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Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics

المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية

ISSN: 18132065 23091673
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques
Faculty:
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics (IJAP) is a peer reviewed journal of high quality devoted to the publication of original research papers from applied physics and their broad range of applications. IJAP publishes quality original research papers, comprehensive review articles, survey articles, book reviews, dissertation abstracts in physics and its applications in the broadest sense. It is intended that the journal may act as an interdisciplinary forum for Physics and its applications. Innovative applications and material that brings together diverse areas of Physics are particularly welcome. Review articles in selected areas are published from time to time. It aims to disseminate knowledge; provide a learned reference in the field; and establish channels of communication between academic and research experts, policy makers and executives in industry, commerce and investment institutions. IJAP is a quarterly specialized periodical dedicated to publishing original papers, letters and reviews in: Applied & Nonlinear Optics, Applied Mechanics & Thermodynamics, Digital & Optical Communications, Electronic Materials & Devices, Laser Physics & Applications, Plasma Physics & Applications, Quantum Physics & Spectroscopy, Semiconductors & Optoelectronics, Solid State Physics & Applications, Alternative and Renewable Energy, Computers Networks and Applications.

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Contact info

P. O. Box 55259,
Baghdad 12001,
Iraq
Website: www.iraqiphysicsjournal.com
Email: admin@iraqiphysicsjournal.com
Email: editor_ijap@yahoo.co.uk

Table of content: 2018 volume:14 issue:3

Article
IRAQI JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية

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Abstract

The Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics (IJAP) is a peer reviewed journal of high quality devoted to the publication of original research papers from applied physics and their broad range of applications. IJAP publishes quality original research papers, comprehensive review articles, survey articles, book reviews, dissertation abstracts in physics and its applications in the broadest sense. It is intended that the journal may act as an interdisciplinary forum for Physics and its applications. Innovative applications and material that brings together diverse areas of Physics are particularly welcome. Review articles in selected areas are published from time to time. It aims to disseminate knowledge; provide a learned reference in the field; and establish channels of communication between academic and research experts, policy makers and executives in industry, commerce and investment institutions. IJAP is a quarterly specialized periodical dedicated to publishing original papers, letters and reviews in: Applied & Nonlinear Optics, Applied Mechanics & Thermodynamics, Digital & Optical Communications, Electronic Materials & Devices, Laser Physics & Applications, Plasma Physics & Applications, Quantum Physics & Spectroscopy, Semiconductors & Optoelectronics, Solid State Physics & Applications, Alternative and Renewable Energy, and Computers and Networks.


Article
Instructions for Authors
تعليمات للمؤلفين

Authors: Editorial Board
Pages: 2-2
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Abstract

CONTRIBUTIONS Contributions to be published in this journal should be original research works, i.e., those not already published or submitted for publication elsewhere, individual papers or letters to editor. Manuscripts should be submitted to the editor at the mailing address: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics, Editorial Board, P. O. Box 55259, Baghdad 12001, IRAQ Website: www.iraqiphysicsjournal.com Email: editor@iraqiphysicsjournal.com, editor_ijap@yahoo.co.uk


Article
Measurements of d-band Center Shifts of Titanium Dioxide Catalyst Using Gold Nanoparticles in Carbon Monoxide Oxidation Reaction

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Abstract

It was reported previously that O adatoms adsorbed dissociatively on the 5-fold Ti rows of rutile TiO2 made the surface O-rich and reacted with CO molecules to form CO2. An electronic charge transfer taking place from gold nano-clusters to the O-rich TiO2 support played a crucial role to enhance the catalytic activity. In this study, we have further accumulated experimental data for the CO oxidation reaction enhanced by gold nano-clusters on the TiO2 surface. Based on the results obtained here and previously, we propose an “interface dipole model”, which explains the strong activity of Au nano-clusters supported on O-rich TiO2 in CO oxidation reaction. Simultaneously, we also discuss the cationic cluster model and the d-band model. The latter is, in particular, widely accepted to explain the activities of heterogeneous catalysts. Contrary to the d-band model, our ab initio calculations demonstrate that the d-band center for Au nano-clusters moves apart from the Fermi level with decreasing the cluster size and this is due to contraction of the Au-Au bond length.


Article
Archiving Knowledge about Physics Teaching

Authors: Charles Henderson, Paula Heron
Pages: 12-12
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Abstract

Do laboratory experiments help students learn concepts? Why do so few women choose to major in physics? What is the most important skill for a high school physics teacher to develop?

