Table of content

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development

مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة

ISSN: 25200917
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development
College of Engineering /Mustansiriyah University
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• About the journal
The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is a peer reviewed open access scientific Iraqi journal issued by the College of Engineering/ Mustansiriyah University, under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq. In the meantime, the journal commits itself to the regulations of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE).


The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Users are allowed to read, download, or share the full texts of the articles in this journal without prior permission of the publisher or the author(s). A DOI is guaranteed by no means to change, so it can be used as a permanent link to any electronic article. Our journal DOI prefix account is 10.31272.

The journal welcomes submissions in the following topics:

Structural Engineering

Geotechnical Engineering

Engineering Management

Materials Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Dam and Water Resources Engineering

Architectural Engineering and Urban Design

Energy and Power System

Electronics, Control, Signals and Systems

Computer and Software Engineering

Communication Engineering

Renewable Energy Systems

Environmental Engineering

General Engineering

The vision for the future is to make the journal abstracted and indexed by the prominent databases and internationally cited, read and downloaded by the scholars. The mission is to contribute to the advances in the engineering fields and sustainable development. The journal aims at revolutionizing the practice in industry by promoting cutting-edge and effective research.

The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is published bimonthly, and the issues appearing on the beginning of each other month.

The corresponding author must pay fees of 100000 Iraqi dinars for the professor academic title, 75000 Iraqi dinars for assistant professor or less title, and 30000 Iraqi dinars for graduate (or undergraduate) students where the student is the first author. For international researchers, the submission fees are 125 USD.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07717944560
E-mail:editor@jeasd.org
ali.alghalib@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:22 issue:5

Article
BEHAVIOR OF SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE SUBJECTED TO SULPHURIC ACID
سلوك الخرسانة الذاتية الرص المعرضة الى حامض الكبريتيك

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Abstract

Self-Compacting Concrete mixes (SCC) is increasingly being used in many application some of which are susceptible to an Aggressive Environment such as sulfuric acid solution. In this study SCC incorporating silica fume, chalk powder and hybrid fibers were used in casting twelve specimens with a dimensions of (1000× 200× 100) mm , in three groups. The specimens in the first group were cured in normal environment for 28 days, while those in the second and third groups were subjected to sulfuric acid solution of 0.5% for six and ten months, respectively. The flexural tests of the specimens were evaluated by testing the specimens under two-concentrated point loading until failure. The experimental results show that after chemical exposure for ten months, using of chalk powder or hybrid fibers enhances the resistance to sulfuric solution


Article
اهم العقبات التي تواجه المخطط الاساس

Authors: حسن فيصل جعفر
Pages: 1-10
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Abstract

ان عملية اعداد وتنفيذ المخطط الاساس ليست بالسهلة لانها تواجه العديد من العقبات، وان هذه العقبات تكون مختلفة باختلاف الجهة المنفذة والجهة المستفيدة ومكان اعداد المخطط الاساس. وعليه فهناك عدد من العقبات التي من الممكن ان تتكرر في اكثر من حالة وهذه هي التي يحاول البحث ان يؤشر عليها ويوضح مقدار العناصر الداخلة بالعملية التخطيطية وبكلا شقيها (الاعداد) و (التنفيذ) والتي تمثل عقبات امام تلك العملية. وبعد طرح هذه العقبات قام البحث بحصرها ووضعها تحت ثلاث عناوين رئيسية هي (المخطِط والجهة المستفيدة وواقع الحال) ليسهل بالتالي التعامل معها.

Keywords


Article
EFFECT OF ADDED VARIED ANGLE WINGLET TO ENHANCE HEAT TRANSFER IN HEATED CHANNEL
تأثير اضافة مولد للدوامات بزوايا مختلفة لتحسين انتقال الحرارة داخل مجرى هوائي الساخنعنوان

Authors: Aseel Khleel Shyaa
Pages: 10-18
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An experimental study to enhancement heat transfer by generate longitudinal vortex with rectangular winglet has been investigated. Two angles presented (〖70〗^°,〖35〗^° ) in rectangular winglet placed at the entrance of heated channel the study shows the pointing (Down and Upstream) and the effect of attack angle depends on the heat transfer (Nu)and the friction factor(f ) for each angle and two sides ,the Reynolds number range from 5000 – 23000. It was found that angle was significant effect on the heat transfer coefficient and the 〖70〗^° angle more efficient in heat transfer in high velocity and the pointing downstream make good result in heat transfer.


