Table of content

Sulaimania Journal for Engineering Sciences

مجلة السليمانية للعلوم الهندسية

ISSN: 24101699/24156655
Publisher: university of Sulaimania
Faculty:
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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Sulaimania Journal for Engineering Sciences

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Sulaimani Journal for Engineering Sciences
Email: sjes@univsul.edu.iq
abdullah.tayib@univsul.edu.iq
ako.hama@univsul.edu.iq
Tel: +964 (0)770 249 34 33

Table of content: 2015 volume:2 issue:2

Article
Performance Study of AODV and DSDV Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Based on Network Simulator NS2
دراسة أداء بروتوكول التوجيه DSDV و AODV للشبكات اللاسلكية القاالة باستداا برااج الحااكاة NS2

Authors: Marwan Aziz Mohammed
Pages: 7-12
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Abstract

Facebook Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET’s) is a self-configuring infrastructure less network of mobile devices connected by wireless . MANETs are a kind of Wireless ad hoc network that usually has a routable networking environment on top of a Link Layer . Route discovery and packet forwarding operations need an efficient routing protocol. Ad-Hoc on Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (AODV) and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing protocol (DSDV) are counted as widely used routing protocols in MANET. In this paper we compare and evaluate the functionality of AODV and DSDV routing protocols. Simulation is based on NS2.34 network Simulator on Linux Fedora and the parameters are packet delivery ratio (PDR), Throughput and end-to-end delay. Simulation results show that AODV protocol is always superior as compared to DSDV protocol when using different number of nodes and scenario.هو الشبكة ذات التكوين الذاتي التي ليس لها هيكلية MANET’s ثابتة للعقد او الاجهزه النقالة المترابطة فيما بينها بواسطة لديها ،ad hoc هي نوع من اللاسلكية MANET’s . اللاسلكي إن .link layer بيئة شبكات قابلة للتوجيه في اعلى طبقة اكتشاف مسار البيانات من المصدر الى المصب وعمليات إعادة ارسال البيانات من المواضيع المهمة التي يركز عليها الباحثون في مجال اللاسلكي، وهذا يحتاج إلى بروتوكولات ذات الكفاءة والسرعة العالية. هنالك عدة بروتوكولات تستخدم في البروتوكول )AODV( الشبكات اللاسلكية نعتمدها اليوم مثل الذي يعمل حسب الحاجة، اي عندما يرغب العقدة او النقال ارسال بيانات يقوم بعملية كشف المسار، وهو عكس الذي يقوم بارسال بيانات لكشف )DSDV( البروتوكول الشبكة او العقد المترابطة باستمرار. هنالك مساوئ ومميزات لكل منهما ، تم في هذا البحث مقارنة هذين البروتوكولين Simulator ns واعتماد ال 2 Linux باستخدام نظام التشغيل لكشف فعالية كل منهما من ناحية نسبة ارسال البيانات في وقت معين، ونسبة الاستلام والارسال على الشبكة ، اضافة الى الوقت المستغرق من المصدر الى المصب لاستلام البيانات مع تطبيق عدة سيناريويات واعداد مختلفة من العقد او الاجهزه النقالة.


Article
The Influence of Society's Cultural Aspects on Mosques' Architectural Symbolism-The Mosques Built Between “1970-1990” in Erbil city as Case study
أثر الإعتبارات الثقافية للمجتمع في رمزية عمارة المساجذ المساجذ المبنية بين عامي 1970-1990 بمدينة أربيل: حالة دراسية

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Abstract

There are spiritual and physical symbolic values of the mosques architecture. From the birth of Islam mosque architecture appeared in a simple form but with a spiritual symbolic value, then the mosque architecture developed as Islam spread in various regions and some new elements have been added for the functional needs and numerous styles of mosques appeared as a result in the diversity of identity and culture of each region. The research discusses that symbolism is one of the cultural aspects as it is one of the humane needs which rectifies society’s identity. On the other hand the evolution of mosque architecture mentions that new elements were added for utilitarian need and lasted a period which became symbols for the mosque buildings as well, then it sheds light on the interpretation of mosque architecture with other regions that resulted in various styles of mosque architecture. Therefore, the symbolism of mosque architecture could be obtained through two points one from its key symbolic elements and the other from its relation with local architecture. Thus, the research started to search and seeks to find the reasons for lacking a known local style of mosques in Erbil city, and the lack of symbolism in them. They even have been built in such a way that contrasted with some of the Islamic regulations. The research takes the factor of "cultural aspects" as an effective factor on appearing these kinds of mosques. The research concludes that removing some elements in the mosque building which most of them has a desirable symbolic value and besides that neglecting local architecture in the design of mosques led to lose symbolism in the mosque buildings in Erbil city. Thus, a large ratio of the architects could not recognize the mosque buildings as compared to some other buildings. The thesis sheds light on the cultural background of the society (governmental parties, architects, clients, etc.) that have a distinct effect on the symbolism ratio of the mosque buildings, unlike the project cost has a little bit influence, as most of the mosques which were built by the governmental parties have low symbolic value in spite of not having problems in the cost budget. The thesis concludes another important point which is the characteristics of the site (orientation, area and number of elevations) have a positive relation with the symbolism ratio of mosque, so the research recommends governmental parties and architects to take these points into consideration in the design of mosque buildings.تتى ىَ ػواسة الوساجذ هي دلالات س حٍية لٍين سهضية، ار لن تخل في

