Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches

المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم

ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Embryo research and treatment of infertility
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi journal of embryos and infertility research is apeer-reviewed journal published annually by the High Institute of Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies/Al-Nahrain University,
it publishes manuscripts in the fields of reproductive medicine.

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Contact info

E-mail: haydermossa@gmail.com

E-mail: ijeir.info@ierit.nahrainuniv.edu.iq

Website : http://www.ijeir.nahrainuniv.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:6 issue:1

Article
Effect of Vitamin E on Sperm Motility and Survival in Chilled-Stored Semen

Authors: Ilaf H. Hadi
Pages: 1-7
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Abstract

Background: Sperm cells are well equipped with a powerful defense system of antioxidants, but an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the available antioxidant-defenses result in oxidative stress. Therefore, antioxidants are supplemented extracellularly under in vitro conditions. Antioxidants are the main defense factors against oxidative stress induced by free radicals. Vitamin E is believed to be the primary component of the antioxidant system of the spermatozoa and is one of the major membrane protectants against ROS and lipid peroxidation (LPO) attack. It appears to be the first line of defense against the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) contained in the cellular and sub-cellular membrane phospholipids because of its lipid solubility. Objective: The aim of the current study to evaluate effects of supplementing semen extender with vitamin E, at various concentrations (2, 6 and 12 IU/ml) on sperm motility, survival and morphology on the releases of free radicals and antioxidant enzymes within semen. Patients ,Materials and Methods: Twenty two patients were involved in the present study semen samples were obtained, and sperm count was assessed. The antioxidant (vitamin E) was formulated to be tested at three different levels as follow; 2, 6 and 12 IU/ml; Therefore, control and 3 antioxidant-containing extenders were prepared for semen dilution. The sample was divided into 4 aliquots. One volume of semen was added to 5 equal volumes of the designed extender. Extended semen samples (37¢ªC) were gradually cooled to 4¢ªC in the refrigerator and stored for 48 hours. A semen sample was taken out after 48h of storage, then warmed to 37¢ªC and checked for progressive motility, viability and abnormality. Sperm viability was assessed by Eosin Y. (0.5%).Nigrosin (0.1%) staining mixture. A total of 200 sperm were assessed under oil immersion with a high-resolution (X100) objective. Sperm morphology was assessed by Hematoxylin- Eosin satin, at least 200 sperm were scored on randomly chosen field, under oil immersion with a high-resolution (X100) objective. Results: The highest post-thaw motility and sperm survival (44% and 51.7%) 48 h after storage at 4¢ªC (Table 1) were attained (P < 0.01) in the basal diluents containing 6 IU vitamin E. Likewise, the correspondent percentages of live spermatozoa were 59%. Contrariwise, percentage of sperm abnormalities for the previous treatment was 25% significantly (P < 0.05) decrease compares with basal diluents containing 2, 12 IU vitamin E. The lowest (P ¡Ã 0.05) survival (23.5%, Table 1) was found in the basal diluents containing 12 IU vitamin. Beyond 6 IU vitamin E, there appears to exert adverse effects on sperm viability and survival. Conclusions: For the best protection against the increased free radicals production during chilling-preservation of human semen, extenders must contain 6 IU vitamin E per ml. The intensive production of free radicals in seminal plasma was counteracted by the inclusion of vitamin E at the above mentioned concentrations.

Keywords

vitamin E --- sperm --- extender.


Article
Partial Mole in Ectopic Pregnancy

Authors: Rawaa D. AL-Janabi
Pages: 8-12
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Abstract

Background: Gestational trophoblastic disease is a wide spectrum of abnormal pregnancy that includes: Complete molar pregnancy (CMP), partial molar pregnancies (PMP), invasive mole (IM), chorioncarcinoma (CHC), and placental site trophoblastic tumors (PSTT. Hydatidiform mole is an abnormal gestation characterized by the presence of hydropic changes affecting some or all of the placental villi. Hydatidiform mole arises as a result of the abnormal fertilization of an ovum. Tubal ectopic hydatidiform mole is a rare lesion and few cases have been reported.


