
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Pesticide residues have been found in various fruits and vegetables. This studycollected 24 samples and reported a method based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) . For determination of pesticide residues used in Some fruits which were collected from different markets of Baghdad city to make) 24) samples from (peel , core, mixture) for each type of fruits markets as: Oranges( Egypt , Africa) , Pomegranate ( Egypt), Mango ( Kenya ) , Pears (China), Plum fruits ( Africa ) , Kiwi (Turkey ) .That detective of ( 5 ) different pesticides (diazinon, malathion, chlorpyrifos ,parathion and cypermethrin) . The results were detected of multi-residues of pesticides on the fruit in ( peel , core , mixture ) may be in the limit of Maximum residue limits(MRL) or higher of it . The pesticides detected that exceeding the limits are : cypermethrin in Kiwi (peel, core and mixture)at(0.204,0.038, 0.537) , in pomegranate detected in (peel and mixture) at (0.509,0.189) mg/kg , Diazinondetccted in Egyptian orange in (peel ,core and mixture) at (0.031,0.207, 0.099) mg/kg . Malathion and Parathion was not detected at any type of fruits and that results was compared with codex of FAO/WHO(2013). That data is important to monitor residues in food and to fill gaps in current knowledge would be helpful in assessing human exposure risks from ingestion of contaminated Fruits Imported to our country .

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Article
تأثير بيروكسيد الهيدروجين والارجنين في انبات بذور ونمو بادرات نبات الذرة الصفراء Zea mays L. والنمو السطحي للفطر Fusariumoxysporum

Authors: وفاق امجد القيسي
Pages: 17-21
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صممت التجربة الحالية لمعرفة تأثير بيروكسيد الهيدروجين بالتراكيز 3، 5، 7 مليمول والارجنين بالتراكيز 10% و20% و30% في انبات بذور ونمو بادرات الذرة الصفراء Zea mays L. وتأثيرهما في النمو السطحي للفطرFusariumoxysporum. أظهرت النتائج ان لبيروكسيد الهيدروجين والارجنين عملا على زيادة معنوية في انبات البذور، سرعة الانبات، مؤشر تحفيز الانبات، قوة البذور، دليل قوة البادرة كذلك زيادة المجموع الجذري والوزن الجاف للبادرة، كما أظهرت النتائج ايضاً انخفاضاً معنوياً في النمو السطحي للفطر F. oxysporum مقارنة بمعاملة السيطرة.

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Article
Comparison the Antibacterial Activity of Vitamin D2 and D3

Authors: IntesarN.Khelkal
Pages: 21-27
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An attempt has been made to determine the antimicrobial activity of vitamin D; D3 & D2 against clinical bacterial isolates as well as perform a comparative analytical study between the effects of both forms of vitamin. The ability of vitamin D (both D2 ergocalciferol& D3cholecalciferol ) to inhibit bacterial growth of some clinical isolates have been tested . Forty - three pathogenic bacterial isolates (Gr+ ,Gr- ) have been identified from fifty - five specimen was collected from different sources ; 24 urine, 17 sputum , 9 blood , 5 skin at Al-Kindey hospital for a period of two months . Antibiotic sensitivity was carried out towards 12different antibiotic discs. The most resistant isolates have been chosen to be tested in the study. Two bacterial suspensions of the selected isolates have been prepared; the first was adjusted to McFarland standard No. 0.5 (1 ×10 8 CFU /mL); the second = 1×1010 CFU /mL . Three concentrations of both vitamins have been prepared;50,000, 70,000 and 90,000 IU/mL as well as the control ( solvent only ). Antibacterial activity has been examined by using agar diffusion (pore plating method) todetermine the most effective concentration among the three concentrations of the two forms of vitamin D. Comparison the Antibacterial Activity of Vitamin D2 and D3 Results were suggesting the important role of vitamin D specially D3 as antibacterial agent .The third concentration (90,000) IU/mL wascausing the largest inhibition zone with all tested isolates even with the high turbidity culture (1010CFU/mL) ,followed by the second one (70,000) IU/mL, the lower inhibitor concentration was (50,000) IU/mL. Significant differences have been appeared among the measurements of the diameters of inhibition zones towards three vitamin concentrations when compared one to another and to control.

