Table of content

Thi-Qar Medical Journal

مجلة ذي قار الطبية

ISSN: 19929218
Publisher: Thi-Qar University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Medical Journal of Dhi Qar, issued from the Faculty of Medicine / University of Dhi Qar. Founded in 2002, concerned with scientific research and medical

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Email: thi_unv_medi@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2017 volume:14 issue:2

Article
The epidemiology of acute childhood and adolescent poisoning in Thi-Qar governorate (2013-2015)
وبائية التسمم الحاد عند الاطفال واليافعين في محافظة ذي قار(2015)

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Background: acute childhood and adolescent poisoning remain one of the important emergencies causing a significant burden to the populations with important morbidity and mortality rates. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the epidemiological features of poisoning for the patients less than 19 years old in Al-Nasiriyah governorate, and to eliminate the main types, clinical presentations, management, outcome, and seasonal variation of poisoning. Epidemiological studies are so important to determine the extent of the problem, according to which the preventive strategies are related. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study was conducted to three hundred forty patients recorded in Al-Nasiriyah poison center from (January 2013 to December 2015), data that collected from the case sheets and records of phone calls including the name, sex, address, type of poisoning, route of administration, management and the outcome of the patients (survive or died) are admitted to the SPSS (statistical package for social science) system and the results was obtained. Results: two hundred (58.8%) of the exposed patients was male, toddler age group seen in 45% of cases with predominance of accidental type, while adolescents (>13-18yrs.) are mostly intentional with female preponderance, urban populations are more prone to poisoning 236 cases (69.4%), accidental exposure is the commonest (83.2%) oral route is the commonest (99.4%), (62.9%) of the causative agents are pharmaceutical, and (50.3%) are asymptomatic . most of them treated conservatively (96.5%) with survival rate of (97.9%), higher mortality seen in those presented after the first 24 hrs. of exposure. One third of acute poisoning was occurred in summer season. Easy accessibility to the drugs and toxic substances are the major risk factor. Conclusion: Although poisoning is a preventable illness but, it is still a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Acute poison has a significant impact on the health services.


Article
A Study of Prolactin, Thyroid Stimulating Hormones, Malondialdehyde and Ceruloplasmin Levels in Infertile Women, in Thi-Qar Governorate/Iraq
دراسة مستويات هرمون الحليب ، هرمون محفز الغدة الدرقية، المالوندهايد والسيرولوبلازمين لدى النساء العقيمات في محافظة ذي قار / العراق

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ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: The study designed to investigate the level of prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormones, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and ceruloplasmin (Cp) levelsof the groups of infertile and fertile females in Nasiriyah province, southern Iraq. METHODOLOGY: Blood samples were collected from two groups of females (females with infertility and fertile women) with a total number of 99 infertile women and 70 fertile females at Bent Al-Huda maternity and children teaching hospital in Thi-Qar governorate. Autoanalyzercobas e411 instrument was used to estimate of prolactin, Thyroid-stimulating hormones and Ceruloplasmin levels in sera of patients and control group using Elecsys and cobas immunoassay analyzers. The MDA level of the serum was measured by the modified method of Fong et al. (1973). The concentration of plasma MDA was computed according to the equation of coefficient of MDA equal to 1.56 x103mol-1. cm-1. RESULTS: Prolactin and TSH levels were significantly increased (p< 0.0001) in infertile females as compared to fertile women. A similar pattern was observed to concentrations of MDA and Ceruloplasmin were significantly increased (p < 0.0001) in patients when compared to control group. CONCLUSION:The results of this study indicate that oxidative stress does occur in infertile females. Patients with infertility showed are higher significant rise in serum Prolactin hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in infertility patient group. All the patients with a high Prolactin level should have TSH estimation.