Article
الاستعمال المختلط ودوره في الاستدامة الحضرية

Authors: اشواق فاضل مخيبر
Pages: 11-24
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Abstract

:- في العقود الاخيرة اصبحت استخدامات الارض المختلطة هدفا متزايدا في تخطيط استعمالات الارض والنقل ،وتبين انها عاملا مؤثرا في سلوك التنقل والسفر واختيار الوسيلة المناسبة للنقل وتحديد المسافة المقطوعة وبالتالي تحسين الصحة العامة وهذا بدوره سيكون له مردودا ايجابيا على تحسين نوعية الحياة وتحقيق الاستدامة الحضرية المرجوة.ان مشكلة البحث الاساسية تتلخص في وجود فجوة معرفية توضح مؤشرات الاستعمال المختلط والتي تلعب دورا رئيسا في تحقيق الاستدامة الحضرية.يفترض البحث امكانية تحقيق الاستدامة الحضرية باعتماد الاستعمال المختلط للارض لذا يهدف البحث الى بيان دور الاستعمال المختلط في تحقيق الاستدامة الحضرية والوصول الى اطار نظري يوضح مؤشرات الاستعمال المختلط التي تتحقق من خلالها الاستدامة الحضرية ولغرض تحقيق هذا الهدف ركز البحث على جانبين الجانب النظري والذي انقسم بدوره الى محوريين الاول ركز على الاستعمال المختلط وتعريفه وبيان انواعه وفوائده والمحور الثاني ركز على الاستدامة الحضرية وبيان مؤشراتها اما الجانب العملي فقد تناول تجربتين عربية الاولى هي( برج خليفة) في إمارة دبي مثال المبنى الواحد المتعدد الاستخدام والثانية هي (مشروع شيجيري دوبلكس سيتي ) في الرياض، المملكة العربية السعودية ذو المباني المتعددة والمختلفة الاستعمالات في محاولة لتقصي المؤشرات الاساسية المستخلصة من الاطار النظري لتحقيق فرضية البحث في امكانية تحقيق الاستدامة الحضرية باعتماد الاستعمال المختلط للارض . اظهرت نتائج البحث اولوية المبنى الواحد المتعدد الطوابق ذو الاستعمال المختلط وفاعليته في تحقيق الاستدامة الحضرية بابعادها العمرانية والبيئية والاقتصادية والاجتماعية .


Article
NUMERICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE THERMO-HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS FOR TURBULENT FLOW CHANNEL WITH QUADRUPLE PLAIN AND MODIFIED TWISTED TAPES INSERTS
دراسة عددية عن السلوك الخاص بالحرارة و صفات جريان المائع داخل قناة محتوية على أشرطة رباعية مستوية ومعدلة ضمن الجريان المضطرب

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Abstract

A numerical analysis aiming to gain an understanding of the physical behavior for thermal and fluid flow attributes in tubes fitted with quadruple plain and modified twisted tapes inserts (which all occupy an equal volume) for the turbulent Reynolds number range (5,000 to 20,000) is carried out. The tube inserted with quadruple modified twisted tapes showed better thermal enhancement when compared with plain tube and tubes induced with quadruple plain twisted tapes. The simulation included modification on tapes as cuts with; circular, half circle on side, triangular and rhomboidal shapes. The obtained results showed a maximum increase of 31.12% is observed in the Nusselt number by using tube fitted with quadruple circular cuts twisted tapes inserts than that observed with the plain tube. And the higher friction factor obtained of the tube fitted with quadruple circular cuts twisted tapes inserts are up to 32.65% than that of the plain tube.


