Table of content

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development

مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة

ISSN: 25200917
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development
College of Engineering /Mustansiriyah University
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• About the journal
The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is a peer reviewed open access scientific Iraqi journal issued by the College of Engineering/ Mustansiriyah University, under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq. In the meantime, the journal commits itself to the regulations of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE).


The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Users are allowed to read, download, or share the full texts of the articles in this journal without prior permission of the publisher or the author(s). A DOI is guaranteed by no means to change, so it can be used as a permanent link to any electronic article. Our journal DOI prefix account is 10.31272.

The journal welcomes submissions in the following topics:

Structural Engineering

Geotechnical Engineering

Engineering Management

Materials Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Dam and Water Resources Engineering

Architectural Engineering and Urban Design

Energy and Power System

Electronics, Control, Signals and Systems

Computer and Software Engineering

Communication Engineering

Renewable Energy Systems

Environmental Engineering

General Engineering

The vision for the future is to make the journal abstracted and indexed by the prominent databases and internationally cited, read and downloaded by the scholars. The mission is to contribute to the advances in the engineering fields and sustainable development. The journal aims at revolutionizing the practice in industry by promoting cutting-edge and effective research.

The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is published bimonthly, and the issues appearing on the beginning of each other month.

The corresponding author must pay fees of 100000 Iraqi dinars for the professor academic title, 75000 Iraqi dinars for assistant professor or less title, and 30000 Iraqi dinars for graduate (or undergraduate) students where the student is the first author. For international researchers, the submission fees are 125 USD.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07717944560
E-mail:editor@jeasd.org
ali.alghalib@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:22 issue: 2 (part-6)

Article
PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATOR AS A CLEAN ELECTRIC ENERGY SOURCE

Authors: Wedian Hadi Abd Al Ameer
Pages: 1-7
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Abstract

The paper discusses electricity generation in a clean manner by exposing the PZT board made of zirconium titanate and lead to external pressure through foot steps and thus converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. To implement the idea, a virtual building was proposed to calculate the number and cost of piezoelectric plates used And calculate the value of produced voltage.


Article
نهج النطاق العازل في التنمية المستدامة

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Abstract

: يتناول البحث إحدى المفاهيم المهمة في التطوير الحضري وهي النطاق العازل، الذي ظهر ضمن توجهات التنمية المستدامة كسياسة للتعامل مع المناطق المختلفة وخصائصها الطبيعية، الحضارية، الثقافية. وظهرت لأول مرة كمبادئ توجيهية تشغيلية لمنظمة اليونيسكو لتنفيذ اتفاقية التراث العالمي وإدارة المناطق الحضرية لتتطور وتكون من اهم سياسات الحفاظ والتنمية الحضرية خلال السنوات العشر الماضية والتي اختلفت في الياتها المتبعة من منطقة إلى أخرى حسب خصوصية المنطقة والتحديات التي تواجهها. فاهتم البحث بمعالجة مفهوم النطاق العازل بصورة عامة من خلال التعريف اللغوي والاصطلاحي المتمثل بالعلم ،الفلسفة ،الطروحات المعمارية والحضرية ،ونظرة شاملة عن مستوياته ،وظيفته، أنواعه. لتتحدد مشكلة البحث: - عدم وضوحيه المعرفة السابقة حول مفهوم النطاق العازل ومستوياته وأنواعه، أهميته في المناطق الحضرية. وتوصل البحث أن النطاق العازل مساحة من الأرض تحیط بمناطق ذات صفات مميزة (طبيعية –تراثية) أو تستوجب معالجات خاصة (مناطق ملوثة)، لتحقق العزل أو التكامل مع المناطق المجاورة بهدف الحماية وتحقيق التنمية، یتم فیها وضـــــع قیود على اســــتخدام تلك المناطق ومواردها. تعتمـــــد على خصــــوصية كــل منطقة والعـــــوامل الاخــرى والتـــحديــات المــرتبطة بها مثل العوامل: البيئــة، الاقتصــادية، الاجتــماعية والســیاسیة وعلى مستويات عدة، تتباين من المستوى الاقليمي الى الاجزاء الحضرية والمباني المنفردة، لتكون فرضية البحث: يتحقق مفهوم النطاق العازل في عدة مستويات تعتمد على نوع المنطقة المحيط بها (طبيعية – مناطق ملوثة – مناطق تراثية). أظهرت نتائج تحليل كل نوع من هذه الأنواع إلى أن النطاق العازل في المناطق الصناعية الملوثة محدود الأداء ويرتبط بالقيم البيئة وعلى مستوى المبنى والنسيج المحيط به، آما النطاق العازل حول المناطق الطبيعية فتظهر أهمية النطاق في الحفاظ على الموارد الطبيعة على المستوى الإقليمي، بينما تظهر أهمية النطاق العازل حول المواقع التاريخية في الحفاظ على ألقيمة التاريخية للمواقع بالارتباط مع عمليات التطوير الحضري وتعزيزها على مستوى المحور والمبني والنسيج والإقليم.


