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Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2017 volume:18 issue:1

Article
The Effect of Temperature on the Synthesis of Nano-Gamma Alumina Using Hydrothermal Method

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Abstract

Nano gamma alumina was prepared by double hydrolysis process using aluminum nitrate nano hydrate and sodium aluminate as an aluminum source, hydroxyle poly acid and CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) as templates. Different crystallization temperatures (120, 140, 160, and 180) 0C and calcinations temperatures (500, 550, 600, and 650) 0C were applied. All the batches were prepared at PH equals to 9. XRD diffraction technique and infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy were used to investigate the phase formation and the optical properties of the nano gamma alumina. N2 adsorption-desorption (BET) was used to measure the surface area and pore volume of the prepared nano alumina, the particle size and the morphology of the surface of nano gamma alumina were estimated using AFM and SEM techniques ,respectively. All the samples represented pure nano gamma alumina with high crystalline and irregular hexagonal structure shape. The best results obtained were 456.5 m2/gm surface area, 0.49 cm3/gm pore volume, and 59.26 average particle size for the sample prepared at 180 0C crystallization temperature, and 500 0C calcinations temperature with nano spherical surface structure.


Article
Preparations of Organoclay Using Cationic Surfactant and Characterization of PVC/ (Bentonite and Organoclay) Composite Prepared via Melt Blending Method

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Abstract

Calcium-Montmorillonite (bentonite) [Ca-MMT] has been prepared via cation exchange reaction using benzalkonium chloride [quaternary ammonium] as a surfactant to produce organoclay which is used to prepare polymer composites. Functionalization of this filler surface is very important factor for achieving good interaction between filler and polymer matrix. Basal spacing and functional groups identification of this organoclay were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy respectively. The (XRD) results showed that the basal spacing of the treated clay (organoclay) with the benzalkonium chloride increased to 15.17213 0A, this represents an increment of about 77.9% in the basal spacing. FTIR spectra illustrate that benzalkonium chloride compound was successfully intercalated in to clay layers. The results confirm the effectiveness of the synthesis of organoclay with similar characteristics compared to those ones observed in the bentonite. The features were obtained by a simple process and enable interaction with organic compounds (polymers and plastic). PVC/bentonite composite and PVC/organoclay composite were prepared by the melt intercalation method .The results have been analyzed and compared for PVC samples with (3wt%, 7wt% and 12wt %) bentonite and organoclay micro filler .Mechanical properties, thermal properties, flammability and water absorption percentage of prepared samples were tested. Mechanical characteristic such as tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness and impact strength (charpy type) were measured for all samples, where the tensile strength and elongation at break of PVC composites increased with increasing organoclay loading compared with unmodified bentonite. Also, the hardness and impact strength of the composites increase with increase in filler content. Thermal properties of PVC/ (bentonite, organoclay) composites were characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and thermal conductivity analyzer. The results showed Tg shifted toward higher temperature for all type of filler compared to neat PVC. Also, thermal conductivity measurement values illustrated that PVC/bentonite composites have a good thermal insulation at 12wt%, thermal conductivity was decreased from 0.222 W/m.K for neat PVC to 0.11 W/m.K at 12wt% PVC/bentonite composites. Organoclay give the best possible water absorbability of the PVC, with other word making it moisture resistant .The higher the filler content the higher burning time, the lower rate of burning and the lower height of the flame which are evident at 12wt% for all fillers.


Article
Investigation Desulfurization Method Using Air and Zinc Oxide/Activated Carbon Composite

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Abstract

In present work examined the oxidation desulfurization in batch system for model fuels with 2250 ppm sulfur content using air as the oxidant and ZnO/AC composite prepared by thermal co-precipitation method. Different factors were studied such as composite loading 1, 1.5 and 2.5 g, temperature 25 oC, 30 oC and 40 oC and reaction time 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The optimum condition is obtained by using Tauguchi experiential design for oxidation desulfurization of model fuel. The highest percent sulfur removal is about 33 at optimum conditions. The kinetic and effect of internal mass transfer were studied for oxidation desulfurization of model fuel, also an empirical kinetic model was calculated for model fuels at optimum condition, the apparent activation energy was found to be 16.724 kJ/mol.


