Table of content

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development

مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة

ISSN: 25200917
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development
College of Engineering /Mustansiriyah University
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• About the journal
The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is a peer reviewed open access scientific Iraqi journal issued by the College of Engineering/ Mustansiriyah University, under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq. In the meantime, the journal commits itself to the regulations of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE).


The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Users are allowed to read, download, or share the full texts of the articles in this journal without prior permission of the publisher or the author(s). A DOI is guaranteed by no means to change, so it can be used as a permanent link to any electronic article. Our journal DOI prefix account is 10.31272.

The journal welcomes submissions in the following topics:

Structural Engineering

Geotechnical Engineering

Engineering Management

Materials Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Dam and Water Resources Engineering

Architectural Engineering and Urban Design

Energy and Power System

Electronics, Control, Signals and Systems

Computer and Software Engineering

Communication Engineering

Renewable Energy Systems

Environmental Engineering

General Engineering

The vision for the future is to make the journal abstracted and indexed by the prominent databases and internationally cited, read and downloaded by the scholars. The mission is to contribute to the advances in the engineering fields and sustainable development. The journal aims at revolutionizing the practice in industry by promoting cutting-edge and effective research.

The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is published bimonthly, and the issues appearing on the beginning of each other month.

The corresponding author must pay fees of 100000 Iraqi dinars for the professor academic title, 75000 Iraqi dinars for assistant professor or less title, and 30000 Iraqi dinars for graduate (or undergraduate) students where the student is the first author. For international researchers, the submission fees are 125 USD.

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Phone Number:07717944560
E-mail:editor@jeasd.org
ali.alghalib@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:22 issue:3

Article
FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF RUTTING FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

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Abstract

The aim of this research is studying the effect of base and subgrade layer local materials properties on the rutting damage of flexible pavement due to repeated traffic loading. The most roads in Baghdad city present severe rutting damage due to absence of quality control in the construction of granular unbounded pavement layer. Furthermore many trucks with overweight using the roads and high temperature in summer produced distresses and deterioration of flexible pavement. Flexible pavement analyses are performed using finite element method; a 3-D dimensional finite element model using ABAQUS (ver. 6.12-1) computer program are developed. The results obtained for base layer show reduction in rutting damage by about (58%) while subgrade layer provided damage reduction only (10%). Also the critical value for vertical compressive stresses is (480 kPa) below the wheel loading area which is about (70.9%) of the applied tire pressure and then decreased gradually with depth to about (118 kPa) approximately (17%) of the applied tire pressure within the base layer and remains almost constant with depth through the subgrade layer. And for horizontal stresses a high value was observed on surface of flexible pavement under the path of wheel load rather than the compressive stresses then decreased laterally with horizontal distance.The local untreated base material experience critical rut depth of (8 mm) at 1000 number of repetitions and for treatment base materials the number of load repetitions to cause damage rutting increased (10) times to about 10000 number of load repetitions.The treated base materials decreased the rutting damage factor. This implicates the main role of granular base layer in pavement system support to minimize the rutting damage.


Article
"اثر ممارسات المجتمع على البيئة الحضرية في المدن العراقية" (مدينة بغداد حي المتنبي حالة دراسية)

Authors: . مظهر عباس احمد
Pages: 1-17
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: لاشك ان البيئة الحضرية هي من صنع الانسان ومن تخطيطة، والغاية منها توفير البيئة المناسبة لراحة الانسان وسعادته، وبنفس الوقت هو من يحافظ عليها وهو من يعتدي عليها فهو الذي يختار بين هذا وذاك، وبكل الاحوال يعتمد ذلك على مستوى وعي الانسان وثقافته وكيف يريد ان يعيش في بيئة صحية وجميلة، فعندما نقول بيئة حضرية نعني ان هذه البيئة فيها معايير حضرية توفرها للمجتمع الذي يعيش فيها.ان واقع المدن العراقية ومع الاسف اصبح واقعا سيئا بيئتها تعج بالتجاوزات، والتلوث البيئي، والبصري، وهذا لايليق بمجتمعنا العراقي صاحب الحضارات المجيدة والعريقة والتي لاتزال شواهدها باررزة شامخة منثورة بشكل جميل على مساحة ارض العراق، ومن ثم تمثلت المشكلة البحثية بوجود آثار سلبية يحدثها المجتمع على البيئة الحضرية للمدن العراقية التي تؤدي الى تشويه المشهد الحضري، ويهدف البحث الى تسليط الضوء على المشكلات التي تحدث في البيئة الحضرية نتيجة الممارسات السلبية التي يحدثها المجتمع فيها ووضع الحلول المناسبة من خلال رؤية الباحث وتوصيات البحث، ويفترض البحث ان تسليط الضوء على التعديات والممارسات السلبية التي يحدثها المجتمع في البيئة الحضرية سيساهم الى حد كبير في تعافيها، وسيظم البحث اطارين يتعلق الاول بالجانب النظري والاخر بالجانب التطبيقي بالاعتماد على المصادر العلمية والمنشورات المفيدة بهذا الخصوص وعلى الدراسة الميدانية لواقع المنطقة المدروسة ورأي المجتمع المحلي وعلى خبرة الباحث.