Article
The Role of Honey Supplementation to Cryopreservation Solution on Human Sperm Parameters and DNA Integrity during Cryopreservation

Authors: Rana A. R. Al-Saadi
Pages: 13-21
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Abstract

Background: Semen cryopreservation is a useful tool for preserving fertility for men involved in ART program who have been diagnosed with cancer and will undergo chemotherapy, radiotherapy or testicular surgery. Objective: The objective of this study to evaluate the effect of honey bee supplemented to cryoprotectant medium on post-thaw sperm DNA integrity ,morphology and round cells. Subjects ,Materials and Methods: Thirty semen samples were collected from 30 infertile patients. After assessment of semen analysis, semen samples were divided into 3 aliquots (0.7ml for each sample) and mixed with 1 ml of cryopreservation solution (G1,control) alone, enriched with 5% honey bee(G2) with 10% honey bee (G3) for cryopreservation. Current study used the acridine orange test to investigate the effect of honey bee in two concentration (5%, 10%) on the integrity of sperm chromatin structure pre- and post cryopreservation. Cryopreservation was done at -196 Co in liquid nitrogen and thawing was performed after six months. Direct swim up technique was used for in vitro sperm preparation post- thawing, sperm parameters were assessed and data were statistically analyzed pre- and post- thawing. Results: The results show there was a significant(P<0.05) increase in the percentage of morphologically normal sperm for all groups post-thawing, particularly for G3 group that was significantly (P<0.05) increased as compared to G1 and G2 groups, In contrast, non-significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between G1 and G2 groups. Sperm DNA fragmentation percentage (%) was significantly(P<0.05) increased in G1 post thawing without any additives as compared to pre-cryopreservation , where as in G2 and G3 sperm DNA fragmentation were increased but not significantly as post-cryopreservation groups. Also the results show that there were no significant differences between G2 and G3 whereas G3 gives better result as compared to G1 with significant differences. Round cells counts for all groups of post cryopreservation were significantly(P>0.05) decreased as compared to pre-cryopreservation. Non significant (P>0.05) differences in the round cells counts among all the groups of post -thawing in spite of G3 group has the lowest mean. Conclusions: From these results we concluded that supplementation of 10% of honey bee to the freezing cryoprotectant medium gives best protection to the morphology and DNA integrity of human sperm.


Article
Estimation of Aromatase Enzyme in Obese Infertile Men

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Abstract

Background: Male obesity is associated with physiological changes that can negatively affect male fertility. Obese men have demonstrated a 3-fold increase in the prevalence of oligozoospermia when compared with men with normal Body Mass Index (BMI). Objective: To estimate the role of aromatase enzyme in decreasing sperm parameters in obese infertile men. Subjects, Materials and Methods: Seventy obese infertile male (patients) and twenty obese fertile male (control) are enrolled in this study. Seminal fluid analysis done according to criteria of WHO (2010). Results: A significant negative correlation was found between human cytochrome enzyme and sperm concentration, progressively motile sperm, non-progressively motile sperm, immotile sperm and normal morphology. Conclusion: The present study showed clearly that male obesity negatively impacts fertility through direct association between increased (BMI) and semen parameters. The results suggest that increased estrogen as a result of aromatization in the fatty tissue, reflected through the increase in human cytochrome enzyme (aromatase), may be an important mechanism for the hypoandrogenemia and altered sperm parameters


Article
Molecular Identification of Azoospermia in Iraqi Patients Based on (NR5A1) Gene Sequencing

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Abstract

Background: Infertility is considered one of the main public health issues, as it affects about 15% of the couples of reproductive age. The male factor is involved in 40% - 50% of infertility cases. It is difficult to assess accurately the overall magnitude of the contribution of genetics to infertility as most, if not all, conditions are likely to have a genetic component. The genetic causes of infertility are varied and include chromosomal abnormalities, single gene disorders and phenotypes with multifactorial inheritance. Some genetic factors influence males specifically, whereas others affect both males and females. Frequently, however, in the clinic no clear cause for the observed infertility could be diagnosed which at least in part, it reflects our still poor understanding of the basic mechanisms that regulating and controlling the genetic networks of male infertility. Objective: To study the molecular identification of Azoospermic infertile patients by the gene sequencing of NR5A1. Subjects, Materials and Methods: A study carried out during the period from November 2014 to June 2015. Fifty specimens were collected from thirty azoospermic patients and twenty normal healthy subjects (normozoospermic subjects) as control their age ranged between 23 and 48 years old, the seminal fluid of cases indicated that liquefaction time, color and viscosity equal in normozoospermic subjects (control group) and patient group while there is significant difference P≥0.05 in sperm count reach to more than 20 million and motility reach to more than > 25% in control subjects while there is no sperm count found in azoospermic patients. Then blood was collected for hormonal assay, in azoospermic patients the results revealed a gradual decrease in serum testosterone levels with a concomitant increase in serum follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) level when compared with control subjects . NR5A1 gene were investigated in 30 samples of extracted DNA from azoospermic patients by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method it can directly detect the NR5A1 gene content after it had been molecularly identified then were sent Iraqi Journal of Embryo and Infertility Researches Vol.(6) Special Issue (2016) 32 successfully for sequencing analysis ,this study examined the presence of two transversion and one transition mutation of NR5A1 gene in azoospermic patients compared with control subjects, there’s no mutation in the same gene when compared with gene bank.