Article
Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study of Aniline Adsorption over Prepared ZSM-5 Zeolite

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Abstract

Aniline and its derivatives are common contaminants in various wastewaters and represent a serious worry for societies health and a challenge to ecologists due to their dangers effects on to the human health. ZSM-5 zeolite was prepared from locally available materials (kaolin and rice husk) for adsorption of aniline from synthetic wastewater. Characterization of the prepared zsm-5, kinetics and thermodynamic of the adsorption process were investigated. The characterization results of the prepared zsm-5 zeolite showed that the surface area was 270.1 m2/g and pore volume 0.21828 cm3/g. The silica to alumina ratio (Si/Al) was 166. 47 and the sodium content was 11 wt. %. The atomic force microscope (AFM) results showed that the average particle diameter of the prepared adsorbent was 70.71nm. Langmuir isotherm better illustrated the adsorption process with maximum uptakes 8.3125 mg/g. Whereas, kinetics results of the adsorption process showed it the pseudo-second order in different operating temperatures. The calculated values of ΔG showed that the adsorption process was spontaneous, while the ΔH results illustrated the process to be exothermic nature of this process with negative values of ΔS.

Keywords

Adsorption --- aniline --- zsm-5 --- zeolite --- wastewater --- kinetics --- thermodynamic.


Article
Preparation Activated Carbon from Scrap Tires by Microwave Assisted KOH Activation for Removal Emulsified Oil

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Abstract

In this paper activated carbon adsorbents produced from waste tires by chemical activation methods and application of microwave assisted KOH activation. The influence of radiation time, radiation power, and impregnation ratio on the yield and oil removal which is one of the major environmental issues nowadays and considered persistent environmental contaminants and many of them are suspected of being carcinogenic. Based on Box-Wilson central composite design, polynomial models were developed to correlate the process variables to the two responses. From the analysis of variance the significant variables on each response were identified. Optimum conditions of 4 min radiation time, 700 W radiation power and 0.5 g/g impregnation ratio gave 205.8749 mg/g oil removal and 35.19618 % yield. The characteristics of the AC were examined by pore structure analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The BET surface area and total pore volume were identified to be 374.594 m²/g and 0.2039 m³/g, respectively.


Article
Treatment of Simulated Oily Wastewater by Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration Processes

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Abstract

A study in the treatment and reuse of oily wastewater generated from the process of fuel oil treatment of gas turbine power plant was performed. The feasibility of using hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membrane and nanofiltration (NF) membrane type polyamide thin-film composite in a pilot plant was investigated. Three different variables: pressure (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 bars), oil content (10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm), and temperature (15, 20, 30 and 40 ᵒC) were employed in the UF process while TDS was kept constant at 150 ppm. Four different variables: pressure (2, 3, 4 and 5 bar), oil content (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 ppm), total dissolved solids (TDS) (100, 200,300 and 400 ppm), and temperature (15, 20, 30 and 40 ᵒC) were manipulated with the help of statistical method of Taguchi in the RO process. Analysis of variable (ANOVA) and optimum condition was investigated. The study shows that pressure has the greatest impact on the flux of UF process, while temperature and pressure have similar contribution on flux of NF process. The temperature seems to have the greatest effect on TDS rejection. It was noticed that more than 96% oil removal can be achieved with flux of 624 L/m2.hr by UF process and that the fouling mechanism of UF process follows the cake/gel layer filtration model. It was observed that 100% removal of oil content can be achieved along with 79% for the TDS rejection and flux of 65 L/m2.hr by NF process. The result shows fouling in NF process follows the cake filtration model. It was concluded that the observed values are within ±5% of that the predicted which reflects a strong representative model. The treated wastewater has the characteristics that it can be reused in the process to reduce the operating cost.

Keywords

Taguchi --- UF --- NF --- membrane --- oily wastewater --- reuse.


Article
Removal of Ni(II), Pb(II), and Cu(II) from Industrial Wastewater by Using NF Membrane