Article
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING PARAMETERS FOR LOW CARBON STEEL SHEET

Authors: Kamal Abdulkareem Mohammed
Pages: 14-22
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Abstract

Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) is one of the most efficient fusion welding processes which known as a thermo – electric process used in joining metal by a combination of adjustable parameters (heat, pressure and time), it is high speed, flexible and highly productive process. It is extensively used for many industrial purposes in particular in the automotive industry. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of welding nugget area on the tensile strength of the resistance spot welded joints, the present discussion deals with effect of the parameters of resistance spot welding process (current, time, electrode force) on nugget formation and on failure load of the spot weld joints (the relation between nugget size and strength with input parameters). The test material of the specimens which used in this study is low carbon steel. The mechanical performance (peak load, failure mode) of the welded joints was determined by tensile testing, the testing results were analyzed which were obvious the effectiveness and the necessaries of the suitable or proper welding parameters for the strength of the spot weld joints.


Article
تأثير القرارات اللونية على التعافي في المراكز العلاجية للأطفال

Authors: . خولة هادي مهدي
Pages: 18-32
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Abstract

: كثير من الناس يعتقدون أن اللون هو مجرد وسيلة لتعريف الأشكال، وغالبا ما اعتبروه مجرد حالة تجميلية بحتة. وفي الحقيقة أن اللون هو الضوء (الذي يعتبر مصدر الحياة نفسها)، فلا يوجد مكان لا وجود لللون فيه، والاستجابة اللاواعية له هي عنصر أساسي لبقائنا (أي تمثل غريزة البقاء). وﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺃﺤﺩ أنظمة التشكيل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ بصورة عامة والفضاء الداخلي بشكل خاص، ﻭﻻ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ اﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻷﻱ ﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﻬو ﺒﺒﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ مسبق للنظام اللوني المستخدم. ﻭﺃﻓﻀل ﺍﻷﻟﻭﺍﻥ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻼﺀﻡ ﻭوﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻠﻌﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﺩﻭراً ﻫﺎﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ تحديد الفضاء من خلال ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺒﺎﻩ لتعديل ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻍ. ﻟذا اﻫﺗم اﻟﺑﺣث ﺑﺗوﻓﻳر ﻗﺎﻋدة ﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎﺗﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﺻﻣﻣﻳن لتوظيف الاﻧظﻣﺔ اللونية ﻟﺗﻛون اﺣدى المحفزات والمؤثرات الإيجابية للإسراع بتعافي مستخدمي الفضاء من الأطفال بما يحترم سايكولوجيتهم وفسيولوجيتهم. لمعالجة المشكلة البحثية المتمثلة بتجاهل المتطلبات الداعمة للتعافي من قبل بعض المصممين من خلال إهمالها بشكل واعي للقرارات اﻟﻠوﻧﻳـﺔ اﻟﻣـﺳﺗﺧدﻣﺔ ﻓـي فضاءات المراكز العلاجية للأطفال، بإفتراض أن أحد العوامل المحفزة للأطفال على التعافي يتأثر بالقرار اللوني للفضاء العلاجي. حيث يهدف البحث إلى زيادة الشعور بالراحة والصحة والعافية ضمن المحيط المادي عبر إعتماد الأبعاد الأساسية لظاهرة التعافي (wellness) من خلال توظيف المثيرات الحسية المختلفة حيث يعتبر اللون إحداها، فيحفز الأطفال على حب المكان والحركة فيه والشعور بالآمان لكي ينسى مخاوفه وآلامه. تتطلب تحقيق هذا الهدف بناء إطار نظري ومن ثم تطبيقه على عينات معمارية عالمية ومحلية منتخبة. وقد توصل البحث إلى أن العلاقة اللونية التي تعتمد التجانس الثلاثي للألوان (الأصفر بنسبة 70%، والأزرق بنسبة 25%، والأحمر بنسبة 5%) حققت مؤشرين من أصل ثلاثة مؤشرات للتعافي في فضاء التجمع الرئيسي (البهو) وهما مؤشري (التشتت والإلهاء الإيجابي والسيطرة والتحكم)، أما فضاء لعب الأطفال فقد حقق مؤشري (التشتت والإلهاء الإيجابي والتفاعل الإجتماعي) لنفس القرار اللوني، بينما إفتقدت العينة المحلية اي قرار لوني واضح.