Article
INVESTIGATION CORROSION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBURIZED LOW CARBON STEEL

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Abstract

In this research, Taguchi method is used (S/N) ratio for measuring the variations in experimental design. Taguchi designs used in converting the multi-performance problem into a single-performance problem for experiments which will are in building (Taguchi (L27) orthogonal array) for carburization operation. The main variables that had a great effect on carburizing operation are Carburization temperature (o C), carburization time (hrs.) and tempering temperature (oC). It was focused also on calculating the amount of carbon penetration, the value of hardness, wear rate, corrosion rates and optimal values obtained during the optimization by (Taguchi) approach method for multiple parameters. In this study, the carburization process was done in temperature between (850 to 950 ᵒC) for (2 to 6 hrs.). Quenching process was done for the specimens after heat treatments in furnace chamber by different quench solution (water, salt and polyvinyl alcohol). Taguchi design used to achieve maximum hardness and depth penetration, Minimum wear and corrosion rates.


Article
THE INFLUENCE OF SURFACE GEOMETRY ON HEAT TRANSFER FROM FLAT PLATE IN IMPINGING JET

Authors: Hadeel Abdul Hady Jassim
Pages: 18-29
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Abstract

investigational examination is achieved to education the influence of the ribbed protuberance (height) surface on the local heat transfer measurements amid the impinging round air jet and flat plate. The ribs secondhand are in the procedure of triangular of 3 mm tall and 3 mm widespread set apart at a pitch of 6 and 12 mm on the target plate which need a rib pitch to height ratio p/e of 2 and 4, individually. The extensively unlocked hollow among adjacent ribs create additional penetrating conveyance of impetus amid the wall jet and cavity flow This leads to a higher heat transfer around the cavity wall .Heat transfer enhancement by a factor of 1.2– 2.5 was experiential contingent on the rib pitch to height ratio p/e, orifice to plate arrangement and the Reynolds number is experiential in situation of triangular ribbed surfaces as likened to the flat surface. Throughout the experimentations, the Reynolds number differs from (12000 toward 28000) founded on orifice diameter of 10 mm and jet to plate arrangement( H/D) amid 2 to 8 times of the orifice diameter.