Article
EXPERIMENTAL STUDYING THE EFFECT OF ADDING STYRENE BUTADIENE STYRENE POLYMER (SBS) ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HOT MIXTURE ASPHALT
دراسة عملية لتأثير إضافة بوليمر (SBS) على الخصائص الميكانيكية للخلطة الإسفلتية الحارة

Authors: Ali Fadhil Naser
Pages: 33-47
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Abstract

The objective of this research is to study the effect of adding Styrene Butadiene Styrene polymer SBS as a modifier on the mechanical properties of asphalt binder and hot mixtures asphalt (HMA) and to compare between the properties of the modified and unmodified asphalt binder and hot mixture asphalt (HMA) which is used in the rehabilitation of Baghdad province and Al-Basra province highway by paving the surface course of highway for areas suffers from problems such as rutting and cracks. There are two stages were used in the laboratory tests on asphalt binder and hot mixture asphalt (HMA). The first stage is used laboratory tests without using SBS polymer with asphalt and the second stage is used SBS Polymer with asphalt as an additive material. The results of asphalt binder tests show that the using of SBS Polymer with asphalt binder lead to improve the mechanical properties of asphalt binder. According to penetration test, the grade of asphalt is decreased from 61 and 62 to 39. The flash point, the ductility, and viscosity are increased and the solubility is decreased. The results of hot mixture asphalt test show that the adding of SBS polymer lead to improve the mechanical properties of modified hot mixture asphalt. Therefore, the Marshall stability for modified hot mixtures asphalt is increased for all samples. Therefore, the resistance to plastic flow and the load carrying capacity is improved by approximate more than 60%. The others Marshall properties such as Marshall flow, Marshall density, and Marshal air voids are improved. Therefore, the recommendation of this study is to use the modified hot mixture asphalt that is using Styrene Butadiene Styrene polymer SBS in the paving of new flexible pavement layers and in rehabilitation of the surface course of the old flexible pavement.


Article
Structural Behavior of HS-SC Reinforced Concrete Beams with Longitudinal and Transverse Openings Strengthened with CFRP Laminates
السلوك الإنشائي للعتبات الخرسانية المسلحة عالية المقاومة ذاتية الرص ذات الفتحات الطولية والجانبية المقواة بصفائح ألياف الكربون بالبوليمرية

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Abstract

Service runs had produced several shortcomings when congested in one place. So, using longitudinal and transverse opening in beams (BLTO) was creative solution for the purpose of serve those runs with other benefits, especially when utilized high strength self-compacting concrete (HS-SCC). To control cracks in web opening regions which lead to possible leakage, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates was significant strengthening system to realize that purpose. This study examined the behavior of thirteen reinforced concrete (RC) beams. These beams were involved into three groups. All beams were identical in dimensions, reinforcement, concrete type, and hole dimensions. The evaluation is used to elect the optimum hollow core section, position effect of web openings with fixed hollow core section, and effect of strengthened web openings. Due to recorded load capacity, a reduction was produced by hollow core position at mid and bottom section by about (2%-14%), respectively, with comparing by solid section. Therefore, the optimum hollow core section was when it locate in mid beam section which used to unify BLTO sections. BLTO types indicated different loading data according to web opening position. The decrement of opening provision was about (20.4%) by compared with hollow beam (without web-opening) and about (22%) by compared with solid beam. The optimum BLTO is when the web opening located in mid-shear zone, while the critical one recorded in web opening position in mid-span and near supports in same BLTO. Presence of CFRP system in same BLTO copy had enhanced beam resistance by about (29%) and prevents cracks to reach in web opening or with minimum hairline cracks without delaminating problem. The registered failure mode of all beams was contained two main type, suddenly flexural failure in compressive zone by concrete cover crushing and flexural-shear failure. Additionally, local failure occurred at central CFRP strips by ripping-off concrete cover through the edges of it.


