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Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2018 volume:19 issue:1

Article
Effect of Process Variables, Adsorption Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies of Hexavalent Chromium Removal from Aqueous Solution by Date Seeds and its Activated Carbon by ZnCl2

Authors: Samar K. Theydan
Pages: 1-12
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Abstract

The adsorption of hexavalent chromium by preparing activated carbon from date seeds with zinc chloride as chemical activator and granular date seeds was studied in a batch system. The characteristics of date seeds and prepared activated carbon (ZAC) were determined and found to have a surface area 500.01 m2/g and 1050.01 m2/g , respectively and iodine number of 485.78 mg/g and 1012.91 mg/g, respectively. The effects of PH value (2-12), initial sorbate concentration(50-450mg/L), adsorbent weight (0.004-0.036g) and contact time (30-150 min) on the adsorption process were studied . For Cr(VI) adsorption on ZAC, at 120 min time contact, pH solution 2 and 0.02 adsorbent weight will achieve an amount of 35.6 mg/g adsorbed . While when use date seeds as adsorbent , conditions of 3 solution pH, 0.02 absorbent weight , and 120 contact time gave 26.49 mg/g adsorbed amount. Using both Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips models were explain the dsorption isotherms. It declare that the Sips model fits well with the experimental data with a maximum Cr( VI) adsorption capacity for (ZAC) and granular date stone 233.493 and 208.055 mg/g, respectively . The kinetics data which obtained at different initial Cr(VI) concentrations were examined by using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intra-particle diffusion models . The result gained showed that the second-order model was only describing well the empirical kinetics data of both (ZAC) and granular date seeds. It was noticed that the granular date seeds has adsorption performance lower than the (ZAC).يهدف البحث إلى ازالة ايون الكروميوم باستخدام نوى التمر المطحون و الكاربون المنشط المحضر من نوى التمر بطريقه التنشيط الكيميائي وباستعمال كلوريد الزنك كعامل منشط. ايضا بينت النتائج الكاربون المنشط الناتج باستخدام كلوريد الزنك كعامل منشط كان ذو مسحه سطحيه (1050,01 متر2 /غرام) ونسبه امتزاز لليود ( 1012,91 ملغرام / غرام). بينما تم تحديد المساحة السطحية و نسبة امتزاز اليود500,03 متر2 /غرام و485,78 ملغرام / غرام . تم دراسة تأثير قيمة pH (2-12) , التركيز الاولي ل ايون الكروميوم (50 -450) ملغرام/ لتر , وكمية المادة المازة (0,004-0,036غرام ) و زمن امتزاز (30-150 دقيقة) . تم الحصول سعه امتزاز لأيون الكروميوم عند استخدام الكاربون المنشط بالزنك كلورايد (35,6 ملغم/غرام) عند الظروف التشغيليه : pH(2), وزن المادة المازه الى( 0,02غرام) , وزمن امتزاز (120 دقيقه). في حين عند استخدام نوى التمر كمادة مازة , تم الحصول على سعه امتزاز (26,49 ملغم/غرام) عند الظروف التشغيليه : pH (3 ), وزن ماده مازه (0,02 غرتم) , وزمن امتزاز ( 120دقيقه). تم استخدام معادله سيبس بشكل ناجح لتمثيل نتائج امتزاز ايون الكروميوم على الكاربون المحضر ونوى التمر , حيث اعطى اعلى سعه امتزاز لايون الكروميوم على الكاربون المحضر ونوى التمر (233,493ملغم/غرام) و (208,055 ملغم/غرام) على التوالي.ايضا تم دراسة حركية عملية الامتزاز و بينت النتائج ان معادلة الدرجة الثانية مثلت النتائج التجريبية لعملية الامتزاز بشكل جيد ل ايون الكروميوم على الكربون المحضر ونوى التمر .


Article
Kinetics of Thermal Pyrolysis of High-Density Polyethylene

Authors: Ammar S. Abbas --- Marwa G. Saber
Pages: 13-19
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Abstract

Thermal pyrolysis kinetics of virgin high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was investigated. Thermal pyrolysis of HDPE was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer in nitrogen atmosphere under non-isothermal conditions at different heating rates 4, 7, 10 °C/min. First-order decomposition reaction was assumed, and for the kinetic analysis Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose(KAS), Flynn-Wall-Ozawa(FWO) and Coats and Redfern(CR) method were used. The obtained values of average activation energy by the KAS and FWO methods were equal to137.43 and 141.52 kJ/mol respectively, these values were considered in good agreement, where the average activation energy value obtained by CR equation methods was slightly different which equal to 153.16 kJ/mol.


Article
Experimental Study for the Influence of Operating Parameters on Copper Electrorefining Process

Authors: Hayder M. Abbas --- Sarmad T. Najim
Pages: 21-27
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Abstract

Copper electrodeposition by electrorefining process in acidic sulfate media contains 40 g/l of cupric ions and 160 g/l of sulfuric acid was achieved to study the influence of the operating parameters on cathode purity, surface morphology, deposition rate, current efficiency and power consumption. These operating parameters and there ranges are: current density 200, 300 and 400 A/m2, electrolyte temperature 35, 50 and 65 oC, electrodes spacing 15, 30 and 45 mm and electrolyte residence time 6, 4 and 2 h were utilized. XRF, SEM and EDX analyses were attained to clarify the properties of the produced cathode.