Article
مستوى الخدمة بالعلاقة مع الانظمة الذكية للنقل

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Abstract

هذا البحث يهتم بدراسة دور الانظمة الذكية للنقل في تحسين مستويات الخدمة للطرق لمدينة بغداد التي تعاني من الازحامات المرورية في محاولة لايجاد حلول عملية لتحسين مستويات الخدمة في المناطق المزدحمة. ركزت الدراسة في جانبها النظري على انظمة النقل الذكية من حيث تعريفها وانواعها والتعرف الى مستويات الخدمة للطرق وكيفية ايجادها اما الجانب العملي فقد اعتمد على بعض الشوارع المزدحمة في منطقة الكرادة وقد تم اجراء المسوحات المرورية لايجاد الحجم المروري وسرعة تدفق حركة المرور عليها لتحديد مستويات الخدمة (A,B,C,D,E,F) باستخدام برنامج HCS2010 ودراسة تأثير تطبيق الانظمة الذكية للنقل في تحسين مستوى الخدمة لتلك الشوارع. وعند تطبيق مؤشرات الدراسة على الحجوم المرورية في شوارع المنطقة توصل البحث الى حدوث تحسن في مستويات الخدمة الى مستوى خدمة C افضل لـ 9 شوارع من المجموع الكلي لشوارع منطقة الدراسة، وبصورة عامة حدوث تحسن في مستويات الخدمة لجميع شوارع منطقة الدراسة الى مستوى افضل في حالة تطبيق الانظمة الذكية. عدا وجود شارع فقط فيها مستوى الخدمة يبقى عند المستوىF بنسبة 4% من المجموع الكلي لشوارع منطقة الدراسة حتى بعد تطبيق انظمة النقل الذكية.


Article
EFFECT OF BEARING POSITION ON THE VIBRATION RESPONSE FOR ROTOR–BEARING–FAN SYSTEM USING FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION (FSI)

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This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study to investigate the effect of the bearing position on the vibration response of a centrifugal fan – rotor – bearing system. The theoretical analysis includes fluid – structure interaction (FSI) analysis. ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) was used for this purpose. The interaction between the two fields typically takes place at the boundary of the model solution (the fluid – structure interface on the fan impeller), where the results of one field are passed to other field as a load. This load is already sensitive to dynamic pressure pulsation developed either as a part of normal fan operation or as a result of abnormal structure dynamic or aerodynamic un stabile conditions. The experimental work is done on a test rig designed and constructed at the workshop of Baghdad – South Steam Power Plant. A single – stage centrifugal fan impeller is driven by a motor through coupling and driving rotor. The rotor is supported by two journal bearings, where the axial position of one of them is controlled by means of sliding mechanism and control circuit. The test rig is equipped with multisensory system for measuring the essential experimental parameters. The results indicated distinguished bearing positions at which the response is so high. These positions must be taken into account to avoid the higher response of vibration. The values of the stiffness and damping coefficients are fluctuating along the span position due to the change in the value of the external loads on the bearings. Also, their behavior depends on the bearing oil pressure.


Article
PRODUCTION OF HIGH EFFICIENT COMPOST FROM ALGAE AND ORGANIC FRACTION SOLID WASTE MIXTURE

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The present research was designed to study the properties of compost produced from the mixture of algae biomass and the organic fraction municipal solid waste. A lab scale anaerobic digesters was used to find the best conditions effected on degradation of organic solid waste and algae. The best condition were found to be 1:2, 7.5, 8% and 32oC for mixing ration of algae/solid waste, pH, total solid T.S and temperature respectively. The best conditions were used in pilot scale. In pilot scale digester, electric conductivity (EC), moisture contents (MC), nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium nutrients (NPK) and heavy metals (Pb2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+) of the resulted compost were measured and all the values under permissible levels of the USA and British compost quality standards for composts. The calculated value of germination index (GI) is 83.88% which proved that the compost obtained in this study is satisfactory for agricultural use.


Article
BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS OF DOUBLY FED INDUCTION GENERATOR BASED WIND TURBINE SYSTEM DURIN GRID DISTURBANCES

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The fault response of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine is analyzed and summarized with vector control scheme to show the influence on the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine system against this operation condition as fault ride through (FRT) enhancement. The theoretical fault simulations for voltage sag magnitude calculation are included utilizing Simulink, based on the SimPowerSystems toolbox, and also considering protection-systems modeling for sag duration calculation.


