Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches

المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم

ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Embryo research and treatment of infertility
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi journal of embryos and infertility research is apeer-reviewed journal published annually by the High Institute of Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies/Al-Nahrain University,
it publishes manuscripts in the fields of reproductive medicine.

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Contact info

E-mail: haydermossa@gmail.com

E-mail: ijeir.info@ierit.nahrainuniv.edu.iq

Website : http://www.ijeir.nahrainuniv.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:8 issue:1

Article
Analysis of Amino Acids of the Brain in Embryo and Adult of Quail

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Abstract

Amino acids have the role in the process of proteins synthesis. They are an essential source of nitrogen atoms that have a role in the pathways of synthetic reaction pathways. The carbon skeletons of the amino acids are the source of energy in addition to their role as precursors in the paths of interactions. The amino acids analysis for the brain of the quail bird in different stage of development (10-16 days of incubation) in addition to the hatching stage (17th day) and the adult.

Keywords

Amino acids analysis --- brain --- quail --- embryo --- adult


Article
Although Late; but the First, an Iraqi Success in Human Embryo Cryopreservation Using Vitrification and the Factors Affecting the Pregnancy Rate: Cross-Sectional Study

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Abstract

Background: it is important to study a history of the science to appreciate the past as a motive for hard work in the present for better future. In the other hand, the factors affecting pregnancy rate of frozen embryos are yet to be clarified at different embryonic developmental stages. Objectives: to record a brief history of embryo cryopreservation in Iraq and to study many clinical and embryological factors that might affect the pregnancy rate. Subjects, materials and Method: a cross-sectional study of many clinical and embryological variable, where120 frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles enrolled in the study at the period from January 2017 till July 2018. The variables were statistically analyzed first by one factor analysis comparing between pregnant and non-pregnant cases; then by multivariate logistic regression analysis to illustrate main factors without a possible confounder effect. Results: In one factor analysis, the following variables showed a significantly high effect on pregnancy rate (P value <0.001) which are women’s age, women’s weight, number of retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes and good quality embryos, developmental stage, E2 level, and endometrial thickness. While in multivariate logistic regression analysis the women’s weight, the number of retrieved oocytes and good quality embryos were the main factors. Conclusions: it is judiciously to consider these factors while managing infertile couples with embryo cryopreservation programs especially the modifiable factors.


Article
Evaluation of Anti-sperm Antibodies in Relevance to Testosterone Levels in Serum and Seminal Plasma in Infertile Men

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Abstract

Background: Immunological infertility is expected to be the reason of infertility in 9-36% of the concerned twosomes. The major cause of immunological infertility is the creation of anti-sperm antibodies (ASA), which influence the capability of insemination of spermatozoa. It has been detected that anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) are present either systemically in blood or locally in seminal plasma of approximately 10% of infertile male patients. Immunity to sperm can cause infertility; humoral antibodies directed against sperm did not necessarily impair fertility unless the circulating antibodies are also present within the reproductive tract and on the living sperm surface. Hormonal imbalance and sperm autoimmunity have been considered as two systems that play in near association and affect each other. Testosterone is the Steroid hormone necessary for the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics as well as initiation and maintenance of Spermatogenesis .It was known that males with abnormal seminal fluids have lower concentrations of the testosterone hormone. Objectives: To study the serum & seminal plasma antisperm antibodies levels in relevance to levels of testosterone in serum and seminal plasma accordingly to sperm function parameters in different groups of infertile patients. Subjects,Materials and Methods: Blood and semen samples were collected from (80) subjects (60) infertile patients (20Asthenozoospermic, 20 Oligozoospermic,20Azoospermic) and 20 Normozoospermic subjects .The anti-sperm antibody and testosterone levels were measured by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: The Antisperm antibodies were positive in serum of normozoospermic, asthenozoospermic, oligozoospermic and azoospermic men respectively are about 10%, 5%, 20%,5% and in the total group was 10% positive. The ASA in seminal plasma of normozoospermic men, asthenozoospermic men, oligozoospermic men and azoospermic men respectively are 0%, 0%, 5%, 5% and in the total groups 2.5%.These findings lead to no possibility to make clear correlations with the studied hormones. There was significant increase (P<0.05) in the levels of testosterone in serum and seminal plasma in comparison between normozoospermic and infertile men subgroups. There was significant decrease (P<0.05) in the levels of progesterone in serum and seminal plasma in comparison between normozoospermic men and infertile men subgroups, the highest levels were observed in asthenozoospermic subgroup. The study showed that 10 patients (12.5%) out of 80 patients showed a positive ASA positive in serum or seminal plasma of all groups. The result was considered positive if the value was ≥60 RU / ml .On these basis and regarding that screening criteria the positive ASA group showed the association with the low levels of testosterone in both types of the samples(serum and seminal plasma), these results was exhibited a high significant difference when compared with negative ASA group. Conclusion: Determination of the relevance of the levels of testosterone and anti-sperm antibodies in the serum and seminal plasma, which in turn is important to determine the type of infertility especially the immunological type.


