Table of content

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development

مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة

ISSN: 25200917
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development
College of Engineering /Mustansiriyah University
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• About the journal
The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is a peer reviewed open access scientific Iraqi journal issued by the College of Engineering/ Mustansiriyah University, under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq. In the meantime, the journal commits itself to the regulations of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE).


The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Users are allowed to read, download, or share the full texts of the articles in this journal without prior permission of the publisher or the author(s). A DOI is guaranteed by no means to change, so it can be used as a permanent link to any electronic article. Our journal DOI prefix account is 10.31272.

The journal welcomes submissions in the following topics:

Structural Engineering

Geotechnical Engineering

Engineering Management

Materials Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Dam and Water Resources Engineering

Architectural Engineering and Urban Design

Energy and Power System

Electronics, Control, Signals and Systems

Computer and Software Engineering

Communication Engineering

Renewable Energy Systems

Environmental Engineering

General Engineering

The vision for the future is to make the journal abstracted and indexed by the prominent databases and internationally cited, read and downloaded by the scholars. The mission is to contribute to the advances in the engineering fields and sustainable development. The journal aims at revolutionizing the practice in industry by promoting cutting-edge and effective research.

The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is published bimonthly, and the issues appearing on the beginning of each other month.

The corresponding author must pay fees of 100000 Iraqi dinars for the professor academic title, 75000 Iraqi dinars for assistant professor or less title, and 30000 Iraqi dinars for graduate (or undergraduate) students where the student is the first author. For international researchers, the submission fees are 125 USD.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07717944560
E-mail:editor@jeasd.org
ali.alghalib@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:22 issue:2 (Part-3)

Article
EFFECT OF NATURAL DURIAN SKIN ON MECHANICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF KEVLAR COMPOSITES IN STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS

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Abstract

Recently, the sustainable issue is critical to function which encourages researchers to look for naturally sourced, sustainable materials in any application besides lower costs and improved performance. The effect of durian skin fibre loading on the mechanical properties of Kevlar/ durian skin/ phenolic hybrid composites was investigated. DSF is cellulose-based fibres extracted from durian skin. The fibre content in the composites in this study was 0 and 30 vol % of fibre loading. Increasing Durian skin fiber (DSF) content in the Kevlar Durian skin phenolic hybrid composites (KDSPHC) has reduced the tensile and flexural strength of the composites meanwhile the impact resistance increased up to about 40 % compared to 0 vol % DSF loading. A morphological study observed by Scanning Electron Microscope and optical microscope showed that the interaction between DSF and Kevlar fibre was decent which contributed to the variation in the composite properties.


Article
استخدام تطبيقات التحسس النائي في تحديد مناطق التصحرفي اهوار جنوب العراق

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Abstract

ان ارتفاع درجة حرارة الارض يشكل خطرا على مجمل الحياة في الارض وهو يهدد بكوارث طبيعية كالجفاف والتصحر والعراق من المناطق المهددة بالتصحر,حيث ان تفاقم مشكلة الجفاف بسبب قلة الامطار ونقصان المياه الوافدة الى العراق كما أن ظاهرة التصحر أصبحت مشكلة طالت حتى الحياة العامة للناس ومنها قلة مساحة المناطق الخضراء اضافة الى تأثير ظاهرة العواصف الترابية المتكررة والشديدة الكثافة. ولغرض تحديد حجم مشكلة التصحر اعتمد هذا البحث الذي يهدف الى استخدام تقنيات التحسس النائي في مراقبة التغييرات في استعمال الارض والغطاء النباتي لمنطقة اهوار العراق للفترة الممتدة (1994 –(2005 . وقد تم اعتماد صيغة التصنيف الغير موجه كصيغة ابتدائية في برنامج (ERDAS IMAGINE 9.1) لانتاج صور اولية عن منطقة الدراسة مدعمة بمساحات الظواهر التي اشتملت عليها هذه المنطقة. وبالاعتماد على برنامج الـ Arc GIS في اخراج هذه الصور المصنفة بصيغة خرائط غرضية (Thematic map) .تهدف الدراسة الحالية الى استخدام تقنيات الاستشعار عن بعد ونظم المعلومات الجغرافية في تحديد المناطق التي تتعرض لعملية التصحر والناتجة عن زحف الكثبان الرملية وتغير طبيعة منطقة الاهوار جنوب العراق


Article
FORCED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER OF AXIAL AIR FLOW WITH HEATSINK ON UNIFORM HEAT FLUX