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Article
Sampling Survey of Studying Knowledge, and Attitudes for Cholera Disease in Suq-Al-Sheeuq Residents
دراسة مسحية بالعينة حول معارف واتجاهات مرض الكوليرا للمقيمين في سوق الشيوخ

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Abstract: Aims: This study aimed to identify level of knowledge, and attitudes concerning Cholera disease among population of Suq-Al-Sheeuq residents, and to find out association between an overall assessment concerning knowledge & attitudes in light of studies related of socio-demographic characteristics variables, as well as some of general information variables. Methods: A convenient cross sectional design of sample size (110) persons were selected from Suq-Al-Sheeuq residents, during the period from 1/10/2015 to 1/11/2015,majority of collected samples were from male, and they are accounted 80(72.7%). The results of the review of the questionnaire by the experts revealed that all of the experts agreed that (60) items of the questionnaire distributed by different main domains, such that knowledge, and attitudes contents (51), and (9) items respectively, which were clear and adequate for the measurement of this study, pilot study of (10) persons proved high levels of reliability of inter and intra examiners, as well as internal consistency shows that designed questionnaire were valid to study the phenomenon on the same population at any time in the future. Results: This research shows moderate of knowledge concerning cholera disease are presented in the studied sample's persons, as well as results shows that most items of attitudes are reported good assessments as a result of applying suggested questionnaire. In addition to that weak relationships with no significant at P>0.05 between studying "knowledge, and attitude" are accounted rather than differences among their socio-characteristics variables, and weak relationships with no significant at P>0.05, except distribution of source of water. Conclusions: Among the main conclusions, the studied responding concerning knowledge, and attitudes regarding to general information variables, such that (sources of water, and methods of waste disposal) had a weak relationships, except the distribution of source of water, which representative that persons consumption water "Liquefaction" are accounted better responding than other consumption's sources. As well as, moderate degree of knowledge concerning cholera disease are presented in this study, as well as most of the studied persons had good attitudes concerning cholera disease, which could be interpreting hereditary of life style standby that level indeed.


Article
Expression of Estrogen, Progesterone and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors in Breast Cancer in Al-Nassiriya 2014--2015.
الاستدلال عن مستقبلات الاستروجين ، البروجستيرون وعامل النمو البشري لدى مرضى سرطان الثدي في الناصرية 2014- 2015

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Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and is real general well-being issue for ladies all through the world and in Iraq. Breast cancer is an extremely heterogeneous disease, There are three predictive markers: estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and Her2-neu receptors have independent prognostic value in breast cancer. ER expression appears in 80-90 % of patients with breast cancer, while PR expression appear in 70-80 % of cases.Her2-neu over expression present in 15-20 % of cases(1). Our study is a cross-sectional study carried out in Thi-qar governorate in Nasiriya city in Al Habbobi hospital –Oncology center, 165 cases of patients who were diagnosed during the period of two years (February 2014 - January 2015 ) with invasive breast cancer were included in this study . The information of each patient were collected and analyzed which include : age of patient, sex, place of residence and tumor related information include grading, staging of tumor, status of receptors(ER, PR, HER2neu receptors). From this study we found The mean age 49±11.1. Most cases were PR+(75.2%) while ER+(72.7%) but most of them were HER2 negative(78.2%). Most patients were in grade II (64.2%) and stage II (50.3%) ,The most common hormonal receptor expression was (ER/PR+ ,HER2-) which accounted for 64.8%. Regarding to association of hormonal receptor expression with grading and staging of tumor appears that higher grade tumor (II) was observed (76.93%) in type IV (ER/PR-, Her2+) and higher stage (III) was observed (80.95%) in triple negative subtype. Aim of Study: It is to evaluate the hormonal receptor status and their association with grading and staging of breast cancer at the time of diagnosis in Al-Nassiriya city.

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Article
A Comparative Study of High Level laser and Low Level laser and Temperature on the Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate Values in Healthy People : In Vitro Study
مقارنة بين مستوى ليزر عالي وواطئ القدرة ودرجة الحرارة على معدل ترسيب كريات الدم الحمراء للاصحاء خارج الجسم