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Article
دراسة مظهرية حبوباللقاحلأنواعالجنس.Satureja Lمنالعائلةالشفوية (Labiatae) فيالعراق

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تناول البحث الحالي دراسة حبوب لقاح خمسة انواع من الجنس Satureja L. وهي (Xaumh) Boiss. S. boisseriو.TenS. cuneifolia وC.Koch S. laxifloraو S macranthaC. A. MeyوS.metastasianthaRech.F. ،وتضمنت الدراسة قياس ابعاد حبوب اللقاح وأشكالها في المنظرين القطبي والاستوائي وطول الاخاديد والمسافة بين اخدودين متجاورين وقياس قطرالبقعة القطبية وسمك الجدار الخارجي، وقد اظهرت الدراسة تغايرات في صفات حبوب لقاح بين الانواع المدروسة .

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Article
The effects of U.V light on mrkA, mrkD genes in local isolates of Klebsiellapneumoniae

Authors: Ali Hussein Alwan
Pages: 28-33
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Klebsiellapneumoniaeis dangerous pathogens that can cause severe diseases. This study included isolation of 50 isolates of K.pneumoniaefrom different clinical sources from different hospitals in Baghdad city, the number and percentage of isolates according to the sources (urine, blood, sputum, burns, ear swabs, pus, wounds and stool ) were 22(44%), 11(22%), 4(8%), 4(8%), 3(6%), 3(6%), 2(4%) and 1(2%) respectively. The ability to form biofilm was carried out using Tissue culture plate methods (-TCP-). The results showed that 80% of the isolates were producer biofilm; the genetic study was used to detect the presence of mrkA, mrkD genes that are believed to be responsible of biofilm production. The ratio was mrkA 87.5% and mrkD 50% before exposure to U.V.light to reduce to 43.7% mrkA and 18.7% mrkD in isolates after exposure to U.V.light source.

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Article
Evaluation the Level of a-L- fucose and protein Bound Fucose (PBF) in diabetic patients

Authors: Lamia shaker
Pages: 34-38
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Biochemical changes occurring in two types of diabetic patients have been investigated to identify the correlations between these changes and type 1 and type 11 of diabetic patients , in comparison with that of normal healthy, sera of 68 diabetic patient with type 1 and type 11 were used to estimate the L-fucose level and other related parameters. These parameters measured throughout this project are : TF , PBF , TP , TFYTP ratio and PBFTP. As final approach , the author concluded that fucose level together with its related parameters could be a biochemical markers for early assessment of re¬sponse to the therapy served.

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Article
Metabolic syndrome in Iraqi female patients with major β-thalassemia

Authors: Shaemaa Hadi Abdulsada
Pages: 39-42
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Patients with β-thalassemia may have an increased risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases due to high level of iron which may lead to insulin resistanceand metabolic syndrome. So this study aimed to evaluate the levels of lipids profile in Iraqi female patients with β-thalassemia. Forty twofemale (age 15-30) years were enrolled in this study. Blood was collected and the sera were separated from (22) female patients with β-thalassemia who were attended the Ibn-Al-Baladi hospital from September 2012 to January 2013 and (20) healthy subject as a control group. Body mass index (BMI), lipid profile, FSG, insulin, insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity, B-cell function, iron, atherogenic index of serum were estimated. The results showed the presence of a significant increase in serum iron and significant decrease in insulin, B-cell function, LDL, VLDL, and TC in serum of patients with β-thalassemia when compared with control group. BMI also showed a significant decrease in patients when compared with the controls. Serum Insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity, HDL, TG, AIS, and FSG showed no-significant differences in patients with β-thalassemia when compared with control group. We concluded there was no metabolic syndrome in female patients with β-thalassemia.