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Abstract

The heat sink is used to increase heat transfer from heated surface to air. The seize and the geometry of the fins affect on the heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer prediction represents the first step to get the optimal design. The purpose of the present study is to predict the effectiveness of two types of closely spaced fins, the first arrangement is parallel cylindrical fin array and the second type is hollow parallel cylindrical fin array. Also there are two types of heat sink with respect to the fan location, the first type is the cooling fan attached in order to draw the hot air up and away from the heatsink fixed outside on the heat sink to let the axial air flow and the other with enclosure cutout template. The heat sink geometry are designed with Solidworks 14 and exported to ANSYS FLUENT 15.0.7 CFD code. Reynolds number were taken at a range 4000-16000, so k-Ԑ model turbulence model was used in to simulate mean flow characteristics for turbulent flow conditions. Constant heat flux condition was proposed with range between 1000-10000 kW/m2. The Results of temperature contour lines depicted a variation from the base to the extended surfaces tips especially with the fins from outside to the core of the heat sink. This explain that the heat sink with a cooling fan fixed in the enclosure cutout template more effect than the second type with second fan fixation for the two types of fins. Nusselt numbers indicated that cylindrical fins performed better in heat transfer than the hollow fins.


Article
التصميم المستدام وفوائده الصحية في الفضاءات المكتبية

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Abstract

يمكن أن تكون العلاقة بين الأفراد وبيئتهم عاملا حاسما في تحديد ما يشعرون به ومستوى أداءهم واسلوب تفاعلهم مع الاخرين . لذا فإن تصميم المساحات التي تلهم وتنشط وتدعم العاملين الذين يستخدمونها هو ضرورة عالمية اليوم ، هناك فرصة جديدة لاستخدام تصميم مكان العمل لتعزيز حالة شاملة من الرفاه للافراد في اماكن العمل. فعندما تتوفر بيئات العمل المستدامة التي تدعم العناصر الطبيعية فإنها تسهم بعلاج الصحة الجسدية والنفسية للعاملين وتعزز الانتاج ، الابداع ، والابتكار مما يؤدي بالتالي إلى نجاح المؤسسات والشركات . تمثلت مشكلة البحث في قصور المعرفة المتعلقة بالخصائص والعناصر التصميمة للبيئات الداخلية المجددة للصحة والداعمة لتحسين كفاءة العمل ضمن المكاتب الادارية. ومن أجل حل المشكلة البحثية اعتمد البحث فرضية تنص على "أن انماط وخصائص التصميم البايوفيلي المستدام للفضاء . الداخلي المكتبي تدعم تحقق خصائص التجديد بالصحة وبما يسهم في تقليل اجهاد الفرد وتحسين كفاءة العمل " ومن أجل تحقيق هدف البحث تم استعراض ومناقشة مجموعة من الطروحات السابقة المتعلقة بالنظريات والبحوث حول الفوائد الصحية الخفية من تصميم المبنى المستدام وتعزيز التفاعل مع البيئة الطبيعية داخل المباني الادارية. وتشمل الفوائد المحددة الاستثمار في الافراد من خلال تحسين الصحة الجسدية ، والرفاه النفسي والرضا ، وخفض التوتر، وتحسين الأداء المعرفي، وبالتالي تحسين كفاءة العمل ضمن المكاتب الادارية. وفي الوقت الذي تؤثر العديد من متغيرات وخصائص المبنى على هذه النتائج، الا ان المزيد من الادلة تؤكد على ان خصائص التصميم البايوفيلي المستدام تعد الاعلى تأثيرا في زيادة صحة الافراد وتضم كلا من (الاتصال مع الطبيعة والنباتات ، دمج ضوء النهار وأشعة الشمس في المبنى ، والتنوع في المثيرات الحسية ضمن الفضاءات) . واعتمد البحث تحليل مثال لاحد الفضاءات المكتبية العالمية كنموذج تطبيقي لتشخيص ووصف الفضاء البايوفيلي المجدد. ليخلص البحث إلى مجموعة من الإستنتاجات والتوصيات الخاصة.