Article
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ENHANCEMENT HEAT TRANSFER OF INSERT TWISTED TAPE OF CIRCLAR CUT WITH WIRE COIL IN THE DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER

Authors: Hisham Assi Hoshi
Pages: 23-33
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Abstract

: The combined effect of wire coil with twist tape inserted in a circular tube using hot air as the test fluid on heat transfer rate and pressure drop were investigated experimentally. The twisted tape used in this work is made of an aluminum sheet with dimensions (1250 mm length, 18 mm wide, 1 mm thick, twist ratio y =8 and y=5.8). The wire coil was made of copper with diameter (d=3mm), the wire coil with two coil pitch ratio (CR=p/d=10 and CR= p/d=5). Reynolds number used in experiments ranged between (9648 to 18144) and the inlet temperatures for hot and cold fluid are 750C and 300C respectively. The experimental results showed that combined wire coil with twisted tape gives 1.268 enhancement efficiency higher than those with each device alone and plain tube, also give better performance as compared to the twisted tape and wire coil alone.


Article
تأثير استخدام الوسائط في العمارة

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: تشهد السنوات الحالية تطور كبير في تكنولوجيا الوسائط الجديدة، الالكترونيات والمصادر السمعية والبصرية اضافة الى المواد البنائية الجديدة، والتي قادت باتجاه ايجاد اشكال جديدة من العمارة وهي العمارة الوسائطية. ويقود ذلك الى فجوة في الخطاب المعماري حول اهمية المظهر الفيزيائي للعمارة، والذي اصبح محكوما بحقيقة التنوع الكامل من القيم البصرية المتحققة في العالم الرقمي. ان الموضوع الرئيس في العمارة الوسائطية هو النظر الى العمارة كوسط، "وسط للتواصل" يقوم بنقل رسالة، محتوى وصور محددة باستخدام الحاسوب والتكنولوجيا البصرية، لتأكيد الشكل المعماري. وفي حالات أخرى يتم استخدام الوسائط اما لتغطية الواجهات المعمارية بشاشات كبيرة، لإسقاط الصور على المباني القائمة، لخلق العوالم الافتراضية أو لخلق تأثيرات معينة لتحقيق لامادية العمارة. وبذلك تحددت مشكلة البحث في "عدم وجود دراسة شاملة عن آليات العمارة الوسائطية التي تحقق لامادية العمارة". وفرضية البحث هي: "ان بعض الاليات المستخدمة العمارة الوسائطية تقود الى لامادية العمارة"، وتحدد هدف البحث في: "تحديد الاليات المستخدمة في العمارة الوسائطية لتحقيق لامادية العمارة". واستنتج البحث بان لامادية العمارة يمكن تحقيقها، باستخدام اليات متنوعة تبعا لرغبة المصمم في تمويه الشكل المعماري، تغيير صورة الفضاء المعماري أو استبدال الجدار بمخرجات الوسط الرقمي.


Article
Experimental Responses of MWCNTs Reinforced Cross-Ply Thin Composite Shells under Transverse Impact and Thermal Loads

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Experimental study of transient response for different load ratio (0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 1.0)wt% of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (MWCNTs) reinforced matrix of composite in addition to woven carbon fiber. Thermal Low Velocity Impact (TLVI) apparatus have been designed to meet the different testing conditions. The effect of transient vibration by impact loading on simply supported curved composite shell with and without thermal condition has been studied experimentally. An improvement occurred in settling time about 62.0% at increased of weight ratio reinforcement up to 1.0wt% of MWCNTs, and under thermal condition the settling time reduced about 44.0%. The results showed that the material which be selected under thermal condition must be include the weighed ratio 0.4wt% because all the specimens reinforced with the mentioned weighted ratios of MWCNTs failed under thermal test except those that containing 0.4wt% and these results enhanced by other results such as the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). In addition to the passivity of the composite shell structure due to reinforcement by woven carbon fiber and MWCNTs, active double integral of sliding mode controller (SMC) is used with piezoelectric components. The results indicated that an important improvement in transient response at maximum over shoot of the middle surface point about (95.8%) and (50%) in settling time, with SMC the specimens reach the steady state at short time.