Article
Three-Dimensional Analysis for the Effect of Piles Geometry and Arrangement on the Dynamic Response of Piled Raft Foundation
تحليل ثلاثي الأبعاد لتأثير خواص الركائز على الإستجابة الحركية لأساس حصيري مدعم بالركائز مطمور في الرمل

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Abstract

In the present study, three-dimensional analysis is presented to investigate the effect of pile dimensions and configuration on the dynamic response of piled raft foundation subjected to vertical vibration. The analysis considered several factors effecting on the maximum amplitude of vertical displacement of deep foundation such as length, diameter, number of piles and spacing between piles. Furthermore, a validation for an experimental piled raft models depending on a scale factor of (20) using (Plaxis 3D) computer software is presented. The sand is simulated using (mohr-coloumb) model, while the concrete is simulated as linear elastic material. It has been found that the increasing length and diameter of piles lead to decrease the maximum amplitude of displacement. On the other hand, the results showed that the increasing number of piles and increasing the spacing between piles can minimize the dynamic response of the foundation.


Article
POWER FACTOR IMPROVMENT FOR CEMENT FACTORY
تعديل معامل القدرة في مصنع اسمنت

Authors: Tawfeeq Enad Abdulabbas
Pages: 83-100
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Abstract

The cement plant contains nonlinear loads and significant harmonic sources (kiln rectifiers drives) that can flow through the plant, therefore it is necessary to treat both of the harmonics and the power factor reduction problems to improve the system efficiency, power system quality and decrease losses. This work examines the technical feasibility of designing a capacitor filter bank according the level of harmonics in the network, and also achieving improvement for the power factor (Static Compensators).The methodology used for this work is based on the practical measurements of real time operation of the electrical parameters of cement industrial facility, and then the whole system has been modelled (using MATLAB/SIMULINK). A MATLAB code is used to calculate the harmonic filter components required to design the capacitor filter to be then inserted in the simulated model in order to cross check the load operation after insertion filter component via enabling different mode of operations. Also system performance calculations are made after including the harmonic filters is to ensure the operations safety.


Article
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HEATED SYSTEM WITH MONITORING BASED ON BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY
تصميم وتنفيذ منظومة تسخين مع المراقبة بالاعتماد على تكنولوجيا البلوتوث

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In homes and any processes industry, the main processes that need to be controlled are temperature and level of the water. This paper is focused on the design and implementation of an Electric Heated System that connects with their environment using actuators and sensors for sensing and control the temperature and level of the water. Also, the mathematical models for operation principle are presented. The system used the arduino UNO card which is a microcontroller board for controls 'ON’ and ‘OFF’ conditions of the heater and motor depending upon the temperature and level of the water in the tank. There are three sensors used with arduino, First: the Ultrasonic sensor (HC-SR04) is used to measure the distance between the sensor and the object, and this distance is proportional to the level of the water. Second: Infrared sensor (KY-032) is used to control the drain of water by opened and closed of solenoid valve. Third: The sensor (DS18B20) is used to sense the temperature to prevent excessive in temperature that can lead to serious accidents. The Android device communicating with a Bluetooth module connected to an arduino Uno microcontroller. The andriod application is used for two tasks. First monitoring the value of the temperature and water level in the tank during the operation of the system, second the wireless communications technique is used to turn ON and OFF the system.


Article
EFFECT OF STEEL FIBERS RATIO ON THE STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR OF DOMES
تأثير نسبة الألياف الفولاذية على السلوك الهيكلي للقباب

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The main objective of the current paper is to investigate the effects of the ratio of steel fibers on structural behavior of reinforced concrete hemispherical domes. Three reinforced concrete domes were experimentally implemented, two of them made fully of reactive powder concrete and the last one made of ferrocement concrete. All specimens have 800 mm diameter, 400 mm height and 20 mm thickness, and they reinforced with welded wire meshes. The experimental program included casting and testing the domes, by applied a single point load at the center of dome, until the failure is happened. The first cracking load, ultimate load, load deflection curves, and crack pattern for all tested domes were included in this study. In general, the effects of concrete type and the ratio of steel fiber are obviously important on the behavior and ultimate strength of the domes.