Article
Role of Low-Dose Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Following Clomiphene Citrate in Folliculogenesis and Ovulation in Infertile Women

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Abstract

Background:Ovulation disorders, usually presents as menstrual disturbance, are the cause of infertility in around 25% of couples who have difficulty to conceive. The drug most commonly prescribed for the induction of ovulation is clomiphene citrate (CC). If the patient does not ovulate after the use of CC, the choice was to add gonadotropins. Gonadotropin therapy is very expensive with significant risks of high order multiple gestations and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Human chorionic gonadotropin hCG can function as a surrogate for LH and occupies LH receptors for more than 24 hours allowing prolonged stimulation also it has longer half-life and greater affinity for the LH receptor. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of lowdose human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the late follicular phase to induce ovulation in clomifene citrate resistant patients who had previously failed to ovulate on clomiphene citrate (CC) alone. Subjects,Materials and Methods: A total of 71 patients who attend infertility clinic in the High Institute of Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies, Al-Nahrain University, where prospectively randomly assigned into two groups. hCG Group received 100 mg dose of CC from day 5 of menstrual cycle for 5 days, then each patient received 200 IU hCG (DICLAIR®) subcutaneous injection daily when the largest follicle mean diameter was 12 mm or larger starting on day twelve of menstrual cycle. Non-hCG group received 150 mg dose of CC from day 5 of menstrual cycle for 5 days, and both groups were monitored with transvaginal ultrasound. Ultrasound measurements of follicle number and growth, ovulation, endometrial thickness and pattern were recorded and compared between the two groups. Student t test and fisher exact test were used for statistical comparison between the two groups. Results: The low-dose hCG group had significantly higher percentage of ovulatory cycles (80% vs 44.4% P value 0.006). There was no significant difference in the endometrial thickness between the groups but it appears higher in hCG group (10.55±1.82 vs. 9.62 ± 1.87 in non-hCG group, p value 0.056). Non significant but higher incidence of echogenic (luteinized) endometrium 48 hour post ovulation in hCG group (36/40 (90%) vs. 20/25 (80%) for non-hCG group p-value = 0.288). Conclusions: The use of low-dose hCG after CC in the late follicular phase results in continued follicle growth, higher ovulation rate. This treatment offers an efficient and cost-effective alternative before gonadotropin therapy for this type of patients.


Article
Advanced Stimulatory Method for Activation of Sperm Function Parameters by using TAD Glutathione in Iraqi Infertile Men

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Abstract

Background: One of the major concerns among the male reproductive health is the inability to achieve parenthood even after regular unprotected intercourse. The efficiency of the sperm selection techniques is expressed as the concentration of spermatozoa with normal motility. Discontinuous density gradient centrifugation (DGC) method widely used over the last decade due to effectiveness and reproducibility in recovering most motile sperm, which separates sperm based on their motility, size, and density differential. Glutathione act as an amino acid donor during spermatogenesis. If the levels of glutathione are too low during spermatogenesis, the number of mature and morphologically normal spermatozoa generated will be decreased. Objectives:The aim of this study was to assess the beneficial role of TAD 600mg Glutathione combined with DGC technique for activation of human sperm of asthenozoospermic, oligozoospermic and normozoospermic subjects compared with the DGC technique alone. Patients, Materials and Methods:Sixty males were involved in this study, divided into three groups, (twenty asthenozoospermic, Twenty oligozoospermic and twenty normozoospermic subjects)during their attendance to the Infertility Clinic at High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies; Al- Nahrain University. Semen samples were obtained, and seminal fluid analysis was assessed. Each semen sample was divided into three parts. The first part prepared as in vitro sperm characterization before activation, the second part using density gradient centrifugation technique, while the last part prepared using density gradient centrifugation combined with TAD 600mg Glutathione. Results: After in vitro sperm activation for asthenozoospermic, oligozoospermic and normozoospermic samples a significant increase was observed in the sperm function parameters including sperm concentration, motility and morphologically normal sperm percentage as compared to pre-activation using combined techniques (density gradient centrifugation and TAD 600mg Glutathione) as compared to DGC technique alone. Conclusions:TAD 600mg Glutathione combined to the DGC technique was found to give higher significant results on sperm function parameters (sperm concentration, motility and morphology) when using a low quality of semen samples such as decreased sperm motility as compared with DGC technique alone.