Article
Synthesis and Spectroscopic Study of Metal Complexes with New Schiff Base Derived from 2-acetylpyridine and Methionine Amino Acid

Authors: FadhelR.Hafedh
Pages: 43-48
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In this research new tridentate Schiff base ligand (S)-4-(methylthio)-2-((1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene)amino) butanoic acid (HL), have been prepared from condensation of (2-acetylpyridine) with methionine amino acid . A coordinated complexes of manganese (II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) have also been prepared. The prepared ligand and its complexes characterized depending upon (FTIR &Uv-Vis) spectroscopies, elemental microanalysis (C.H.N.S and M) ,(1H and13C) N.M.R spectroscopy, mass spectrum, flame atomic absorption, magnetic measurements and molar conductance. The results of different studies proved that new Schiff base ligand acts as a tridentate ONN donor in all the prepared complexes, as well as the results provided that the geometry of all prepared complexes was octahedral with (1:2) (M:L) ration , except Zn(II) complex which obtained tetrahedral geometry with (1:1) (M:L) ratio.

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Article
Prediction of Binding Sites of Zinc Complex Using Experimental and Computational ModelingApproach

Authors: FadhilLafta Faraj
Pages: 49-53
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The binding modes of a new zinc complex derived from 3-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)-2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydroquinazoline-4(1H)-one withdivalent zinc was studied using both experimental and computational chemistry. 1H NMR, IR, molar ratio and atomic absorption were used to predict the characterization of zinc complex. Hartree–Fock (HF) method was selected to determine the HOMO-LUMO gap of several possibilities of binding sites to describe the more stable structure which reflects the more possible coordination sites of ligand to Zn+2 ion. Good matching between theoretical and experimental results was found which concluded the tetra dentate behavior of the ligand.


Article
Synthesis of some Heterocyclic Compounds

Authors: Hanan Gh. Shaaban
Pages: 54-59
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This research includes preparation of (2-chloro-N-p-tolylacetamide) (1) from the reaction of (p-aminotoluene) with chloro acetyl chloride. Compound (1) reacted with thiosemicarbazide and gave compound (2), and when compound (1) reacted with semicarbazide gave compound (3). While when compound (1) reacted with thiourea it produced compound (4). Compounds (2-4) when reacted with appropriate aromatic aldehydes or ketones produced Shiff bass (5-16), which in turn reacted with chloro acetyl chloride in the present of tri ethyl amine and dioxin gave β-lactam derivatives (14-22). The structures of these compounds were characterized from their melting points, FT-IR, and NMR.


Article
Study of Physical Properties for Sodium acetate with Water and Water - Acetone mixtures at Different Temperatures

Authors: Ahmed Mohammed Abbas
Pages: 60-66
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In this study binary and ternary solutions are prepared by using the sodium acetate concentrations (0.1, 0.125, 0.2, 0.25, 0.4, 0.5, 0.8, 1 M) in water and acetone –water mixtures .The important parameters such as apparent molal volume, the partial molal volume transfer, apparent molal compressibility, free energy of activation of viscous flow and thermodynamic activation parameter (enthalpy and entropy) determined of sodium acetate in water , 20%, 40% ,60% and 80% V/V acetone –water mixtures at 298.15K, 303.15K and 308.15 K from density and viscosity measurements espectively. The limiting apparent molal volumes and experimental slopes were derived from the Masson equation, have been interpreted in terms of solute–solvent and solute–solute interactions respectively. The viscosity data were analyzed using theJones–Dole equation and the derived parameter B - coefficient has also been interpreted in terms of solute–solvent interactions in the solutions.