Keywords


Article
The Effect of Conventional and Digital Drawing Tools on Imagination in Architectural Design Education
تأثير أدوات الرسم التقليذية والرقمية على التخيل في تعليم التصميم المعماري

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Abstract

This research investigates the effects of digital drawing tools on imagination in comparison to the conventional drawing tools within the educational frame of architectural design. The significance of this study lays in the critique on the utilization of different digital drawing tools in the educational frame, seeking to find the main effects the different types of tools have on students' imagination. This study has taken imagination faculty as factor since the highest level of mental abilities is found in this specific faculty and design students cannot permit any obstacle in front of their imagination design capabilities. The problem upon which this study is based, beside the fact that the digital technology is a dialectic issue in the educational framework, its effects are also unknown as far as the students' imagination capacities are concerned. The case study involved the comparison between two groups; one group relying strongly on digital tools while the other depends merely on conventional tools, herein are students' imagination capacities as well as drawing capabilities investigated. Also the teaching staff opinions were taken from each student group by means of a questionnaire. This study has found that there is a positive relationship between drawing and imagination capabilities. And students using conventional drawing tools merely have higher imagination capabilities score as well as drawing capabilities score according to a test and evaluation form designed specifically for this study. The majority of teaching staff found that students with higher capabilities in drawing by conventional tools encompass also higher capability in imagination.هلخض الجحث ذْٗف زّا الجحث الى العث سَ على تأث ش٘ أد اٍت الشسن الشلو على التخ ل٘ ثبلومبس هع أد اٍت الشسن التمل ذ٘ ضوي الإعبس التعل و٘ .ٖ سٍعت استخذاهبت التك لٌَ جَ ب٘ أٍلاد اٍت الشلو ثشكل خبص هجو عَ هي أسبل ت٘ التظو ن٘ خلال العمذ يٗ الوبض ي٘٘. لٍذ استخذم التظو ن٘ الوعوبس زّ التم بٌ٘ت اثتذاء هي هشحل الفكش الا لٍ اٍ تً بْء ثوشحل الت فٌ ز٘ اللوسبت الأخ ش٘ .ٓ عٍلى الشغن هي أى استخذام زّا التغج ك٘ ا تًمذ ثشذ ،ٓ إلا ا فٍ ال لَت رات هغل ةَ ف س قَ ألعول لٍذ ت بٌهت ف الأ سٍبط الأكبد وٗ الوعوبس خلافبت كج ش٘ ح لَ الج اَ تً السلج الوتعلم ثبستخذام زّ الأد اٍت الشلو .٘ٔ هي بٌّ جبءت أ وّ زّ الذساس آلت تسعى الى العث سَ على تأث ش٘ات الأ اًَع هختلف هي ألأد اٍت،التمل ذ٘ اٍلشلو ،٘ٔعلى التخ ل٘ لذى الغلجٔ . لٍذ اتخزت زّ الذساس عبهل الخ ب٘ل لا حٗت على أعلى هست ىَ هي المذسات العمل اٍل فٌس ،٘ٔ ر ا وّ فبئم لذى علج المسن الوعوبسى. الوشكل الت تست ذٌ إل بْ٘ زّ الذساس :ٔ ىّ اى ظب شّ استخذام التك لٌَ جَ ب٘ الشلو لض جذل ف إلاعبس التعل و٘ ،ٖ آٍثبس بّ على لذس التخ ل٘ لاصالت هج لَْ .ٔ شٍولت حبل الذساس همبس ث ي٘ هجو عَت ي٘؛ احذا وّب اكثش اعتوبدا على الأد اٍت الشلو ،٘ٔ ف ح ي٘ تعتوذ الاخشى على الأد اٍت التمل ذ٘ فمظ، تٍٗن بٌّ التحش عي لذسات التخ ل٘ لذى الغلاة كٍزلك لذسات الشسن. لٍذ تن تظو ن٘ اختجبس هتخظض لتم ن٘٘ لذس التخ ل٘ اٍلشسن لذى الغلاة فٍى ال لَت فًس تن تم ن٘٘ هست ىَ تخ ل٘ الغلاة هي لجل اسبتز التظو ن٘ هي خلال استوبس تم وَٗ ) اٍلز تك ىَ هي هجو عَت الوؤششات: ه شَشات التخ ل٘ الاثذاعى ه شَشات التخ ل٘ الت اَلذ (ٕ. كوب تن أخز آساء ئّ٘ التذس سٗ ح لَ كل هجو عَ هي الغلاة عي عش كٗ الاستج ب٘ى . جٍذت زّ ألذساس :ٔ اى بٌّلك علال إ جٗبث ث ي٘ الشسن لٍذسات التخ ل٘. اٍلغلج الز يٗ سٗتخذه ىَ أد اٍت الشسن التمل ذ٘ ثكثش تك ىَ دسج لذسات التخ ل٘ لذسات الشسن لذ نْٗ اعلى. جٍٍذ ا ضٗب اى بٌّلك علال ا جٗبث ث ي٘ التخ ل٘ الاثذاعى التخ ل٘ الت اَلذى, كوب تشى ئّ٘ التذس سٗ اى الغبلت اللزى لذ لذس عبل ف الشسن ثبلأد اٍت التمل ذ٘ تك ىَ لذ لذس تخ ل٘ اعلى .


