Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2017 volume:18 issue:2

Article
The Effect of Crystallization Time and Acid Type on the Synthesis of Nano-Gamma Alumina Using Double Hydrothermal Method

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Abstract

Double hydrothermal method was used to prepare nano gamma alumina using aluminum nitrate nano hydrate and sodium aluminate as an aluminum source, CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) as surfactant, and variable acids: weak acids like; citric, and acitic acids, and strong acids like; hydrochloric and nitric acids as a bridge between aluminum salts and surfactant. Different crystallization times 12, 24, 48, and 72 hrs were applied. All the batches were prepared at pH equals to 9. XRD diffraction technique was used to investigate the crystalline nano gamma alumina pure from surfactant. N2 adsorption-desorption (BET) was used to measure the surface area and pore volume of the prepared nano alumina, the average particle size and the morphology of the surface of nano gamma alumina were estimated using AFM and SEM techniques, respectively. The sharpness of the peaks increased with increasing of crystallization time. The surface area, pore volume, and average particle size were decreased with increasing crystallization time. The best result of surface area was 383 m2/gm obtained using citric acid at 12 hr crystallization time, while the best results of pore volume and average particle size were 0.54cm3/gm and 72.37nm obtained using hydrochloric acid at12 hr crystallization time. Low agglomeration with hexagonal structure obtained using weak acids, while agglomeration occurred and clusters formed using strong acids.


Article
Preparation of PPSU Hollow Fiber Nanofiltration Membranes for Nanofiltration Application

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Abstract

PPSU hollow fiber nanofiltration membranes are prepared by applying two concentrations and various extrusion pressures according to the phase inversion method. Cross-sectional area and outer structures were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In additional to the pore size distribution, either the mean roughness or the mean pore size of the PPSU hollow fiber surfaces was evaluated by AFM. It was found that the morphology of the PPSU fibers had both sponge-like and finger-like structures through different extrusion pressures and PPSU concentrations. The mean pore size and mean roughness for inner and outer surfaces were seen to be decreased with the increase of extrusion pressure at two different PPSU concentrations. Moreover, the lead ion rejection was significantly improved from 19 to 78 % with increasing the extrusion pressure from 2.5 to 3 bar at 25 wt.% PPSU concentration.


Article
Effect of Kaolinite on the Mechanical Properties, Thermal Properties, Flammability and Water Absorption Percentage of Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Composite

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Abstract

PVC/Kaolinite composites were prepared by the melt intercalation method. Mechanical properties, thermal properties, flammability and water absorption percentage of prepared samples were tested. Mechanical characteristic such as tensile strength, elongation at break; hardness and impact strength (charpy type) were measured for all samples. It was found that the tensile strength and elongation at break of PVC composites decreased with increasing kaolinite loading. Also, the hardness of the composites increases with increase in filler content .The impact strength of the composites at the beginning increases at lower kaolinite loadings is due to the lack of kaolin adhesion to the matrix. However, at higher kaolin loadings. This severe agglomeration of the filler due to its high surface energy creates many crack-initiation and stress-concentration sites, which are sensitive to impact stresses and cause detrimental effects on the impact properties of the composite. There is a general increase in absorption rate with increase in kaolin content. Thermal properties of PVC /kaolinite composites were characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and thermal conductivity analyzer. The results showed Tg shifted toward higher temperature for kaolinite composites compared to neat PVC .Also, thermal conductivity measurement value and effusivity increased with increasing filler loading .Heat capacity decreased with increasing filler content. The higher the filler content the higher burning time, the lower rate of burning and the lower height of the flame which are evident at 12wt. % for kaolinite.


Article
Statistical Analysis of the Removal of Acid Fuchsin Dye Using Zeolite 5A

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Abstract

Investigation of the adsorption of acid fuchsin dye (AFD) on Zeolite 5A is carried out using batch scale experiments according to statistical design. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics were demonstrated. Results showed that the maximum removal efficiency was using zeolite at a temperature of 93.68751 mg/g. Experimental data was found to fit the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second order kinetics with maximum removal of about 95%. Thermodynamic analysis showed an endothermic adsorption. Optimization was made for the most affecting operating variables and a model equation for the predicted efficiency was suggested.


Article
Study the Performance of Nanozeolite NaA on CO2 Gas Uptake

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Abstract

The adsorption isotherms and kinetic uptakes of CO2 were measured. Adsorption isotherms were measured at two temperatures 309 K and 333 K and over a pressure range of 1 to 7 bar. Experimental data of CO2 adsorption isotherms were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin. Based on coefficient of correlation it was found that Langmuir isotherm model was well suited with the experimental data of CO2 adsorption isotherms. In addition, Adsorption kinetic of CO2 mixture with N2 containing 10 % by volume CO2 and 90 % by volume N2 were determined in a temperature 36 C and under the atmospheric pressure .When the flow rate was increased from 0.5 l/min to 2 l/min the time required for complete column saturation decreased. Also the effect of bed length on breakthrough curves was studied. The adsorption capacity increases by bed length increasing for adsorption of carbon dioxide.