Article
PROPERTIES OF HIGH PERFORMANCE LIGHTWIGHT CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS MADE WITH SUSTAINABLE AGGREGATE

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: As a result of the development in Iraq and the reconstruction of the different buildings, there are construction residues that be assembled in a randomized area of cities where these residues occupy a large area of residential or agricultural areas and pose a danger to the environment and humans, so there has become pressing need to study the environmental impact of construction waste materials and how to recycle and use them in the construction industry in a manner that helps to preserve the environment from pollution and conservation of its natural resources. This investigation includes the production of high performance lightweight concrete sustainable building units containing crushed brick clay resulting from the demolition waste and reconstructive of buildings and manufacture artificial aggregate from waste materials, as coarse lightweight aggregate. These units are features by thermal insulation and lightweight, in addition they are an environmental friendly have low price, which can be used in the implementation of low cost buildings. Two High performance lightweight aggregate concrete mixes were produced, the first concrete mix containing crushed clay brick (mix MBR), and the second concrete mix containing artificial LWA (mix MAR) as coarse LWA. These concrete mixes were used to produce concrete masonry unites (CMUs). High performance lightweight concrete mix containing crushed brick clay has oven dried density of 1930 kg / m 3, thermal conductivity of 1.0849 W / (m. K), and compressive strength of 41 N/ mm2, while concrete mix containing artificial aggregate has oven dried density of 1828 kg/m3, thermal conductivity of 0.9278 W/(m.K), and compressive strength of 47 N/mm2. Two geometrical forms of CMUs with dimensions of 200×200×400 mm were produced, the first one contains spaces less than 25% and the other geometric form contains polystyrene insulation materials. Numerous laboratory tests were carried out on the produced CMUs including, water absorption, density, and compressive strength. The results indicate that these units conforms Iraqi standard requirements No.10771987


Article
EFFECT OF ADDING THE PLASTIC WASTE AS FIBERS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

Authors: Aseel Madallah Mohammed
Pages: 86-95
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This study investigated the effect of adding the plastic waste resulting from cutting the bottles by hand as fibers in the concrete mixture with long of (3cm) and width of (0.3cm) with and without using of silica fume (SF) with (5 and 10)% of cement weight. Fibers of plastic waste added as a percentage of concrete volume. These percentages were (0.5 and 1)%. Reference concrete mix was also made for comparative purposes. Mechanical properties were tested included compressive and splitting tensile strength. Results showed that, there was an increasing in splitting tensile strength of the mixes containing plastic fibers with (SF) (5)% more mixes included plastic fiber with (SF) equal to 1% of cement weight. At 28 days according to reference concrete , the increasing percentages were (9%, 17.67%) for (0.5%,1%) plastic fibers. (8%, 15%) for plastic fibers with (SF) equal to (5%) and (5%, 3.34%) for plastic fibers with (10%) (SF). There were a decreasing in compressive strength for mixes containing plastic fibers and this decreasing increased with the percentage of plastic fibers. According to the reference concrete the decreasing values of compressive strength at (28 days) were (9.82%, 22.12%) for (0.5%, 1%) plastic fibers, (5.72%, 17.08%) for (0.5%, 1%) plastic fibers with (5%) (SF) and (6.78%, 19.04%) for plastic fibers (0.5%, 1%) with (SF) (10%) respectively.


Article
SUSTAINABLE PERFORMANCE OF REACTIVE POWDER CONCRETE BY USING NANO META KAOLIN

Authors: Ghalib Mohsin Habeeb
Pages: 96-106
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This investigation aimed to study the sustainable effect of Nano Meta Kaolin (NMK ) on some properties of reactive powder concrete. In this study, Reactive powder concrete (RPC) specimens were designed, prepared and cured for different ages (7, 28 and 60) days. The suggested specimens dimensions consist of cubes with (50mm), cylinders with (100×200 mm) and cylinders with (150×300 mm), to study compressive strength, splitting indirect tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity with varied Nano Meta Kaolin content (0, 2%, 3.5% and 5%) by weight of cementitious materials as an addition. All specimens were cured with hot water treatment (60 Cº) for 12 hours, and then put in normal water until testing day. It was found that the compressive strength of concrete with the Nano Meta Kaolin higher than the reference concrete, and also the same trend was observed for the splitting tensile strength. improvement in the compressive strength at 28 days when using (2,3.5, 5%) Nano Meta Kaolin has been about (5-15%), While the improvement in the splitting tensile strength was (3-7%), and the improvement in modulus of elasticity was (10-26%).