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Abstract

This article reviews the technical applicability of nanofiltration membrane process for the removal of nickel, lead, and copper ions from industrial wastewater. Synthetic industrial wastewater samples containing Ni(II), Pb(II), and Cu(II) ions at various concentrations (50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm), under different pressures (1, 2, 3 and 4 bar), temperatures (10, 20, 30 and 40 oC), pH (2, 3, 4, 5 and 5.5), and flow rates (1, 2, 3 and 4 L/hr), were prepared and subjected treated by NF systems in the laboratory. Suitable NF membrane was chosen after testing a number of NF membranes (University of Technology-Baghdad), in terms of production and removal. NF system was capable of removing more than (85%, 78%, and 66% for Ni(II), Pb(II), and Cu(II) ions respectively). The permeate flux for all H.M ions for were ranges between (14 to 62 L/m2.hr). The results showed that the NF membrane was capable of treating industrial wastewater with any concentration of heavy metals ions and reducing the ion concentration to about (15, 22, and 34 ppm) for Ni(II), Pb(II), and Cu(II) ions respectively. The low level of the heavy metals concentration in the permeate implies that water with good quality could be reclaimed for further reuse. The NF membrane is characterized by efficiently H.M. ions removal medium with high productivity and very low pressure up to 1 bar, which means very little cost for NF system.

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Article
Experimental Study for Commercial Fertilizer NPK (20:20:20+TE N: P: K) in Microalgae Cultivation at Different Aeration Periods

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Abstract

Recently, microalgae have become a promising source in the production of biofuel. However, the cost of production is still the main obstacle to develop of this type of source. Although there are many extensive studies on the requirements provided for the cultivation of the microalgae, the study of the process, via the variables that affect the cultivation of microalgae, being still one of the important tasks to improve the production of biofuel. The present article is a serious attempt to investigate of use commercial fertilizer NPK (20:20:20+TE N: P: K) as considered a cheap nutrient medium in growth Chlorella vulgaris by comparison with traditional nutrient (Chu.10 medium). In addition, the current study addresses effect of different sparging periods of filtered air on the microalgae production. The experimental data showed that the use of the NPK fertilizer as cultivation medium in Chlorella vulgaris culture gives more growth rate of microalgae than that produced if the cultivation process was operated with Chu.10 medium. For example the maximum biomass concentration reaches to 0.3249 g L-1 when cultivated in NPK fertilizer, whereas reached to 0.212 g L-1 for cells cultivated in Chu.10 medium. In addition, the results proved that the aeration system in the cultivation can plays an important role in the activity of the microalgae with NPK medium, since it creates a convenient environment with low concentration of oxygen in the medium. The study showed that increasing aeration period for such a type of microalgae increases the growth rate.


Article
The Influence of Eggshell Particle Sizes on the Adsorption of Organic Dye

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Abstract

This work aimed to use effective, low-cost, available, and natural adsorbents like eggshells for removal of hazardous organic dye result from widely number of industries and study the influence of different eggshell particle size (75, 150) Mm. The adsorbent was characterized by SEM, EDX, BET and FTIR . The initial pH of dye solutions varying from 4 to 10 , the initial concentrations of methyl violet (MV) 2B range (20-80) mg/L, dosage range (0.5-10) g, contact time (30-180) min, and particles size of the adsorbent (75, 150) Mm were selected to be studied. Two adsorption isotherms models have been used to fit the experimental data. Langmuir and Freunlich models were found to more represent the experiments with high correlation coefficient. The results showed that the variation in particle size of eggshells powder statistically has slight effect on the removal of (MV). The highly percentage of dye removal (97.27%) by using eggshells was observed with particle size of 75Mm, pH 4, at room temperatures for 30 min, 10 g adsorbent dose and 20 mg/L initial dye concentration.


Article
Effect of Nanoparticles and Surfactant on Phase Inversion of Two Phases

Authors: Nada M. Farhan
Pages: 121-128
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Abstract

In the present study, a pressure drop technique was used to identify the phase inversion point of oil-in-water to water-in-oil flows through a horizontal pipe and to study the effect of additives (nanoparticles, cationic surfactant and blend nanoparticles-surfactant) on the critical dispersed volume fraction (phase inversion point). The measurements were carried for mixture velocity ranges from 0.8 m/sec to 2.3 m/sec. The results showed that at low mixture velocity 0.8 and 1 m/sec there is no effect of additives and velocity on phase inversion point, while at high mixture velocities the phase inversion point for nanoparticles and blend (nanoparticles/surfactant) systems was delayed (postponed) to a higher value of the dispersed phase volume fraction (oil volume fraction) compared to the system of surfactant where the phase inversion point was occurred at low dispersion phase volume fraction. For all systems the desperation volume fraction at the point of inversion decreases with increasing mixture velocity. Indeed, the results showed that surfactant was more effective on phase inversion point than solid nanoparticles.

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