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Article
Analysis of Atomic and Electronic Structures of NiO/Au Interfaces by High-Resolution MEIS and Photoelectron Spectroscopy

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The atomic and electronic structures of NiO(001)/Au(001) interfaces were analyzed by high-resolution medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) and photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron-radiation-light. The MEIS analysis clearly showed that O atoms were located above Au atoms at the interface and the inter-planar distance of NiO(001)/Au(001) was derived to be 2.30±0.05Å, which were consistent with the calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT). We measured the valence band spectra and found metallic features for the NiO thickness up to 3 monolayer (ML). Relevant to the metallic features, electron energy loss analysis revealed that the band gap for NiO(001)/Au(001) reduced with decreasing the NiO thickness from 10 down to 5 ML. We also observed Au 4f lines consisting of surface, bulk, and interface components and found a significant electronic charge transfer from Au(001) to NiO(001). The present DFT calculations demonstrated the presence of an image charge beneath Ni atoms at the interface just like alkali-halide/metal interface, which may be a key issue to explain the core level shift and band structure.


Article
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Medium Energy Ion Scattering Spectrometry of Spinel Structure of Li4Ti5O12 Surface

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Spinel lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) is one of the promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). It is crucial to investigate atomistic structures of Li4Ti5O12 surfaces to understand the phenomena at the LTO/electrolyte interfaces such as CO2-gas generation which greatly affects the performance and safety of LIBs. By applying scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) to a Li4Ti5O12 (111) film prepared from a TiO2 wafer, we found that there exists two kinds of Li-terminated (111) terraces bounded by steps with different heights. In the major terraces, the top hexagonal Li layer is stacked above the oxygen layer, while the top Li layer is stacked above the Ti-Li layer in the minor terraces. The relative stability between the two surface structures seems to depend on the atmosphere due to different stoichiometry, which is a possible origin of CO2 generation via redox interaction with electrolyte molecules.


Article
Quantum Mechanics as a Stimulus for American Theoretical Physics

Authors: Shaun Datta
Pages: 28-28
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Abstract

The heroes of seminal quantum theory were almost exclusively European. Munich, Göttingen, and Copenhagen dominated the early developments of quantum mechanics, most notably the Bohr model of hydrogen, matrix mechanics, and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Quite simply, “The principal language of quantum mechanics was German” [2]. While Europe dominated quantum theory, pragmatic American universities like Caltech excelled in experimental physics [3]. In the late 1920s, however, the growing American appetite and capacity for theory heralded a shift in the quantum center of gravity.

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Article
Medium Energy Ion Scattering Spectrometry of Helium Ions Scattered from Rutile Titanium Dioxide Surfaces

Authors: Zaid H. Mhsin, Nawal K. Gafil
Pages: 29-33
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Abstract

The charge state of medium energy He ions scattered from solid surfaces depends on emerging energy and angle as well as the surface materials. We measured He+ fractions for 54-140keV He+ ions incident on rutile TiO2(110) and scattered from the top-layer Ti atoms at the [110]- and [001]-azimuth. The He+ fractions measured at both azimuths were decreased with increasing emerging angle (scaled from surface normal) and saturated at ~75 and ~85° at the [001]- and [110]-azimuth, respectively. The He+ fractions for the [110]-azimuth denoted by η110 were considerably larger by 10-20% than those for the [001]-azimuth (η) at emerging angles below ~75° (non-equilibrated). The equilibrium He+ fraction is close to the semi-empirical data given by Marion-Young. It was also found that the η110 values measured at emerging angle of ~80° were larger more than 20% compared with the η values in the emerging energy range from 50 to 130keV. Such a strong dependence on crystallographic orientation of scattering plane is simply explained by the atomic arrangements at the crystalline azimuths.


Article
Electronics and photonics united

Authors: Goran Z. Mashanovich
Pages: 34-34
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A method for integrating photonic devices with state-of-the-art nanoelectronics overcomes previous limitations. The approach shows promise for realizing high-speed, low-power optoelectronic technology.

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Article
Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Analysis of Magnesium-Palladium Nanoparticles Fabricated by Gas Evaporation Method

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The change of the chemical state of the Mg-Pd nanoparticles during hydro-/dehydrogenation has been investigated by the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements under the in-situ condition. The Mg-Pd nanoparticles have been fabricated by the gas evaporation method using He gas and embedded in the fluorine resin in order to protect the Mg-Pd nanoparticles from the oxidation of the Mg-Pd nanoparticles. The Pd L3-edge NEXAFS measurements have been carried out under the flowing the diluted hydrogen gas (4 wt% H2) and pure He gas for the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the Mg-Pd nanoparticles, respectively. The in-situ Pd L3-edge NEXAFS analyses have revealed that the Pd phases in the Mg-Pd nanoparticles are hydrogenated under the diluted hydrogen gas atmosphere. The subsequent dehydrogenation of the Pd phases has not been observed under the He gas. This result indicates that the dehydrogenation reaction of the Pd has been inhibited by the irreversible migration of the Mg toward the surface of the Mg-Pd nanoparticles.