Article
Waste Water Treatment by Liquid-Solid Adsorption Using Calcined Sand-Clay Mixture Adsorbent

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Abstract

Effluent from incompetent wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains a great variety of pollutants so support water treatments are essential. The present work studies the removal of phosphate species from aqueous solutions by adsorption on to spherical Calcined Sand -Clay mixture (CSCM) used a natural, local and low-cost adsorbent. Batch experiments were performed to estimate removal efficiency of phosphate. The adsorption experiments were carried out as function of pH, dose of adsorbent, initial concentration, temperature and time of adsorption. The efficient removal was accomplished for pH between 10 and 12. The experimental results also showed that the removal of phosphate by (CSCM) was rapid (the % removal 98.9%, 92%, 90%, 89% in 60 min) when the initial phosphate concentrations were at 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/l, respectively at optimum PH 10-12 and optimum dose was 5 gm/200ml. The adsorption process is time dependent. Thermodynamic studies showed that phosphate adsorption was exothermic. The effect of temperature range of 15-30 °C has been investigated. The results indicated that the temperature significantly affected phosphate adsorption on (CSCM) adsorbent. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models indicated that both isotherms were proper to describe the adsorption characteristics of (CSCM), with Langmuir being more fit. Adsorption capacity of phosphate had equal to 0.835 mg phosphorous/g adsorbent. The study reveal that calcined sand-clay mixture is an excellent low cost material for phosphate removal in wastewater treatment process .


Article
Adsorption Kinetic and Isotherms Studies of Thiophene Removal from Model Fuel on Activated Carbon Supported Copper Oxide

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Abstract

In the present study, activated carbon supported metal oxides was prepared for thiophene removal from model fuel (Thiophene in n-hexane) using adsorptive desulfurization technique. Commercial activated carbon was loaded individually with copper oxide in the form of Cu2O/AC. A comparison of the kinetic and isotherm models of the sorption of thiophene from model fuel was made at different operating conditions including adsorbent dose, initial thiophene concentration and contact time. Various adsorption rate constants and isotherm parameters were calculated. Results indicated that the desulfurization was enhanced when copper was loaded onto activated carbon surface. The highest desulfurization percent for Cu2O/AC and origin AC at initial thiophene concentration of 500 ppm, adsorbent dose of 0.01 g/ml and equilibrium time of 5 hr were 87.4% and 53.4% respectively, for outlet concentration of 63 mg/L for copper oxide and 236 mg/L for original AC. Generally, the percent removal of thiophene increases with the increase in adsorbent dose and decrease with increase in initial thiophene concentration. The present study was mainly focusing on the kinetics and adsorption isotherms aspect; adsorption kinetics of thiophene onto activated carbon supported Cu2O adsorbent was closely represented by the second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherms well represented the equilibrium adsorption of thiophene from model fuel.


Article
Upgrading of Al-Rustamiyah Sewage Treatment Plant Through Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Membrane Fouling

Authors: Raheek I. Ibrahim
Pages: 95-107
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Abstract

Al-Rustamiyah plant is the oldest and biggest sewage treatment plant in Iraq; it locates in the south of Baghdad city. The plant suffers from serious problems associated with overflow and low capacity. The present work aims to upgrade the heart of biological treatment process through suggesting the use of membrane bioreactor; (MBR). In this work, fouling of membrane during sewage treatment has been analyzed experimentally and theoretically by fouling mechanisms. Aeration has been applied in order to control fouling through producing effective diameters of air bubbles close to the membrane walls. Effect of air flow rate on flux decline was investigated. Hermia's models were used to investigate the fouling mechanisms. The results showed that cake formation is the best fitted model (R2≥0.98) followed by intermediate blocking occurred with 9 L/min aeration rate. Cake layer formation is the best fit mechanism in all aeration rates (1-9 L/min) in presence of microalgae. SEM images of the membrane surface before and after filtration showed high density pores membrane surface proved a cake fouling occurring. It was found that aeration represents the most effective technique for fouling domination in addition to its important economic aspects for algae growth and propagation. An enhancement of 70.8% in flux at 9 L/min air flow has been revealed. MBR proved to be more efficient and more convenient than activated sludge since it eliminates the needing of sedimentation tanks and upgrading Al-Rustamiyah plant that has low available space for expansion.


Article
Improving of Design Parameters of an Industrial Continuous Catalytic Reforming Reactors

Authors: Shymaa Ali Hameed شيماء علي
Pages: 109-123
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Abstract

Catalytic reforming of naphtha occupies an important issue in refineries for obtaining high octane gasoline and aromatic compounds, which are the basic materials of petrochemical industries. In this study, a novel of design parameters for industrial continuous catalytic reforming reactors of naphtha is proposed to increase the aromatics and hydrogen productions. Improving a rigorous mathematical model for industrial catalytic reactors of naphtha is studied here based on industrial data applying a new kinetic and deactivation model. The optimal design variables are obtained utilizing the optimization process in order to build the model with high accuracy and such design parameters are then applied to get the best configuration of this process by new design variables. New results related to aromatic and hydrogen production have been obtained (the highest hydrogen and aromatic) in comparison with those reported in the literature and with the conventional method.


Article
Comparative Study for Removal of Zn+2 Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption and Forward Osmosis

Authors: Tamara Kawther Hussein
Pages: 125-138
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Abstract

The aim of this paper was to investigate the removal efficiencies of Zn+2 ions from wastewater by adsorption (using tobacco leaves) and forward osmosis (using cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane). Various experimental parameters were investigated in adsorption experiment such as: effect of pH (3 - 7), contact time (0 - 220) min, solute concentration (10 - 100) mg/l, and adsorbent dose (0.2 - 5)g. Whereas for forward osmosis the operating parameters studied were: draw solution concentration (10 - 150) g/l, pH of feed solution (4 - 7), feed solution concentration (10 - 100) mg/l. The result showed that the removal efficiency by using adsorption was 70% and the removal efficiency by using forward osmosis was 96.2 %.

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