Article
Augmenting the Hadba Minaret Role as A Landmark in the city of Mosul
تعزيز دور منارة الحذباء كشاخص بصري في مذينة الموصل

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Abstract

Al-Hadba, the oblique Minaret of the historic Grand Mosque is considered as the famous and the most important landmark in the old town of Mosul as it is the oldest architectural monument which have been built in 568 AH – 1172 AC. Till now, as a visual landmark of 45 meters height, it is the icon that gives the city its identity across nine centuries, which represents as an obvious indicator for orienting the direction of inhabitants movements in the old built fabric from remote distance, and as a component of this environment, it is characterized as a vital value for the visual views those can be seen through alleys that lead to the Grand Mosque, consequently, presenting richness, continuity and variety for such visual scenes. As a result of disorder of urban built, random buildings, unconsidered planning decisions, and the lack of prior urban design dimension which gives the Minaret its importance to the surrounding areas of the mosque, all that led to reduce the Minaret role as an urban landmark, besides creating vision coverage that prevented the Minaret from being as a visual mark. This paper attempts to study all visual districts in Mosul city in which the Minaret currently can be seen through alleys, in any viewpoint, direction and skyline with determining the built constructions that cover or reduce the visual sight toward the Minaret, evaluating the extent and level of its perception as a landmark on pedestrians level, identifying the best visual positions in the sequence, and presenting urban recommendations about how to improve the Minaret role as a monumental landmark in the city.تشكل ه بٌس الحذببء الوئز الوبئل لجبهع ال سٌَ إلكب ش٘ هعلوب صٍشحب ه وْب لوذ الو صَل بصفت بْ أقذم هعلن هعوبس إثش ،ٕ لٍا تضال سهضا أعغى للو صَل تَّٗ بْ عبش تسع قش ىٍ كشبخص بصش إٍلز كبى لٍا ضٗال وٗثل دلال اٍضح لوذ الو صَل القذ وٗ تٗن سؤ تٗ كوعلن ه نْ حٗذد الاتجب هي أهبكي بع ذ٘ .ٓ شكل جٍ دَ الو بٌس كجضء هي ال سٌ ج٘ الحضش لوذ الو صَل القذ وٗ ق و٘ إضبف للوشب ذّ البصش الت وٗكي است ع٘بب بْ هي خلال الأصق الوتج إلى الوسجذ الجبهع هب أعغى الاستوشاس اٍلثشاء للوشب ذّ البصش .ٗٔ تًٍ ج٘ للف ضَى العوشا اٍلب بٌء العش اَئ اٍلقشاسات التخغ غ٘ غ ش٘ الوذس سٍ عٍذم جٍ دَ تصون٘ حضش هسبق عٗغ ق و٘ للو بٌس للو بٌعق الوح غ٘ ببلجبهع، كل رلك أدى إلى تقل ل٘ د سٍ بّ كوعلن دلال إضبف لى حجب سؤ تٗ بْ كشبخص بصش .ٕ ذْٗف البحث إلى دساس كبف ال غٌبقبت البصش الت تشى ه بٌْ ه س الحذببء حبل ب٘ ف هذ الو صَل هي هحب سٍ الحشك الوح غ٘ هٍي كبف الض اٍ بٗ اٍلاتجب بّت عٍلى هست ىَ خظ السوبء تٍحذ ذٗ ال غٌبقبت الب بٌئ الت تعتشض تؤثش ف التقل ل٘ هي سؤ تٗ بْ تٍق ن٘٘ هذى دٍسج است ع٘بب بْ كشبخص بصش ،ٕ تٍحذ ذٗ أفضل قًبط الشؤ ف الوتتببع البصش لل صَ لَ إلى ت صَ ب٘ت تخغ غ٘ حٍضش تعضص هي د سٍ الو بٌس كشبخص هٍعلن حضبس ف هذ الو صَل .