Article
IDENTIFYING BARRIERS TO THE USE OF SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

Authors: Alyaa Hammadi Mohsin1 --- Dunya Sahib Ellk
Pages: 107-115
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The research aims at examining the barriers to the use of sustainable building materials in the construction of buildings despite the environmental awareness of the designers in the field of building construction. In order to achieve the research objective a scientific methodology consists of two phases was followed, the first phase included a theoretical study to identify the reasons that prevent the use of green building materials in building construction, while the second phase included a practical study to collect the needed data and information related to research subject. The practical study included personal interviews and open questionnaire with experienced engineers in the field of building design and conducting a closed questionnaire to achieve the research objective. The results showed that the gap between the environmental awareness of the designers in the field of building construction and the realistic application is due to many reasons which were classified into two categories: administrative reasons and technical reasons.


Article
THE EFFECT OF WASTE BRICK POWDER AS CEMENT WEIGHT REPLACEMENT ON PROPERTIES OF SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE

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Construction and Demolition ( C&D ) waste constitutes a major portion of total solid waste production in the world. The main purpose of this research is to study the effect of addition of waste Yellow Clay brick powder (YCBP) on the behavior of concrete (C25) at both conditions; fresh and hardened on the mechanical properties of concrete through by using of different partial replacement of powdered brick with cement until 50 percent by weight (0% , 5% , 10% , 15% , 20% , 25% and 50%) and addition 10% of micro SF by weight replacement of cement to produce concrete and to reduce the impact on environment by consuming the material generally considered as waste product. The yellow clay brick was crushed and grinded manually and also sieve through 75µm sieve size in order to be fineness as cement. Cubes of size 150mm, Cylinders of size 300mm x 150mm and prisms of size 100mm x 100mm x 500mm were casted and tested, different ratios of waste CBP have been used to study its effect on the workability (slump flow), compressive strength and splitting tensile strength for 7, 14 and 28 days; and the modulus of rupture for 28 days. The results compared with the reference specimens and study the relationship between the mechanical properties of concrete. The addition was the use of waste as an alternative to cement and up to 10% with a slight decrease in the properties of concrete compared with ordinary concrete


Article
EVALUATING AND COMPARING THE POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM THE PRODUCTION OF DIESL AND LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS, AL-DAURA REFINERY, BAGHDAD, IRAQ

Authors: Mohammad Ali Alanbari --- Israa Rahman Ghanem ---
Pages: 131-140
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Petroleum is the main source of energy in the world, plays an important role in human life, but also its have many environmental impacts. Various software's are designed to focus on the environmental impacts of Petroleum production and accomplish the assessment, one of these software's is SimaPro software package which is designed to make a valuable contribution. It is an essential tool for analyzing the environmental impact of products during their whole life cycle. A huge amount of knowledge about the environment is built into the program and database, enabling to analyze a product with a minimum of specialized knowledge. In this study, SimaPro7 is used to analyze and evaluate the impacts for AL-Daura refinery for the Diesel and LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) fuel production .The results of LCA are not mostly straightforward in favor of material design over the alternative one. The IMPACT2002+ methodology is used for evaluating the products. This method has proved to be a powerful tool for designers to aggregate LCA results in easily and understandable form. The results of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) show that Diesel has an impact and damage on the environment (single score) of the order of 0.300302 point for each 1 cubic meter producing from Diesel fuel while LPG has a single score of 0.191243, (The "Single Score" variable is measured in units of points (Pt), which indicates the potential number of people affected by the environmental impacts taken into consideration a period of one year).