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Background :The effects of laser irradiation with 632.8 and 2100 nm on Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) in blood samples from healthy peopleblood were comparatively studied in vitro and study the effect of environmental temperature. Objective : This study was designed to show the effect of He-Ne laser , HO-YAG laser and effect of environmental temperature on Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) . Subject & Methods : The study of case – control cross sectional design included 40healthy persons (male and female) with age group (20-45 year) , Workplace in the laboratory of physiology and medical physicsthe time between April 2016 to July 2016. He-Ne laser (LJL 40-HA, Shanghai Research Institute of Laser Technology) wave length of 632.8ηm was used for irradiation with 5mm diameter beam spot on blood samples, with power density 30mw/cm2 and HO-YAG laser irradiation wave length 2100nm ( Karl Storz – Endoskope , Germany ),output power is ( 0.5J) .The irradiation times were (5min ) , The samples of blood were obtained from 40 contributors and each sample was separated into three samples for irradiation and control .All statistical analysis was performed withstatistical package graph Pad software For those with significant difference. Results : The results showed that there were significant differences in the values of sedimentation rates for both class (15 -45 ) 0c degree heat compared with the values of sedimentation 15 0c degree heat temperature for irradiation and control It shows the effect of temperature factor on the red blood cells sedimentation rate in blood samples from healthy people and see the effect of the degree of laboratory heat due to lack of efficient heating and cooling devices in the summer and winter on the sedimentation rates of values to be taken into consideration with the results .We observe irradiation 632.8 nm laser decreases ESR while irradiation at 2100 nm increases ESR with p < 0.01. Conclusion:The change of temperature (high and low) has a great effect on precipitation of red blood cells in health people and thus must be taken into consideration and this effect also observed with the use of632.8 and 2100 nm on Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) in blood samples from healthy individuate blood were comparatively studied in vitro at a temperature of 15 °C.We observe irradiation 632.8 nm laser decreases ESR while increasing irradiation at 2100 nm with p < 0.01.


Article
Neonatal Death in Low Birth Weight Infants in Basrah Maternity & Children Hospital at 2008
دراسة حول وفيات الاطفال ناقصي الوزن في ردهات الخدج في مستشفى البصرة للنسائية والاطفال لعام 2008

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Background : Low birth weight) less than 2500 grams) that includes preterm birth and small for gestational age, is regarded as important causes of neonatal deaths and contributes to 60% to 80% of all neonatal deaths. Objectives : to assess the frequency of deaths in low birth weight neonates and it’s relation to selected neonatal, labour and maternal characteristics. Patients and Methods : A prospective study was carried out on low birth weight newborns admitted to neonatal care units in Basrah Maternity and Children Hospital for four months( from 1st of February till the end of the May 2008) on 508 newborns with low birth weight out of 1338 neonates admitted during the study period. One hundered-ninty one (191) neonates with low birth weight died, their death was studied in relation to neonatal, labour, delivery and maternal characteristics from data collection by special questionnaire. Results : It was found that (68.95%) of total deaths had low birth weight, male to female ratio was (1.4:1). The death was significantly related to gestational age, weight, growth status (being small for gestational age) and male sex. (P value was<0.001). The most common causes of deaths were respiratory distress syndrome (54.97%) followed by sepsis (19.37%. Other neonatal characteristics like postnatal referral, early death, and hospitalization period of less than seven days, need for resuscitation at time of birth and multiple pregnancies were associated with increased risk of death. (P value <0.001).Hospital delivery, non-complicated delivery and normal vaginal deliveries were associated with decreasing neonatal mortalities.(P value <.001).Young age mothers (less than twenty years), Primgravidae, those who had anemia in pregnancy or had poor antenatal care were more liable to have neonatal death ,while mortality rate was significantly lower among breastfed neonates compared to formula fed babies. Conclusions : The frequency of low birth weight and their deaths were high, the death was related to weight, gestational age, growth status, early neonatal period, complicated labour, caesarean section, young primi mother and maternal anemia. Prevention of prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation causes by good antenatal care, skilled attendance at births, and availability of surfactant therapy can reduce mortality.


Article
Evaluation of antibacterial activity of cinnamon and ginger extracts against vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nose of food handlers in restaurants and cafeterias
تقييم فعالية المضاد البكتيري لمستخلصات القرفة والزنجبيل ضد المكورات العنقودية الذهبية المقاومة للفانكومايسين والمعزولة من انف المتعاملين مع الاطعمة في المطاعم والكافيتريات