Article
PRESERVATION OF THE HERITAGE VALUES OF IRAQI TRADITIONAL HOUSES
الحفاظ على القيم التراثية في تأهيل البيوت البغدادية التقليدية

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The traditional Iraqi (Baghdadi) houses were being formed over centuries of effort and contribution, and reached their final shape in the end of the nineteenth century. These masterworks have nowadays arrived at a critical stage. The fundamental problem with these houses is that they were all built with non-durable materials, such as clay brick, timber and mud with straws. Therefore, the majority has ruined; very few survived or should be saved for the future. The survivors should be conserved in vigorous way to maintain their heritage values. Unfortunately, in Iraq to date, the process of dealing with historical buildings is rather artless and immature for various reasons. As a first conservation rule, it is always said that there are no rules; however, there is a group of standard ethics and principles must be thoroughly taken into consideration in conservation. The conservation ethics and principles are given in the context of this paper. Every technical decision made should be assessed alongside the principles and ethics. Given that the number of this type of historical structure is not rare, the paper aims at setting standards and rules to facilitate the mission of conservation. Despite the sheer volume of such houses in old dense zones of Baghdad, their structure is quite simple and original materials are advantageously identified. Some common structural defects along with their repair procedure are reviewed in this paper.


Article
BEHAVIOR OF SHELL FOUNDATIONS ON SANDY SOIL REINFORCED WITH A CIRCULAR GEOGRID
تصرف الأسس القشرية على التربة الرملية المسلحة بالمشبك الدائري

Authors: Madhat Shakir Al-Soud --- Sawsan Akram Hassan
Pages: 147-158
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The purposes of this study are to investigate and evaluate the benefits of using of geogrids as a circular pipe of two different lengths of (20 cm and40 cm) under the footing base in improvement of bearing capacity and settlement in term of the bearing capacity ratio (BCR) and the settlement reduction factor (SRF). A load-frame assembly was designed for the experimental work. Two types of aluminum rigid foundation were used; flat footing and shell footing of dimensions (20× 20 cm) and different angles of (20˚, 30˚, and 45˚) for shell. Sand rainer device technique was used to fill the tank to obtain a homogenous sandy soil. The result show that using a circular geogrid with a length (H=20cm) leads to increase the BCR by (14-41)% higher than that for unreinforced sand, while increasing the geogrid length to 40 cm leads to increase BCR by (6-19)% .The SRF for a certain footing decreases with decreasing the geogrid length from 40 cm to 20 cm by (11-21) % .This may be related to the punching effect caused by the longer geogrid through the loose sand stratum.


Article
Numerical Solution of Distributions For A Fluid Velocity, Pressure And Temperature Along Flow Path For A Non-Conventional Machining Method
الحل العددي لتوزيع سرعة، ضغط ودرجة حرارة مائع على طول مسار جريانه بطريقة تشغيل غير تقليدية

Authors: Basima Salman Khalaf
Pages: 159-169
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This work deals with a Non-Conventional machining cell consist of copper tool of dimensions (30 mm width and 50 mm length and 7 mm thickness ) ,En8 mild steel work piece of dimensions (30 mm width and 50 mm length and 8 mm thickness ) and fluid of (10 % NaCl w/w). The flow into machining cell was fully developed turbulent flow. For the numerical solution, ANSYS FLUENT software used to solve the basics equations. The inlet operating parameters for this cell were selected within the range of industrially realistic machining circumstances(supply voltage 12 to 18 volt, tool feed rate 0.35 to 1.65 mm/min, fluid flow rate 5 to 30 lit/min, fluid temperature 40 ºC and fluid back pressures 0 to 6 bar). The distributions of fluid velocity, static pressure and temperature along flow path were obtained. The results show the increasing of fluid temperature toward the outlet flow.