Article
USING JET MIXING TECHNIQUES TO ENHANCE DIRECT FILTTERATION

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Abstract

The present study investigates the effect of jet mixing techniques performed with two types of coagulants (Aluminum sulfate hydrate [Al2(SO4)3.16H2O] and Magnesium chloride MgCl2) using the polyacrylamide PAM (C3H5)n as flocculent aid, on the flocculation. The study include two parts, the first one is the numerical analysis using ANSYS Fluent and CFX program. The second part included the experimental work in which Kaolin particles used to simulate the suspensions in natural resource water. The results indicated that the mixing process using jet mixing tank system produce uniform semi spherical shape. The image analysis provided indications that the floc with manganese chloride are compacted and dense so that it can be more suitable for direct filtration procedure


Article
دراسة تأثير الظروف المحيطة على استدامة الخرسانة الملونة المستعملة في الطابوق المتراكب

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Abstract

تناول هذا البحث دراسة تأثيرات الظروف البيئية الضارة على بعض الخواص الميكانيكية والفيزياوية للخرسانة الملونة. حيث تتكون هذه الخرسانة الملونة من لونين من الخضاب الأصفر والأحمر التي تتوفر في السوق المحلية. تم إعداد خلطتين خرسانيين خلال هذه الدراسة، خلطة واحدة لكل لون وتم استخدام الخضاب بنسبة أستبدالية وزنية مقدارها 2% من وزن الإسمنت. وتم محاكاة الظروف القاسية التي قد تتعرض لها الخرسانة الملونة في العراق. حيث تم اعتماد ظروف : بيئة حامضية، مياه الأمطار الملوثة ودرجات الحرارة العالية ودراسة تأثيرها على الخواص الميكانيكية والفيزيائية للخرسانة الصلبة لفترات زمنية مختلفة. وقد استنتج أن الخواص الميكانيكية والفيزيائية للخرسانة الملونة تتأثر بشدة بالظروف القاسية في العراق. كانت الخرسانة الملونة المعرضة لمياه الأمطار (المتبقية دون تصريف) لمدة 120 يوماً نقصان ما يقارب 20% من مقاومة الأنضغاط و 30٪ من مقاومة الانحناء. أيضا، الوسط الحامضي له تأثير ملموس على خصائص الخرسانة الملونة، حيث قلت كل من مقاومة الانضغاط والانحناء حوالي 45% بعد 60 يوم من التعرض للوسط الحامضي. وكذلك درجة الحرارة العالية (60 درجة مئوية) لمدة 120 يوما بمعدل 9 ساعات يوميا تؤدي إلى نقصان مقاومة الانضغاط الى ما يقارب 10% ومقاومة الانحناء بنسبة 5٪. وأخيرا، كانت الخواص الميكانيكية والفيزيائية للخرسانة الصفراء أقل تأثراً من الخرسانة الحمراء.


Article
FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF SLURRY INFILTRATED FIBER CONCRETE (SIFCON) CONTAINING SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUSE MATERIALS

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Slurry Infiltrated fiber Concrete (SIFCON) is a relatively new high performance material and can be considered as a special type of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) with high fiber content. The matrix consists of flowing mortar or cement slurry which must infiltrate properly through the fiber network placed in molds. SIFCON possessing excellent mechanical properties coupled with large ductility and toughness values. SIFCON has found application in area where high ductility and energy absorption are needed especially in seismic-resistant reinforced concrete frames and in structure under abnormal or explosive loads. Other successful applications include pavement overlays, repair of prestressed beams and repair of structural reinforced concrete element.The main aim of this study is to determine the effect of hooked ended steel fiber content and mineral admixture replacement silica fume (SF) on strength and deformation characteristics of SIFCON specimens under flexural loading. Three volume fraction of steel fiber (6, 8.5, and 11) % were used in this investigation .The percentage of SF replacement was (10%), by weight of cement in SIFCON slurry. Both the flexural strength and toughness characteristic were carried out by testing specimens of 100*100*400 mm at the age of 7and 28 days. The results obtained from these tests were compared with those carried out on conventional fiber reinforced mortar (FRM) with 2% fiber content, as control specimens. The test results show superior characteristics of SIFCON ,as compared with normal FRM ,which were affected in positive manner by using cementitiouse materials (SF) as a partial replacement by weight of cement, and with increasing the volume fraction of steel fiber. The flexural strength and toughness value up to (28.08 MPa ) and (159 N.mm),respectively were obtained at age of 28 days.


Article
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF GLAZED ROOF WITH PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS AS AN APPLICATION OF ENERGY CONSERVATION IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

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The majority of electric energy that supplied to a residential house is consumed by air-conditioning during both summer and winter. Thus it has a major impact on the greenhouse gases and climate. Thermal energy storage systems using phase change materials (PCMs) in building elements has become a reliable solution for energy saving. The present study assists for the ‎utilization of PCMs in the roof of residential buildings to absorb the heat comes from solar ‎radiation during the daytime and releasing it to the inside nightly. The building considerations ‎as well as thermo-physical properties of PCMs have been taken and measured experimentally. ‎Results have shown that these materials have a good potential for reducing energy demand ‎and satisfy comfortable thermal conditions. The experimental data ‎show that the indoor temperature increases by 4-7 oC in the winter compared to that ‎measured in a traditional one. Furthermore, a simulation program depended on degree-days ‎method explained that the energy consumption could be saved up to 70%. Thus PCMs could ‎submit encouraging suggestions toward the sustainability.‎