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Background: Food handlers are the main source of Staphylococcal food poisoning in developed countries. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the nasal carriage of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among food handlers in restaurants and cafeterias, and to evaluate of antibacterial activity of cinnamon and ginger extracts against these bacteria. Material and Methods: A total of 100 nasal swabs were collected from healthy food handlers and analyzed for Staphylococcus aureus ,methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) using standard methods. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of each plant were prepared by using a Soxhalet apparatus and the antibacterial activities of these extracts against VRSA were determined by using agar well diffusion method. Results: of 100 nasal swabs, 30 (30%) isolates were Staphylococcus aureus , among which 25 (83.3%) isolates were MRSA, and 20 (80%) isolates among MRSA were VRSA. Both plant extracts showed potent antibacterial activity against VRSA. Cinnamon extracts showed higher antibacterial activity when compared with ginger extracts , whereas ethanolic extract of each plant was more effective than that of aqueous extract. Conclusion: This study revealed a relatively high prevalence rate of VRSA nasal carriage among food handlers. Cinnamon and ginger are rich source of antimicrobial compounds which can be used as natural food preservatives and to treat infections caused by these bacteria .


Article
Evaluation of Hormones and Trace Elements in Women with Unexplained Infertility
تقدير الهرمونات والعناصر الندرة لدى النساء المصابات بالعقم غير المفسر

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This study aims to Evaluation of prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing (LH)and Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH)and trace elements (iron and copper) in women with unexplained infertility (UI). 60 women with unexplained infertility as well as (40) women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) aged (20-35) year were included in this study. The women were divided according the type of infertility into primary and secondary groups (1ºUI, 2ºUI, 1ºPCO and 2ºPCO) respectively. Fifty healthy fertile women with the same age were included in this study as a control group. The results showed a significant increase in serum of Prolactin, TSH, LH levels in the two groups of women with explained infertility (pcos) compared to control and the two groups of women with unexplained infertility. In contrast no significant differences in Prolactin, TSH, FSH and LH levels in women with unexplained infertility in comparison with the control.Serum levels of iron and copper significantly increase in unexplained infertility groups in comparison with women with explained infertility and control groups. This study concluded that is Prolactin, TSH and LH hormone are not associated statistically with unexplained female infertility. The increase in Cu and iron may have an important etiological role in the pathogenicity of unexplained infertility.


Article
Knowledge Towards Immunizations among Traditional Birth Attendants in Wassit Governorate
تقييم المعارف إزاء التحصين بين القابلات التقليديات في محافظة واسط

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Objective: This study aimed to assess the knowledge of traditional birth attendants regarding Immunization. Methodology: This study was a cross sectional study conducted at wassit government , for a period of 4 months extending from 1st of March 2015 to the 1St June 2015. The study sample included 64 traditional birth attendants whose ages were 21 years and above. Data collection was obtained by direct interview ( using the questionnaire form) . The Research objectives are explained to TBAs and an emphasis on the confidentiality of information. Results: forty-sixty (64) TBAs were included in this study, Significantly over 75% (48) found in age >40 years. 21 (32.81%) had read and write level . They were predominantly married, 67.19 %. In addition, They were residing in an urban area. Relative to length of experience, the highest frequency of TBAs were in the length of experience of TBAs (15 < ) years was 53.13 %. nearly half of them (57.81%) were trained in the sectors of health. High knowledge towards Immunizations was observed among (93.75 %) of TBAs Recommendations: Depending on the high rate of TBAs’ knowledge concerning Immunization recommend to train TBAs and utilize of them in the provision of advice on Immunization, especially in rural areas. Consolidation of relations between TBAs and health sectors, because of the significant impact on the high level of disease prevention, through seminars, lectures and open meetings


Article
Manual Vaccum Aspiration : An alterative to the standard surgical curettage , First experience in Iraq
استخدام الشفط الهوائي اليدوي بديلا لعملية الكحت الحاد او الكحت والتوسعة ( الكرتاج الجراحي )