Article
BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE BEAMS CONTAINING STEEL FIBERS AND RECYCLED COARSE AGGREGATES
سلوك العتبات المسلحة الذاتية الرص المحتوية على الياف الحديد والركام الخشن المعاد

Authors: Lubna Mohammed Abd
Pages: 170-187
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Concrete wastes are generally delivered to the landfill sites for disposal. Due to increase charges of landfill and shortage of natural coarse aggregate (NCA), recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) (resulting from concrete wastes) is growing interest in building engineering. It is sustainable to use recycled construction materials to preserve the natural resources and maintain the environmental of cities. In the present study, RCA was used as a full replacement of NCA in some specimens of beams to produce self-compacting concrete (SCC). The experimental work consists of casting and testing eight rectangular simply supported reinforced concrete beams of (1200*180*250) mm for length, width, and height respectively with concentric point load as well as tests for control specimens to determine the mechanical properties of SCC. Four of these eight beams were tested for flexural and the other four beams for shear behavior. The present research includes the following main variables: transverse reinforcement (stirrups spacing, 50 mm and 100 mm), coarse aggregate (RCA and NCA) and steel fibers of (Vf = 0.5%). All beams have constant longitudinal steel reinforcement ratio=0.008. Experimental results have generally showed that ultimate loads (Pu) of beams made with RCA were approximately close to the results of beams made with NCA by percentages (1.08% and 1.11%) for flexural and shear behavior respectively. RCA can be used as a full replacement in the future construction industry. The presence of steel fibers increases the maximum deflection of beams by 1.55% for flexural and 1.02% for shear behavior.


Article
EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS OF NORTHERN RUSTIMEH WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN BAGHDAD, IRAQ, USING SIMAPRO7.1 PROGRAM
تقييم مؤشرات الاستدامة البيئية لمحطة الرستمية الشمالي لمعالجة مياه الصرف الصحي في بغداد ، العراق ، باستخدام برنامج SimaPro7.1

Authors: Mohammad Ali Alanbari --- Mais Salim Muter
Pages: 188-199
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The importance of the management of wastewater treatment plants is the process of purification of wastewater from impurities, suspended materials, pollutants and organic matter to be re-usable (non-human) or to be suitable for disposal in the waterways without causing pollution. Wastewater treatment involves several physical, chemical and biological phases. Because any wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) has environmental risk and negative impact, it is necessary to assess environmental sustainability indicators and thus can diagnose their risks and find solutions to reduce their environmental and health impacts in order to preserve the essential elements of the environment (water, air and soil) and on the conservation and sustainability of the natural resources of generations. There are many software programs designed to assess environmental sustainability indicators for any sewage treatment plant. SimaPro7.1 is one of several programs which are used to count and determine the ecological (environmental) effects related to wastewater treatment technologies. In this study, SimaPro7.1 has been used to inventory test namely the analysis of inputs to the plant, such as materials used in stage of construction of the plant, incoming wastewater, consumed energy, quality of treated wastewater and quantity of sludge produced, as well as the analysis of effluents to water and emissions air and assess an effects caused by Northern Rustimeh WWTP. An outcome from Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) shows the pollutant which emitted to all environment sub-compartment such as Carbon monoxide, Lead, Dinitrogen monoxide and another pollutant which causes impacts and damages to environment by 12.4GPt to every (1m3) of sewage. The results show that generality effects were (global warming, respiratory inorganics and nonrenewable energy); also most damages were on human health, climate change and resources.


Article
EFFECT OF USING R-22, R404 AND R-407C ON PERFORMANCE OF AN AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM
على اداء منظومة التثليجR-22, R404 AND R-407C تاثير استخدام

Authors: Abeer Hashim Falih*
Pages: 200-214
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Due to the environment depletion, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration industry was an important problem. In the experimental study a (1.0 TR) vapor compression system were used with original working fluid of R-22 and compared to alternatives refrigerant R-407C and R-22. The effects of the main parameters of performance analysis such as refrigerant type, compressor pressure ratio, outlet air evaporative temperature, coefficient of performance were investigated for various ambient temperatures above 50 ºC. The results showed that the compressor ratio of system using R404 and R-407C is more than the compressor ratio of system using R22 by 2% and 4% respectively. Also, the outlet air evaporative temperature of system using the alternative refrigerant R-22 is more than the outlet air evaporative temperature with system using R-407C and R-404 by 8% and 5% respectively. The coefficient of performance of R-407C was measured with the same reciprocating compressor that was supplied with the R-22 system. It could be concluded that there is a decrease of 8% in system COP as friendly environment R407C compared with system using R-22 and a decrease of 12% in system COP when using R-404. However; the result showed that R407C have thermodynamic performance similar to R-22. Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software is used for draw (p-h) diagram for the cycle