Article
الواقع البيئي لبعض مياه الينابيع الطبيعية في العراق ومدى عذوبتها

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: إن نتائج الدراسات العلمية أوضحت واقع البيئة المائية وكيفية وأساليب استثمار مصادر المياه ومن أبرزها ينابيع المياه الطبيعية ،حيث يتواجد العشرات من ينابيع المياه الطبيعية في شمال العراق والمنتشرة في محافظة دهوك واربيل والسليمانية وغيرها. في هذا البحث سحبت عينات بقناني معقمة وحاوية على مادة الـ(ثايوسلفات الصوديوم ) من المصدر وتم فحصها بايولوجياً وكيمياوياً وفق المواصفة القياسية العراقية النافذة ووضعت هذه القناني في صناديق مبردة وتم جلبها مباشرة إلى المختبر لإجراء الفحوصات المختبرية إضافة إلى ذلك تم سحب عينات من السوق المحلية تحمل عبارة مياه معدنية طبيعية وفحصت وفق المواصفة القياسية العراقية النافذة والخاصة بمياه الشرب المعبأة. من خلال الفحص المختبري للعينات ظهرت مستعمرات من البكتريا (pseudomonas) في نموذج رقم (2) من عينات الينابيع ظهور مســتعمرات من بكتريا (Bacillus) في جميع النماذج عدا نموذج رقم (5) وهو من عينات السوق المحلية تحمل عبارة مياه معدنية طبيعية (مياه عيون ) وكذلك مستعمرات من بكتريا القولون البرازية. أما الفحوصات الفيزياوية والبايولوجية والكيميائية فتبين خلو العينات من اللون و الرائحة والطعم الغريب و العكارة. وشملت الفحوصات الكيميائية الرقم الهيدروجيني (PH) ومجموع الاملاح الذائبة (TDS) وأظهرت للنماذج ضمن المدى المسموح به وفق المواصفة القياسية العراقية الاولى والثانية.


Article
Multi-level Steganography System Using Wavelet Transform

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Sending encrypted messages frequently will draw the attention of third parties, i.e. crackers andhackers, perhaps causing attempts to break and reveal the original messages. In a digital world, steganography is introduced to hide the existence of the communication by concealing a secret message inside another unsuspicious message.The aim of this paper isto produce proposed method to provide a high level security system by implementing and designing multi-level steganography system to hide data in a color video-cover. This system is more complex system, it implemented in two levels of embedding and this is an issue of the high level of security because it required two levels of extraction to extract the hidden data. The system is implemented in the frequency domain, using wavelet transform domain. The idea of using transformation in the proposed system is due to the results of previous published works which indicated the hiding in the frequency domain is more effective than hiding in time domain, due to compactness attributes of some transforms and due to its robustness. A singular value decomposition (SVD) is also used in this proposed system. MATLAB programming environment is used to simulate the total system.


Article
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MODEL PILED RAFT FOUNDATION EMBEDDED WITHIN PARTIALLY SATURATED COHESIONLESS SOILS

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This paper presents an experimental study conducted on model piled rafts in partially saturated sandy soil. The aim of the experimental program is to study the effect of matric suction on the load carrying capacity of piled rafts embedded within partially saturated sandy soil .The influence of number of piles are presented and discussed in this study. The piled raft is arranged in different configurations of piles (single, double and triple piled raft with spacing 3.5D c/c) with the same area ratio (raft area to the cross section area of piles) to avoid different contact pressure area and to show the effect of different piles number and its group action. The influence of matric suction (i.e., capillary stresses) in partially saturated zone is typically not taken into account in the conventional design of both shallow and deep foundations so that the present research study the determination and contribution of matric suction towards the load carrying capacity of piled raft. The experimental work consist of 3 models of footing "single piled raft (8.3 x 5) cm, double piled (16.6 x 5) cm and triple piled raft (25 x 5) cm". All these models are loaded and tested under both of fully saturated condition (i.e., matric suction equals to 0kPa) and unsaturated conditions (i.e., matric suction value equals to 6kPa , 8kPa and 10kPa), which are achieved by predetermined lowering of water table. The relationship between matric suction and depth of ground water table was measured in suction profile set by using three Tensiometers (IRROMETER). The soil, water characteristic curve (SWCC) estimated by applying fitting methods through the program (SoilVision). The results of experimental work demonstrate that the load carrying capacity of piled raft increases with increasing all values of matric suction as the number of piles supporting the raft increases. And the matric suction has a significant influence on the load carrying capacity of all tested models. The increasing value of the ultimate bearing capacity for single, double and triple piled raft under unsaturated conditions is approximately (2.1-4.47), (2-4.44) and (1.5-3.54) times higher than that at saturated condition respectively