Article
Effects of Metformin on Sperm Parameters in Mice: as a model for human being

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Abstract

Background: Metformin is anti-hyperglycemic effect due to decrease of hepatic glucose production. Another effect, leading decrease insulin resistance, regarded a safe drug, treatment of choice for overweight. Objective: To investigate the effects of 3 concentration of MF administered orally to male mice on sperm parameters as model for human being. Materials and Methods: In current study, 80 male mice were taken with age ranging between 1.5-2 month and weights ranging between 25-30 grams males classified into four groups of a control group (G1) and treated group (G2, G3 and G4) doses of MF were employed, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mg/mice daily to groups, given orally for 6 weeks and then the animals were scarified. Results Results have revealed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in sperm concentration for 3 groups compared to G1 group. Progressive motility (%) appeared with significant difference (P< 0.05) for G3 group as compared to other treated and G1 group. Furthermore, the result illustrated a significant decreased (P< 0.05) in the abnormal sperm morphology for G3 group compared with treated and control. However, sperm agglutination (%) confirmed that the G3 group exhibited highly statistical significant decrease (p≤0.001) compared to G1, G2 and G4. Conclusions From results of the present study, it was concluded that the administration of MF doses reduce sperm concentration .while, 0.4mg dose improve certain sperm parameters.


Article
Embryo Grading and Pregnancy Outcome inWomen of Patients with Azoospermia Following ICSI

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Background: Azoospermia is defined as the lack of sperm in male ejaculate and is suggested to be present in about 1 % of all males and to account for 10-15% of the causes of infertility in men. The development of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as an effective therapy. Embryo grading has gained special attention in published literature regarding its predictive role in pregnancy outcome following ICSI; however, substantial controversy is present that justified the carrying out of the present study. Objective: To study the association between embryo quality and pregnancy rate in women of males with azoospermia. Patients,Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study included 60 patients with azoospermia, 15 male with obstructive type and 45 males with non-obstructive type.Those patients were randomly selected form the population of infertile couples who regularly visits the High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies and from Kamal Al-Samarrai Hospital -Center for Infertility Treatment and IVF. Results Pregnancy was encountered in 7 patients (23.33%). It was not statistically associated with type of azoospermia (P=0.388), also it was not affected by age and serum hormonal level, but highly determined by good quality of embryo. Quality of embryo was graded from 1 to 4. The lower the grade, the better the quality of the embryo was. Quality of embryo was not significantly correlated with type of azoospermia, age and hormonal levels. Iraqi Journal of Embryo and Infertility Researches Vol.(6) Special Issue (2016) 61 Conclusions Good quality of embryo is a significant predictor of positive pregnancy outcome in ICSI and the quality of embryo is not affected by age of male patient or type of azoospermia.

Keywords

Azoospermia --- ICSI --- embryo grading


Article
Effect of Tannery Work Exposure on Seminal Fluid Parameters in Iraqi Men

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Background: Tannery work share exposure to solvents and chemicals , which has been linked with inverse pregnancy and fertility outcomes in human being as reported in some studies . Objective: The current study aimed to through some light on the harmful pollutant chemicals effect on tannery workers reproductive health. Literature in this portion are rare in Iraq, so it had been tested the hypotheses that leather workers suffered from male infertility parameters due to the continuous exposure to chemicals that used in this industry. Subjects, Materials and Methods: This study included 60 subjects can divided into 2 groups: 30 males as study group and 30 males as control group, the period of study was between October 2014 to April 2016, the samples were taken from tanneries workers from various governorates of Iraq. Results: The data clearly showed a significant infertility parameters among these workers represented by low total sperm number, low sperm activity the significance levels were within the value of P ≤0.05 accompanied with a significant high seminal fructose. Conclusion: The main conclusion was that chronic exposure to these chemicals in tannery workers especially Cr VI and N,N-dimethyle form amide may cause male infertility parameters

Table of content: volume:6 issue:1