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Article
Tin DioxideNanostructure Gas Sensor for Acetone and Methanol Detection

Authors: Osama Abdul Azeez
Pages: 67-72
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Simple and efficient technique were successfully used to prepare Tin dioxide (SnO2) nanostructure by simple evaporation method, using single stage horizontal tube furnace under atmosphere pressure and quartz tube with Argon flow without additive. SnO2 thick films were synthesized using simple, homemade, low-cost efficient screen print technique. The thick films were heated at 500 0Cfor one hour to vanish the organic material and any residual impurities. The prepared thick films were investigated using different techniques and apparatus, X-Ray and FESEM to study the structural and morphology of the films, the X-ray results show that the films are polycrystalline with sharp and high intensity peaks indicating high crystalinity of the product. The FESEM Images show homogenous nanostructure with high porosity the dimension range 40-70 nm, optical properties was studied with photoluminescence emission (PL) and transmittance in UV-Visible range. SnO2 sensor was built up by electroding the thick films and used for Acetone and methanol detection.

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Article
Calculate OpticalParametersOf Ions BEAM From Plasma Source

Authors: Bushra J. Hussein
Pages: 73-75
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The research explains some of optical parameters of charged particles that emitted from plasma source. The study included theoretical analysis using matrices representation to calculate the focal length, lens power, focusing factor and displacement (the bandwidth envelope) for Horizontal plane. Results showedthe increasing in focusing factor causes decreasing in focal length, the opposite action appears with lens power. Furthermore the increasing in focusing factor causes decreasing in Horizontal displacement (beam envelope).


Article
Coordination Spheres Effect On RecompositionAtomsIn ABAlloys

Authors: Abdulhalim Kh. Ali
Pages: 76-78
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This study focusedon the variation of the long-range order parameters with temperaturefor nine coordination spheres. The computer simulation results showed several mechanismsof atomsdisordering. These mechanisms are represented in: (Substitution point defect, Clusters and Segregations, Micro domain, Antiphase order and Antiphase boundaries. As thenumber of coordination spheres increase, the interatomic interaction increase with a decrease in the ordered phase stability.In the initial stages of the computer simulation two phases in the alloy is found, an ordered phase of long-range order and ordered phase of antiphase domain. In final stages anordered phaseof short –range order is found.

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Article
Fracture Surface Analysis of Borosilicate Bonded Stainless Steel

Authors: Kawakib Jassim Majeed
Pages: 79-82
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Borosilicate glass was bonded to the stainless steel (st.st.) grade 316 by using a technique of oxides growth considered as active filler. Contact angle of oxide to the stainless steel was found 47ᵒ. The bonding strength achieved under ambient condition enriched with oxygen, and is equal to 4 MPa. The good bonding was correlated with new structural phases at the intermediate layer. The bubbles size and their amount were found as important factors play a significant role in bonding borosilicate and stainless steel

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Article
Increasing Security for Cloud Computing By Steganography in Image Edges

Authors: Hassan Hadi Saleh
Pages: 83-87
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Abstract

The security of data storage in “cloud” is big challenge because the data keep within resources that may be accessed by particular machines. The managing of these data and services may not be high reliable. Therefore, the security of data is highly challenging. To increase the security of data in data center of cloud, we have introduced good method to ensure data security in “cloud computing” by methods of data hiding using color images which is called steganography. The fundamental objective of this paper is to prevent "Data Access” by unauthorized or opponent users. This scheme stores data at data centers within edges of color images and retrieves data from it when it is wanted.

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Article
Theoretical Calculations of the Seasonal and Solar Activity Variations for Ionospheric Collision Frequency and Debye Length over Baghdad City

Authors: Ali Hussein Ni'ma
Pages: 88-94
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Abstract

In this study, two important ionospheric factors have been calculated, the collision frequency of electron and Deby length for a height range from 80 Km to a height approaching the maximum height of the F2 region of the ionosphere above the Earth's surface. Both above factors have been calculated for two different levels of solar activity and for two seasons (winter and summer). Also, six months were adopted for every level of solar activity and season. The estimation of collision frequency of electron is depends on the contribution of neutral constituents and ions. Three neutral atmospheric gases have been adopted to calculate the collision frequency, Molecular and atomic oxygen O2 and O respectively and molecular nitrogen N2, as well as the singly charged ions were taken into account in calculation

Table of content: volume:27 issue:4