Article
DESIGN OF H-PLANE SECTORAL HORN ANTENNA FOR MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS USING MATLAB

Authors: Mushreq Abdulhussain Shuriji
Pages: 76-83
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Abstract

Wireless communications has become more essential in our life, as well as considered as the one of fastest growing segment in the communication business. The antenna was and still the main component of any wireless communication system. In other word the antenna is the eyes and ears of any wireless communication system. Many recent research has carried out designing of H-sectoral horn antenna but yet H-plane horn antenna with a very high gain and narrow radiation pattern while keeping up its compact size is not been completely delivered. Consequently, H-plane sectoral horn operates on c-band (6GHz) has clarified and successfully designed using MATLAB with an optimum compact size. In addition, the power pattern of E-plane and H-plane have drawn using MATLAB simulation. In conclusion, the designed H-sectoral horn antenna is promising a directive, narrow and intense radiation in the direction of a selected path to support high coverage distances. Besides, a very high power of 21dB of gain is achieved. This antenna is perfectly suitable to use in numerous microwave applications such as, feed element in large radio astronomy, satellite tracking, feed for various lenses and reflectors antenna, and gain measurement for other transmitting antenna.


Article
THE USE OF TRANSMISSIBILITY FUNCTIONS FOR DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

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Nowadays, structural health monitoring is the area of a great interest of continuing research aiming at establishing a reliable condition monitoring strategy of civil engineering infrastructure. Such finding will allow moving from the schedule-based inspection policy to condition-based policy. This study is dedicated to identify the damage in reinforced concrete beams by using only frequency domain vibration measurements. In the meantime, statistical pattern recognition model was tested through the course of this research. A transmissibility-based damage detection and classification system was proposed. Subsequently, the measure distance of the spectra envelope (COSH) was suggested as classification tool. The proposed method was examined on datasets from numerical beam model and experimental measurements from 2.0m reinforced concrete beam. For the two models, the results of the proposed approach proved effective and managed to detect various levels of defects, and classify the defects according to their size. Having processed response signals to detect and classify state conditions, the devised approach is relevant to use in embedded online structural health monitoring.


Article
Studying the Noise Levels at an Electrical Power Station

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Studying the noise levels has great significance by those whose concerned with the environment and human, because of its negative impact on human health and his performance. This paper presents a measuring of noise in the positions of the power station south of Baghdad includes 15 positions inside the station's building and 15 positions outside the station's building. The noise level measured in decibels by using the noise level meter (NLM). The results showed that the values of the noise level at positions outside the station's building are between (66.9dB – 88.1dB), which are for the positions of (p3-p15) are out of allowable levels according to the allowable limits for the WHO (67 dB), while the positions (p1 & p2) are within the allowable limits. The noise levels at positions inside the station's building (p1-p15) are (66.1dB –86.2dB) all the values are out of the allowable level for WHO (57 dB). To reduce the negative effects of noise, special materials should be used on the walls of the building to absorb the noise, as well as to minimize the exposing time to the noise in order to protect the workers' health.


Article
SEEPAGE AND SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS OF LEVEES SUBJECTED TO FLOODING (THEORITICAL STUDY)