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Manual vacuum aspiration ( MVA ) or Karmah Cannula is a soft flexible Cannula invented by Harvey Karman in early 1970s . This can be performed under local anesthesia in the setting of a treatment room and office . The aim of this study: To assess the efficacy of MVA in the management of first trimester early fetal demise , missed abortion up to 13 weeks and incomplete miscarriage, and it if can be used as successful alternative to traditional method of sharp surgical curettage Material and method: This was an interventional prospective study including 200 patients who were scheduled to undergo MVA for 1st trimester early fetal demise and incomplete miscarriage . The study population consist of 200 patients who were diagnosed as having missed abortion by ultrasound abdominal and Trans-vaginal ultrasound. The study conducted between January 2014 – until January 2016 . The efficacy assessed by completion of evacuation evaluated immediately by ultrasound conducted in the same clinic and second look ultrasound after one week of the procedure . Result: Efficacy of the procedure was 99% and incomplete uterine evacuation was seen in 1% of patients . No significant rate of complication like uterine perforation , infection , or excessive vaginal bleeding . More than 99% of cases has a successful procedure and did not required any further surgical or medical treatment 98% of women were satisfied with the procedure and they will recommend it to others . This study proved that MVA is super to the traditional use of D & C with metallic tools by avoidance of hospital stay and general anesthesia and will decrease the daily work load for medical staff. Conclusion : Manual vacuum Aspirator ( MVA ) is safe , effective and minimally invasive procedure with low rate of complication . Moreover , it can be carried our safely and effectively in office or medical clinic and no need for hospital admission , occupying the operating theatre and medical staff involvement. It even cost effective in comparism with surgical dilatation and curettage which is held under general anesthesia in operating theatre of Hospitals . Recommendation: This study may change the traditional use of dilatation and curettage with metallic tools and replaced by MVA with avoiding of general anesthesia and the need for access to the theater

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Article
Effect of Anti-Zona Antibodies in Follicular Fluid and Serum on ICSI Outcomes For Explained and Unexplained Groups
تاثير الاجسام المضاده لقشرة البيضه الخارجيه على نتائج الحقن المجهري في المجاميع المبرره وغير المبرره

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Objective: This study aims to determine the presence of blood serum and follicular anti-zona pellucid antibody in two groups of sub-fertile women (explained and unexplained), to evaluate the influence of these autoantibodies on ICSI treatment outcomes and to interpret these findings according to the cause of subfertility treatment outcome. Methods and Materials: This prospective cohort study included 45 sub-fertile women who are divided into subgroups; that are the explained and unexplained groups. All females underwent 45 IVF-ICSI cycles after a certain ovarian stimulation protocol, 45 reached the egg retrieval stage and 44 was reaching embryo transfer stage, at the Fertility center in AL-Najaf Al-Ashraf city from October 2015 to November 2016. Women had undergone thorough assessments (clinical history and full examination) and frequent ultrasonography with basal hormonal level in cycle day two and hematological assessment for AZA, hormonal assessments (E2), two days before retrieval. Also on the day of oocyte retrieval, follicular fluid was centrifuged and freeze for assessing AZA later. After 2 weeks, serum assessed for HCG to detect biochemical pregnancy. Results: The study found that the age mean and range of the studied groups were (29.71±6.62) (18-45year); the BMI mean was (27.70±4.05) Kg/m2, ranged between (19 -35.7); and duration of infertility in years (8.40±4.16), ranged between (2-18) years, and a large percent of them had a history of primary subfertility (86.7%). Regarding the cause of subfertility, a high percent of the studied groups of unexplained cause with a percentage (40%). Regarding ICSI outcome, the pregnancy rate was 28.89%. In women with unexplained cause, pregnancy rate was (33.30%) followed by women with explained cause which was (25.90%). Pregnant women had better ICSI parameters than non-pregnant one. Basal hormonal levels were within normal range, also peak E2 show normal value, but E2 at CD2 was of higher significance in an unexplained type or group. Follicular and serum AZA was higher in women with unexplained cause than in women with explained cause but of no significant difference. Furthermore, peak mean of Follicular AZA in women with unexplained infertility was (10.29 IU/L), followed by ovulatory cause. Pregnancy rate in women with high AZA decreased, and it affect ICSI outcome in general. Regarding FF –AZA, higher follicular fluid values were in unexplained cause. Also, positive non-significant correlation between E2 and follicle count with serum AZA was observed. Finally, there were some correlations between blood serum AZA, FF AZA and ICSI outcome and other parameters. Conclusion: We conclude from this study that multiple factors affect ICSI outcome, and may be used as markers of fecundity for counseling IVF/ICSI candidates to elevate success rate and decrease the cancellation cycles. Women with unexplained subfertility must firstly be checked for presence of AZA and treated before beginning ICSI cycle to increase conception rate. Minimal immune activation as detected by serum and follicular AZA may help in success rate of ICSI outcome.