Article
The Effects of Progesterone on Mice Offspring Testis Development and Anogenital Distance Postnatally

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Abstract

Background: Analysis of human reports and comparison with results of experimental animals indicate that the effects of progesterone on human not analogous to experimental animals fetus, many studies showed that exposure to progesterone during developing of genital tract of human fetus was not teratogenic. Other studies which performed on laboratory animals found association between progesterone administration during gestation and genital malformation. Objectives: to explore the effect of progesterone in 10.2mg/kg intraperitoneal injection in mice on testis development and anogenital distance. Materials and Methods: ten pregnant mice divided into five mouse control group that injected10.2mg/kg sesame oil and treated group that injected progesterone at dose 10.2mg/kg/day allover gestation to the seventh day postnatally, mice offspring sacrificed, the anogenital distance, weight and diameter of testis were measured ,histological slides were prepared and examined for histopathological change and measurement of seminiferous tubules diameter, germinal epithelium thickness and interstitial space were done . Results: the current study found anogenital distance decrement and histopathological changes in mice offspring testis as hemorrhage or congestion of blood vessels ,irregular shapes of seminiferous tubules with atrophy, detachment of spermatogenic cells from basement membrane, death of spermatogenic cells and destruction of Sertoli and leydig cells ,it is also showed wider interstitial tissue and thinner germinal epithelium. Conclusions: The present study indicate study that progesterone injected in mice at dose 10.2 mg/kg /day (the equivalent human dose allover gestation was embryotoxic and teratogenic, it may cause feminization of male offsprings represented by decrement the anogenital distance in mice and hypospadias in human .


Article
Effect of Ovarian Stimulation Protocol on Embryo Quality in IVF-ICSI

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Background:Defects in reproduction that may involve both the male & female partners result in the inability to procreate which is known as infertility. The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART’s) has been increasing over the past three decades. Many efforts have been done to compensate for unsatisfactory results in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures, so that patients undergo different ovarian stimulation protocols to control retrieval of multiple oocytes in a single cycle. Although ovarian stimulation has an important role in ART’s, it may also have detrimental effects on oocyte quality, embryo quality, and IVF outcomes. Objectives: To assess the effect of long agonist versus antagonist protocols on oocyte and embryo quality in IVF- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Patients,Materials and Methods: This comparative study was done on the embryos of seventy one infertile females who were undergoing Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment regardless to the presence or absence of previous trials. These patients were divided into two groups, 45 of them treated with agonist protocol and other 26 patients treated with antagonist protocol. First oocyte retrieved was used for further assessment. Of the 71 oocytes, there were eight immature oocytes (3 at germinal vesicle (GV) stage, 5 at metaphase I (MI) stage) and three abnormal oocytes, and these were excluded from the following ICSI treatment. Assessment and comparison of oocyte maturity, fertilization rate, cleavage rate and resulting embryo quality were done. Results:The results of the present study showed significant difference (p<0.05) in oocyte number and maturity but no significant (p>0.05) difference between the group treated with long agonist and those on antagonist protocol regarding fertilization rate, cleavage rate, and embryo quality. Conclusions:The type of protocol used in in-vitro fertilization has no detrimental effect on oocyte or embryo quality.


Article
Relationship of Seminal plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) with LH and FSH Levels in Serum with Sperm Function Parameters in Different Groups of Infertile Men

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Background: Oxidative stress (OS) plays a vital role in human reproduction. It rises as a consequence of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and/or reduced total antioxidant capacity (TAC) protection. Oxidative stress mediated damages to the plasma membrane of the spermatozoa may account for defective spermatozoa function parameters that are observed in a high percentage of infertile patients. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between level of seminal plasma TAC in relevance to luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in serum with the assessment of routine spermatozoa parameters in different groups of infertile men. Subjects,Materials and Methods: Blood and semen samples were collected from the infertile and fertile subjects. The total number of samples were (80), the infertile men were divided into three groups (azoospermic, oligozoospermic and asthenozoospermic) each with (20) sample, and (20) as fertile men. Then the levels of serum hormones and seminal plasma TAC were measured using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: The results of hormonal levels in serum showed that there were highly significant difference (P<0.001) in the levels of FSH and LH between control group and infertile groups. In this study its appear that there were a highly significant (p<0.001) difference in the level of TAC between study groups and control group which were increased among normozoospermic men and decreased among infertile groups. The lower limit of TAC were seen in asthenozoospermic men. The results of this study also showed that there were a relationship between TAC of seminal plasma and hormonal levels, it is appear that TAC are negatively correlated with LH and FSH. Conclusions: From the results obtained it could be concluded that; LH and FSH have an effect on male fertility via regulation of seminal plasma TAC. On the other hand seminal plasma TAC are negatively correlated with the number of immotile spermatozoa and positively correlated with concentration, progressively motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa.

Table of content: volume:8 issue:1