Article
Effect of Yttria Content up to 15wt% on Mechanical Properties of Al-Y2O3 Composites Prepared Via Squeeze Casting and Powder Metallurgy Routes
تأثير محتوى اليتيريا لغاية 15 wt % على الخواص الميكانيكية لمتراكبات Al-Y2O3 المحضرة عن طريق السباكة بالعصر وتقانة ميتالورجيا المساحيق

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Abstract

In this study Al - (0-15 wt %) Y2O3 composites were prepared by both squeeze casting and powder metallurgy routes. It was found throughout this work that Vickers microhardness, compressive yield strength and wear resistance increase continuously with increasing Yttria content up to 15wt% despite the preparing method. Powder metallurgy composites showed higher hardness and compressive strength compared with those of squeeze casting. On the other hand, both squeeze casting, at squeeze pressure of 15 and 20 MPa, and powder metallurgy routes gave approximate wear rates except that of pure aluminum where squeeze casting specimens showed much lower wear rates than those of powder metallurgy. It was also found that squeeze pressure has great effect on grain refining and Chinese script microstructure evolution. XRD patterns reveal high level of harmful oxides and intermetallic compounds in squeeze casting composites as compared with those prepared by powder metallurgy technique.


Article
Variations of Major Ionic Composition and Salinity of Tigris River within Iraq
التغيرات في تركيب الايونات الرئيسية والولوحة لنهر دجلة في العراق

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Abstract

Major ions are widely used to identify the hydrochemical and hydrological characteristic of water to assess water quality. Major ions compositions (Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+1, K+1, Cl-1, SO4-2, [HCO3]-1 and [CO3]-2), pH and salinity (TDS) of water in Tigris river were studied to explore the spatial and temporal variations. Six stations (Fishkhapor, Tikrit, Baghdad, Kut, Emarah and Qurna) along river stretch within Iraq were selected to collect samples of water during the period from January 2011 to December 2012 with one month interval. The major ions in Tigris River showed significant spatial variations (p < 0.05), while there is no significant temporal variation. Calcium, sodium and magnesium were the most abundant cations with mean concentrations of 52-95 mg/l, 20-217 mg/l and 22-65 mg/l respectively. Sulfate, bicarbonates and chloride were the most abundant major anions, and its average ranged from 111-432 mg/l, from 151 to 159 mg/l and from 18 to 283 mg/l respectively. Generally, the concentration values of major ions were slightly higher in wet season than those in dry season for the first three stations (Fishkhapor, Tikrit and Baghdad), while the values were far higher for the last three stations (Kut, Emarah and Qurna) due to increasing surface runoff, return irrigation water flow and salinity of soil. Major ions distribution along Tigris River as showed by piper and stiff diagram exhibit different pattern of distributions. The water type changed from calcium- bicarbonate at first two stations (Fishkhapor-Tikrit) into calcium- sulfate at middle two stations (Baghdad-Kut), after that changed into sodium- sulfate at the last two stations (Emarah-Qurna). Changes in water type of the Tigris river indicating the increasing effects of geologic formations downstream direction as well as human activities increasing. Generally, the salinity (TDS) of Tigris water increases downstream where average (TDS) values of the Tigris water at the Turkish Iraqi border (Fishkhapor) is about 300 mg/L and it reaches (as average) more than 1300 mg/L in Basra (Qurna). The variations in salinity exhibit three river sections in terms of salt content (TDS): an upper (northern) section (Fishkhapor-Tikrit), where the initial low salt content is maintained or increased slightly downstream; a middle section (Baghdad-Kut), where the dissolved salt variation is more significant; and a lower (southern) section (Emarah-Qurna), where salt content increased to high levels. The nature of these trends changes is related to the geologic formations that the river passes through, increasing in evaporation rate and increasing human activities.

Table of content: volume:2 issue:2