Article
Synchrotron-Radiation Infrared Microscopy Analysis of an Amyloid Peptide Irradiated by Mid-Infrared Free-Electron Laser

Authors: Maisun R. Elewi
Pages: 41-45
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In this work, we have irradiated amyloid fibrils with a free-electron laser (FEL) tuned to mid-infrared frequencies to induce dissociation of the aggregates into monomer forms. Synchrotron-radiation infrared microscopy (SR-IRM) is a powerful tool for in situ analysis of minute structural changes of various materials, and in this study, the feasibility of SR-IRM for analyzing the microscopic conformational changes of amyloid fibrils of a peptide after FEL irradiation was investigated. Reflection spectra of the amyloid fibril surface showed that the amide I peaks shifted to higher wavenumbers after the FEL irradiation, indicating that the initial β-sheet-rich structure transformed into a mixture of non-ordered and turn-like peptide conformations. This result demonstrates that conformational changes of the fibril structure after the FEL irradiation can be observed at a high spatial resolution using SR-IRM analysis and the FEL irradiation system can be useful for dissociation of amyloid aggregates.


Article
Ten years left to redesign lithium-ion batteries

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Reserves of cobalt and nickel used in electric-vehicle cells will not meet future demand. Refocus research to find new electrodes based on common elements such as iron and silicon, urge Kostiantyn Turcheniuk and colleagues.

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Article
When Sherlock Holmes enters the quantum realm

Pages: 48-48
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Algorithms that pit fraudster against detective find a home in quantum computers.

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Article
Minuscule heat engine brings power to the nano-world

Pages: 48-48
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Device harnesses a ‘quantum dot’ to produce electric power with high efficiency.

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Article
COPYRIGHT RELEASE FORM IRAQI JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS ( IJAP )
استمارة نقل حقوق النشر والطبع والتوزيع

Authors: Editorial Board
Pages: 49-49
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We the author/authors of the article that is submitted to the Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics (IJAP) for publication, declare that we have neither taken part or full text from any published work by others, nor presented or published it elsewhere in any other journal. We also declare transferring copyrights and conduct of this article to the Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics (IJAP) after accepting it for publication.


Article
IJAP, Volume (14), Issue (3), July – September 2018 ( CONTENTS )
محتويات المجلد الرابع عشر - العدد الثالث - تموز-أيلول 2018

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Instructions to Authors 2 Measurements of d-band Center Shifts of Titanium Dioxide Catalyst Using Gold Nanoparticles in Carbon Monoxide Oxidation Reaction 3-11 A.K. Jwad, H.A. Fadil, S.R. Hmeed, A.K. Hashem Archiving Knowledge about Physics Teaching 12 C. Henderson, P. Heron Analysis of Atomic and Electronic Structures of NiO/Au Interfaces by High-Resolution MEIS and Photoelectron Spectroscopy 13-20 J.H. Jasim, Y.H. Kasim, F.A. Hasan Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Medium Energy Ion Scattering Spectrometry of Spinel Structure of Li4Ti5O12 Surface 21-27 H.M. Abd, L.A.H. Flayeh, S.N. Abas Quantum Mechanics as a Stimulus for American Theoretical Physics 28 S. Datta Medium Energy Ion Scattering Spectrometry of Helium Ions Scattered from Rutile Titanium Dioxide Surfaces 29-33 Z.H. Mhsin, N.K. Gafil Electronics and photonics united 34 G.Z. Mashanovich Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Analysis of Magnesium-Palladium Nanoparticles Fabricated by Gas Evaporation Method 35-40 T.M. Radi, A.A. Jasim, A.H. Kadhum Synchrotron-Radiation Infrared Microscopy Analysis of an Amyloid Peptide Irradiated by Mid-Infrared Free-Electron Laser 41-45 M.R. Elewi Ten years left to redesign lithium-ion batteries 46-47 K. Turcheniuk, D. Bondarev, V. Singhal, G. Yushin When Sherlock Holmes enters the quantum realm 48 Minuscule heat engine brings power to the nano-world 48 Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics (IJAP) Copyright Form 49 Contents 50

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