Article
EFFECT OF WE LDING PARAMETERS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FRICTION STIR LAP WELDED JOINTS FOR SIMILAR ALUMINUM ALLOYS (AA1100-H112 & AA6061-T6)

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Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding used for joining similar and dissimilar aluminum alloys which are hard to weld by conventional fusion welding processes. In this study friction stir lap welding (FSLW) Joints are made for similar aluminum alloys (AA1100 to AA1100) and(AA6061to AA6061) sheets of 3mm thickness and those alloys have low to medium strength and have difference in melting temperature and other physical properties.FSLW processes were carried out by conventional technique. The friction stir lap welding of similar aluminum alloys was carried out by varying the welding parameters, such as tool rotation speeds (1000, 1250 and 1600pm) and travel speeds (35, 75 and 100mm) and pin length of ( 5.4 mm) with using cylindrical threaded pin geometry or profile. Many tests and inspections were performed such as X-Ray radiographic and tensile shear test .Microhardness and microstructure observations by using optical and SEM were carried out at the best welding parameters. The above tests were used to evaluate the weld quality and joint efficiency under different welding parameters. The best welding parameters appeared in FSLW were 1250rpm and travel speed 100 mm/min. It was found that higher hardness value was (94.38HV) for 6061-T6 and 49HV for 1100-H112 in stir zone for both FSLW joints of AA6061-T6 and AA1100-H112 and that decrease toward the HAZ and base metals of AA1100 and AA6061.


Article
EFFECT THE COATED LAYER OF HARD CHROMIUM ON FATIGUE BEHAVIOR FOR AISI 1039 MEDIUM CARBON STEEL

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In this paper, study the effect of fatigue behavior on AISI 1039 medium carbon steel electroplated with hard chromium in which the electro deposition method was carried out within a period of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 minutes plating time, As shot peening were used in this work as a type of surface treatment in which peening was carried out with steel balls for a period of 10 minutes. It was found that the highest fatigue limit was 300 MPa in case of 10 minutes chromium plated shot peened steel , also it was observed there is reduction in fatigue limit with increasing in time of electroplating. Coating thickness increases as coating time increasing and this leading to lower the fatigue limit, where the highest coating thickness value was 33µm with 30 minutes coating time and fatigue limit is reduced till 250 MPa. Also it was found that the coating thickness causes an increase in surface hardness of the alloy. While as coating thickness increased the surface roughness decreased.


Article
SETTLEMENT CONTROL FOR BRIDGES APPROACH SLABS USING LONGITUDINAL CONCRETE RIBS TECHNIQUE: NUMERICAL STUDY

Authors: Ali Hameed Aziz --- Ahmad Salim Edan
Pages: 86-96
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In the present paper, four models (cases) of bridges approach slab are analyzed and their results are obtained by using finite element software SAFE 2014. The finite element models adopted in this study have five parameters; compressive strength of concrete (f’c), normal modulus of subgrade reactions of soil (k), approach slab thickness (h), number of longitudinal ribs and position of applied load. The analytical results concluded that the settlement decreases with the increase of compressive strength of concrete by about (8%, 14%, 19% and 24%) for (f’c), (30, 35, 40 and 45 MPa) respectively. Also, presence of ribs layers in longitudinal direction leads to reduce the settlement by about (33%, 40% and 52%) for flat plate with (2-ribs, 3-ribs and 4-ribs), respectively. The settlement decreases with the increasing of the slab thickness (h) by about (45%, 65%, 76% and 82%) for slab thickness, (250, 300, 350 and 400mm), respectively. Furthermore, when using different values of (k), which can be considered as indicator of the soil stiffness, a significant change in settlement was recorded. This means, the settlement control depends mainly on strength, geometry of slab and modulus of subgrade reactions of soil.


Article
NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CFRP STRENGTHENED REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS UNDER IMPACT LOADING

Authors: Majid Mohammed Ali Kadhim --- Ali Hadi Adheem
Pages: 97-105
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In the recent years, externally bonded carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites are commonly used to strengthen existing reinforced concrete (RC) structures. In everyday practice, there are many situations under which deteriorated structures are subjected to impact loads. Thus, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the response of CFRP strengthened RC beams subjected to impact load. This paper aims at providing a numerical model which is able to represent the behaviour of this kind of structures. It is worth noting from previous studies that CFRP strengthened RC beams can fail in several scenarios including flexural and shear failure in concrete (or mix between them), debonding of the CFRP layers and rupture in the CFRP. Thus, it is important to build a numerical model can capture all possible failure modes that could occur in the case of CFRP strengthened RC beams subjected to impact loads. The damage criteria were used for the concrete, CFRP and contact between concrete and CFRP to capture the failure that may occur. The proposed numerical model was then validated against set of samples tested in previous studies. It was found that the numerical model can capture the test results with high level of accuracy.