Article
Adsorption of Diclofenac Sodium and Ibuprofen by Bentonite Polyureaformaldehyde Thermodynamics and Kinetics Study

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Abstract

An increasing number of emerging contaminants have been detected in surface waters, sediment, soil and ground water in different locations in the world, which is a new environmental challenges need an actual concern for international scientific and legislative communities. The nonprescription and huge used pharmaceuticals ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium will be focused in this study. New adsorbent developed using cheap inorganic clay material (bentonite) and organic polymer polyureaformaldehyde (PUF), the combination of these two materials gave the surface more roughness with wide active site distribution. Batch adsorption experiment performed to each pharmaceutical individually to determine the optimum separation parameters and understanding the adsorption process pathway. Both pharmaceuticals adsorbed on bentonite –PUF adsorbent in short time ranges from 15 min for ibuprofen to 30 min for diclofenac sodium .Thermodynamic analysis indicates the adsorption process is endothermic in nature and fall in the region of physical adsorption for tested pharmaceuticals (ΔH˚=23.33 and 14.69 KJ/Mol for both ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium respectively).Elovichs equation for describing kinetics of adsorption seemed a good fit with adsorption of both pharmaceuticals .The effect of pH had a significant effect for both pharmaceuticals with high removal (99.8% for diclofenac and 99.2 % for ibuprofen) at acidic pH=2 below Pka value. Isotherm studied at different initial concentration, the results showed that the Dubinin-Radushkevich model suitable for describing ibuprofen adsorption, and Freundlich's isotherm for diclofenac sodium.


Article
Synthesis of Nano Crystalline Gamma Alumina from Waste Cans

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Abstract

In the present study waste aluminium cans were recycled and converted to produce alumina catalyst. These cans contain more than 98% aluminum oxide in their structure and were successfully synthesized to produce nano sized gamma alumina under mild conditions. A comprehensive study was carried out in order to examine the effect of several important parameters on maximum yield of alumina that can be produced. These parameters were reactants mole ratios (1.5, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 5), sodium hydroxide concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 55%) and weights of aluminum cans (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g). The compositions of alumina solution were determined by Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS); and maximum yield of alumina solution was 96.3% obtained at 2 mole ratios of reactants, 40% sodium hydroxide concentrations and 10g of aluminum cans respectively. Gamma alumina was acquired by hydrothermal treatment of alumina solution at pH 7 and calcination temperature of 550 ºC. The prepared catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption/ desorption isotherms, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed good crystallinity of alumina as described by XRD patterns, with surface area of 311.149 m2/g, 0.36 cm3/g pore volume, 5.248 nm pore size and particle size of 68.56 nm respectively.


Article
Kinetic of Disinfection reaction by Sodium Hypochlorite Solution

Authors: Majid I. Abdul-Wahab --- Bashaer M. Namoos
Pages: 51-56
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Abstract

The present studier aims to study the kinetic of reaction at different experimental conditions depending on coliform bacteria concentration and hypochlorite ion. The effects that had been investigated were different of sodium hypochlorite doses, contact time, pH and temperature (20, 29, 37) o C. The water samples were taken from Al-Wathba water treatment plant in Risafa side of Tigris River in Baghdad. The biological tests included the most probable number (M.P.N) for indicating the concentration of coliform bacteria with different contact times and the total plate count (T.P.C) for indicating the amount of colonies for general bacteria. The iodimetry method (chemical test) was used for indicating the concentration of hypochlorite ion with different contact times. Different models were examined to fit the experimental data including the kinetics power law (first and second order) and Selleck model. It was found that the Selleck model fitted well the experimental data in which degree of Selleck model was equal to two and the rate constants was 1.3791 x 10-5 L / (mole min) at 20o C, 3.0806 x 10-5 L / (mole min) at 29oC, and 5.738 x 10-5 L / (mole min) at 37o C.


Article
Static Model of Zubair Reservoir in Luhais Oil Field

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Abstract

Static reservoir modeling is the interacting and analysis of the geological data to visualize the reservoir framework by three-dimensional model and distribute the static reservoir properties. The Petrel E&P software used to incorporate the data. The interpreted log data and core report used in distribution of petrophysical properties of porosity, water saturation and permeability for Zubair reservoir in Luhais oil field. The reservoir discretized to 274968 cells in increments of 300, 200 and 1 meter in the direction of X, Y, and Z respectively. The geostatistical approach used in the distribution of the properties of porosity and water saturation overall the reservoir units. The permeability has been calculated with classical method depending on the routine core reports data. The results show the main reservoir unit is 1C where its porosity and permeability are about 20% and 400md respectively. This unit underlaid by barrier unit and rounded by water. The estimated value of oil in place is about 209*106 ScM3, most of it accumulate at 1C unit and the other at the upper parts of unit 1E.


Article
A Comparison between the Product-Refill and the Equalization Oxygen Pressure Swing Adsorption Processes

Authors: Zaid Adnan Abdel-Rahman
Pages: 61-66
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Abstract

This work presents a design for a pressure swing adsorption process (PSA) to separate oxygen from air with approximately 95% purity, suitable for different numbers of columns and arrangements. The product refill PSA process was found to perform 33% better (weight of zeolite required or productivity) than the pressure equalization process. The design is based on the adsorption equilibrium of a binary mixture of O2 and N2 for two of the most commonly used adsorbents, 5A & 13X, and extension from a single column approach. Zeolite 13X was found to perform 6% better than zeolite 5A. The most effective variables were determined to be the adsorption step time and the operational pressure. Increasing the adsorption step time from 1 to 5 minutes decreased the performance by approximately 5 times. Increasing the pressure from 2 to 6 bars increased the performance by approximately 3 times.

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