Article
Time trends and determinants of infant mortality in Thi-Qar 2016-2017
الاتجاهات الزمنية ومحددات وفيات الرضع في ذي قار 2016-2017

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Rationale: A large proportion of child deaths had been accounted from neonatal deaths. Mortality during neonatal period is considered a useful indicator of both maternal and newborn health and care. Aim of the study: This study aimed to know the magnitude of IM, assessment of its distribution and knowing of its main determinants Subjects and method A cross sectional observational study extending all over the past 2 years; from January 2106 till the end of august of 2017 in Bint Al-Huda maternity and pediatrics hospital-Thiqar-Iraq, through which 1188 deaths had been included, where age by days, sex,date of death, address, day by the week, word, time of inward admission, cause of death and lastly comorbid condition. Frequencies, percentages, figures, chi-square test, fisher exact test, Univariet and mulivarient analysis had been used in order to reach the proposed aims. P value of less than 0.05 consider as significant. Results: The study involve 1188 infant deaths, distributed according to their early, late and post neonatal life (69%, 10%,21%)respectively,IMR were higher among male than females. Winter and autumn at 2016 were the higher seasons of death, while Summer of 2017 register the highest death rate among infants, There was no significant statistical association between the death number and percentages and the day of death regarding their ordinal distribution with in the week (p>0.05).According to the 20th months of the study; January, February and October of 2016 were the highest months of IM registration, while the July of 2017 was the highest month of death for the infants, there was no significant statistical association between sex distribution and place of residence of died infants, and also no sex difference regarding the days of weeks at which the infants died . the respiratory causes (52.1%) constituting the highest rate fallowed by septicemia (18.1%), while the well-known infectious diseases and endocrine diseases representing the lesser cause specific fatality rate (0.08%). There was a highly significant statistical association between causes of death season of the year (P <0.0001) age (P <0.0001). Residence of died infant showing significant statistical association with the causes of death (p 0.011) Conclusion: Early neonatal life representing the highest proportion of death risk than other infantile life period, Male having more mortality rate at age of less than 1 year of age, days of weeks had no significant difference in occurrence of death among infants, seasonal variation of death had been noticed. 5-respiratory causes and septicemia were the major killers. 6.age, place of residence and seasons had significant statistical association with cause of death

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Article
Role of T1 Weighted and Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance imaging application in the diagnosis of osteoporosis in lumbar spine in postmenopausal women
دور تطبيق الرنين الانتشاري الموزون والصورة المبنية على ( ت ١ ) لتشخيص مرض هشاشة العظام في العمود الفقري في النساء بعد انقطاع الطمث

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Background: Postmenopausal Osteoporosis is one of the most common causes of primary osteoporosis. For two decades, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been applied to the evaluation of intracranial diseases, but technical advancement make it possible to apply DWI measurements to extra cranial sites, including vertebral column. Objective: Using diffusion-weighted MR imaging technology to determine the DWI and ADC values of lumbar vertebral body in postmenopausal women in correlation with the DEXA t-scores. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional analytical studywas conducted at Al-Yarmouk Teaching hospital in Baghdad city. A total of 80 postmenopausal women, was recruited from subjects who underwent DEXA of the spine and categorized into three groups according to their t-score: Normal BMD, Osteopenia, and Osteoporosis. Then MRI study done for all of them including: T1, T2, DWI, and ADC value measurement. Results: The values of ADC at L3 vertebra were (0.46 ± 0.098) × 10-3 mm2/s, (0.42 ± 0.084) × 10-3 mm2/s, and (0.39 ± 0.052) × 10-3 mm2/s for the three groups: the normal, osteopenic, osteoporotic respectively. The values of the diffusion signal intensity values at L3 vertebra were 134.5 ± 5.7 mm2/s, 112.7 + 3.4 mm2/s, 101.3 + 4.4 mm2/s respectively. There was a significant difference among the three groups in both diffusion and ADC measurement. Conclusion: Both diffusion and ADC values are significantly lower in subjects with postmenopausal osteoporosis. There is a significant positive relationship between T score that was determined by DEXA, and the ADC value.

Table of content: volume:14 issue:2