Article
TRANSPORT SUSTAINABILITY INDEX OF MAIN ARTERIALS AT HILLA CASE STUDY (SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS)

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In recent works on the Internet of Vehicles, “intelligent” and “sustainable” have been the significant in the case of transportation. Maintaining sustainability is always a challenge. Sustainability can be achieved not only by the use of pollution-free vehicular systems, but also by maintenance of road traffic safety or prevention of accidents or collisions. Quantifying the sustainability of urban transport is important as evidenced by a growing number of studies to measure sustainability in transportation. This paper dealt with the challenge of measuring transport sustainability based on the long environmental and safety indicators. To overcome the issue of using too many indicators for evaluation, this paper develops a method for obtaining a composite transport sustainability index for limited sources and time for collecting data. Seven sustainability indicators relevant to urban transport which deal with environmental and social (safety) aspects were selected depending on available data. The indicators were integrated to environmental, social (safety) sub-indices and then to a composite index, in a way that overcomes the limitations on normalization, weighting and aggregation. It is an attempt to quantify transport sustainability for arterials streets within the Hilla network which provides information about current situation of urban transport in different parts of the city. The value of ICST (composite index of transport sustainability) for main arterials at Hilla city (as case study) equal to 0.648, 0.542 and 0.462 for 40th, 60th and 80th streets respectively. The value ICST¬ is the highest at 40th street (inner Hilla city – the best case) and the lowest at 80th street (outer Hilla the worst case).


Article
DETERMINING BEST TOURIST SITE LOCATION WITHIN MAYSAN MARSHES-IRAQ USING ARCGIS

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Some marshes of Maysan province-Iraq have been selected as a case study to determine the best location of tourist site using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. Firstly the geodatabase of the project has been prepared. It includes roads map, temperature degree map, land cover map and administrative map, after then, set of decision criteria, including the distance of the proposed site from marshes boundary, roads network, existence of the infrastructure as well as the oil area. These criteria have been programmed in the ArcGIS-spatial model to determine the best location within the region study for tourist site. The Ecological spatial database can be enhanced the tourist site location with more surveying data. This leads to more accurate results. Moreover, the social opinions of the people in the region study can be taken in the consideration in building the spatial database of the ecological aspect such as (fish, bird, etc…).

Keywords

Best Tourist Site --- GIS.


Article
ADSORPTION OF Pb (II) IONS USED BLACK TEA WASTES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION

Authors: Tamara Kawther Hussien --- Nidaa Adil Jasim
Pages: 129-138
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The present study investigates the possibilityof removing lead (Pb II) ions from aqueous solution in batch process by the adsorption onto black tea wastes.The influences of different adsorption parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage and metal concentration have been studied. The maximum result at optimum pH 4, 60 min contact time, 0.5 g/100ml dosage and 10 mg/l initial metal concentration were 96%, 98%, 97% and 98.5% respectively at room temperature. The equilibrium data depicted by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The Freundlich isotherm get together with the experimental data than Langmuir. This study enhance to use black tea waste as an inexpensive material, it can be an alternative to other expensive adsorbents used to remove Pb(II) ions from wastewater


Article
EVALUATION OF THE FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF STONE MASTIC ASPHALT MODIFIED BY DOMESTIC WASTE BIO-ASPHALT

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This paper presents the results of a laboratory study based, upon evaluating the fatigue characteristics of Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) Mixtures using different percent of bio-oil produced from pyrolysis process of house hold waste. The indirect tensile fatigue (ITFT) test was used to study fatigue behavior. The fatigue tests were performed at three temperatures (15, 20, and 25°C) using one asphalt binder, 80/100 penetration asphalt. The outcomes demonstrated that the addition of DWBO has slightly lowered the resilient modulus, and reduced the fatigue performance of the SMA Mixtures. For the effect of the temperature on fatigue life of 80/100 bio-binders, it is reasonable to use DWBO in asphalt mixture as an additive in cold to moderate temperature regions. The study shows that the DWBO can be used with petroleum binders in the pavement industry with a percent not exceeding 3% by weight of the base binder.

Table of content: volume:22 issue:2 (Part-3)