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Abstract

In this study, a levee is modeled by using ANSYS 11.0 to be analyzed for seepage and slope stability. One of the main causes of levees failure is the destabilizing effect of seepage forces of the infiltrating water during floods. The existence of the analogy between seepage and heat diffusion made it possible to analyze the hydraulic problem with ANSYS/THERMAL. In addition, the slope stability is analyzed for different cases by Strength Reduction Finite Element Method. The results showed that strength reduction technology was suitable for simple homogeneous side slope stability analysis. To verify the accuracy of the analysis, the results are compared with a case that studied by finite element program SEEP/W and SLOPE/W (GEOSLOPE 2007) has been taken and modeled by ANSYS/APDL. The results showed close to them for seepage and slope stability analysis. In other hand, some parameters such as flood conditions, permeability, slopes, and soil parameters (cohesion and angle of internal friction) are taken to study there effects on the seepage and slope stability. It is found that, the steep slope for cohesion less soil in high flood level is the most critical section of levees for both static and seismic load. Moreover, hydraulic behavior of clay core in a levee section subjected to flooding is investigated with help of numerical modeling. It was observed that a clay core can ensure reduction in pore water pressures and ensure adequate slope stability to the levee section.


Article
SOFTWARE FOR LINE OF BALANCE IN PROJECTS OF HIGHWAYS

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Abstract

Highways play an important role in countries’ economy improvement as they are the major transportation facilities. Highway construction project needs effective planning method to overcome its complicity. Line of Balance is the most effective technique for scheduling such projects. Computerization of this technique to cover highway construction is very powerful to obtain the full advantages of this technique as computer-based program can simplify the mission of end users. The software was build using Visual Basic to ensure flexible code and interactive user-interface. The developed software was verified and validated through extensive testing during and after its building. The result of test showed its correctness and effectiveness to attain objectives.


Article
Testing the Ability of Using Cement Kilns Waste for Removing Acid Dyes Wastewater by Adsorption Space with a font size

Authors: Zainab Abdul Razaq
Pages: 131-142
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Abstract

This investigation deals with the use of cement kiln dusts waste (CKD) as adsorbent for removal two kind of acid dyes from simulated wastewater. cement kiln dusts waste prepared by dried at 60C°. The effect of pH: 2-12, contact time: 20- 180 min, sorbent weight: 0.5- 4.0 g were considered. The optimal pH value for acid dyes adsorption was found to be 2.5 for acid red dyes(ARD)and 6.5 for acid blue dyes (ABD). The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Freundlich model was found to fit the equilibrium data very well with high-correlation coefficient (R2). The adsorption kinetics was found to follow pseudo-second-order rate kinetic model, with a good correlation (R2 > 0.95 and 0.94) for acid red dyes(ARD) and acid blue dyes (ABD). respectively. The results showed that the cement kiln dusts waste was found to be an attractive low cost adsorbent for the treatment of wastewater.


Article
MITIGATION OF HARMONIC DISTORTION USING OPTIMUM PHASE-SHIFT MULTIPLE PARALLEL INVERTERS

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Abstract

It is clear that the harmonics in power systems have many negative impacts and therefore it is inevitable to reduce their amount to the accepted level and one of the interesting approach to reduce the harmonic distortion is to synchronize phase-shifted inverters operating in parallel. In this paper, a relatively modern technique for harmonic reduction employing synchronized phase-shifted three parallel PWM inverters with current-sharing reactors is analyzed. By using this method, the total harmonic distortion (THD) has been reduced significantly and the amount of reduction is directly proportional to the number of parallel phase-shifted inverters.


Article
NUMERICAL MODELLING OF TURBULENT FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL EXPANSION

Authors: Shaymaa Abdul Muttaleb Alhashimi
Pages: 152-161
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Abstract

Open channel expansion is a transition that connects a relatively narrow upstream channel-section to a wide downstream channel-section. Such a transition is an important component of many hydraulic structures. Due to an increase in cross-sectional area, channel expansions cause flowing water to decelerate. Under steady flow conditions, flow deceleration will lead to an increase in water pressure that in turn triggers flow separation and creates turbulent eddy motions. These turbulent eddy motions can exist over a long distance downstream of the transition. They cause undesirable energy losses and sidewall erosion. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to predict the flow characteristics of open channel expansion. Due to their lower time demand and lower cost, these numerical methods are preferred to experimental methods after they are properly validated. In the present study, the CFD solution is validated by experimental results. A limited number of CFD simulations were completed using the commercial Software FLUENT. In particular, mean velocity distributions for the rectangular open channel transitions were used for model validation. The two-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and the two equations RNG k-ε models were used. The validation of the model using test data was reasonable. This paper presents the results of experimental investigations on subcritical flow through gradual expansion in rectangular rigid-bed channels employed by CFD for different value of flow. The velocity distributions of flow through the transition models are made, thus, the efficiencies of the transitions evolved by different value of discharge are evaluated.

Table of content: volume:22 issue:3