Article
THREE DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORT UPSTREAM OF AL-BETERA REGULATOR-IRAQ
نموذج ثلاثي الابعاد لنقل الرسوبيات مقدم ناظم البتيرة- العراق

Authors: Nezar H. Mouhamed --- Thair Sharif Khayyun
Pages: 215-238
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Abstract

This paper represents an analytical study, simulation (flow field and sediment movements) and estimation of the sediment deposition for the Al- Betera river reach upstream of Al-Betera regulator – Maysan Governorate–Iraq. Field measurements techniques and SSIIM Model were used for these purposes. A river reach with length of 4250m was chosen and divided to 17 cross sections. The Model solves the Navier – stokes equations for calculating the water velocity with k-ε model for predication the turbulence (shear stress). The Model is a stepping stone in the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Sediment rating curve was established by using the historical data (1984-2014) of the suspended sediment loads and river discharge which considers as a reference for researchers who interest in the field of sediment transport. Plan form of river morphology was classified as a straight (1.07 sinuosity) for the period 1986, 2007and 2014. In this study, a new sediment load transport rate equation by using multiple linear regression analysis was developed. The results of evaluation showed that the new model performs better than many Researchers [Ackers(1973) , Yang(1996), Van Rijn(1987) , Ariffin (2004) and Jassim (2012) ]. A graphical representation of 3D velocities was obtained by simulation and by using Power law Scheme (x-y,y-z,x-z planes). Good agreements were found between the simulated and measured values of the flow velocity and sediment concentration in 3D for the selected 3 nodes in the y direction and for 3 depths of flow. The Coefficient of determinations were (0.8- 94) and (0.72- 0.98) respectively. The annual trapped sediment load for a river discharge (80.2) m3/sec was (13816) cubic meters of deposition material of sediment which represents approximately (4.1 cm/year) along the river reach. SSIIM Model is a powerful fluid dynamic model for evaluation and estimation of water flow sediment transport and bed deposition. It has given satisfactory results for the bend in the river reach of the study. However, the grid, roughness of the bed and the sediment parameters must be chosen with suitable values taken for convergence purposes and taken into account the change of hydraulic and sediment variables with time and space.


Article
A CHEAP ZILOG MP APPLIED TO SPREAD SPECTRUM SYSTEMS DESIGN
تصميم منظومة طيف منتشر باستخدام معالج رخيص نوع زايلوك

Authors: Rajaa aldeen Abad Khalid
Pages: 239-246
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Abstract

The Z2000 Evaluation Board performing direct sequence spread spectrum processing, a 900 MHz radio receiver and a transmitter module , was applied to build a Direct sequence spread spectrum transceiver , RF board was designed & implemented for the purpose by al - Ezz company in Iraq .


Article
IMPROVEMENT OF COMPRESSIBLITY CHARCTERISTICSOF NATURAL ORGANIC SOILS
تحسين خصائص الانضغاطية للترب العضوية الطبيعية

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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to investigate the possible improvement thecompressibility characteristics (copresion index, rebound index, i.e.,)of natural organic soil by using cement dust and fly ash. Natural organic soil with different percentages of organic content (5, 10.15 and 20 %) is used. Three different percentages of cement dust and fly ash (3, 6 and 9 %) are used to improve the compressibility characteristics of the organic soil. The effect of curing time is investigated. The effect of addition of (cement dust and fly ash) on compressibility characteristics of natural organic soil was studied. The results showed that the compressibility characteristics [compression index, rebound index, coefficient of consolidation and coefficient of secondary compression] are increased with increased organic content for all samples. The use of (cement dust and fly ash) has improved the compressibility characteristics of organic soil.

Table of content: volume:22 issue:5