Article
DEVELOPMENT SEMI-EMPIRICAL FORMULA TO PREDICT MASS FLOW RATE OF WORKING FLUID WITHIN THERMOSYPHON LOOP

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In this study, detailed investigations of the natural convection phenomenon in a single-phase thermosyphon cycle have been carried out employing an advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based techniques. The investigations have included the effects of increasing the number of risers and increasing the risers’ length with the constant diameter under various values of heat flux, on the rate of mass flow of the working fluid in the cycle of thermosyphon. A value of instantaneous solar heat flux has been applied at the beginning of each time step. The results have shown that the heat flux, the increasing the risers’ length and number of riser pipes have important effects on the mass flow rate of the working fluid within the thermosyphon cycle. Furthermore, the rates summation of the mass flow of the working fluid passing at all risers is equal to the rate of mass flow through the downcoer pipe. In equation to predict Re number and hence calculate the rate of mass flow of the working fluid in the thermosyphon cycle has been established. An addition, the developed equation can give an average percentage difference of 8%. Therefore, this equation can be used with approximately 92 % of accuracy


Article
ENHANCEMENT OF THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER BY USING NANOFLUID

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In this paper, the performance of double pipe heat exchanger was studied experimentally with two flow arrangements (counter and parallel flow) and two types of nanofluid as a cooling fluid. A (20 nm) nanoparticles of (Al2O3 and TiO2) are used with deionized water as base fluid. The nanoparticles volume concentrations which studied were (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3) % and flow rates were (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2) L/min for water and NF. Hot fluid (water) and cold fluid (Nanofluid) flow in heat exchanger with constant inlet temperature of 59.3 C° and 30.7 C° respectively, so the two fluids flowing with constant inlet velocity. The experimental results showed that the nanofluid absorbed heat more than the water at low flow rate, which would lead to improve the thermal performance of heat exchanger due to enhancing of thermo physical properties of these fluids. Also, it showed that the heat transfer rate increased with the increasing of nanoparticles concentration. In the same context, one notice the effect of the type of nanoparticles on the rate of heat transfer, where Al2O3-water NF had heat transfer rate greater than that for TiO2-water NF. In addition, it showed that the maximum heat transfer coefficient (HTC) at 0.3% volume concentration was enhanced by 18.25% and 15.5% for AL2O3-water nanofluid and TiO2-water nanofluid respectively with 20 nm diameter.


Article
DEVELOPMENT OF A WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM

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In this work, focus is taken on developing a waste heat recovery system for capturing potential of exhaust heat from an air conditioner unit to be reused later. This system has the ability to store heat in phase change material (PCM) and then release it to a discharge water system when required. To achieve this goal, a Finned, Water-PCM, Double tube (FWD) system has been developed and tested. Spiral fins attached to the (FWD) system have been investigated for increasing the thermal conductivity of the PCM with and without copper network (CN). An experimental test rig that attached to an air-conditioner unit has been built to include 32 tubes of the FWD systems for both vertical and horizontal layouts during charging and water discharging processes. Transient 3-D, numerical simulations using (ANSYS Fluent14.0 software) have been developed to predict the thermal behavior for all types of FWD systems under investigation. Results show a significant performance improvement when using spiral fins with 6% (CN) during charging process at vertical position. As compared to the WFWD system, the FWD systems have been found to increase the PCM temperature gain of about 15.3% for SFWD system; 18.6% for SFWD system with 6% (CN) during charging process.


Article
EFFECT OF LEACHING BEHAVIOR ON GRANULAR BASE LAYER STABILIZED WITH RECYCLED MATERIALS

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Pavement structures are built to support loads induced by traffic vehicle loading and to distribute them safely to each layer and the strength of each layer is reflected on the pavement as whole. In addition, the seasonal variation in moisture and temperature in road bases tends to change throughout the pavement's life. The influence of water on behavior and properties of coarse granular materials influence pavement performance. The laboratory tests of conventional granular materials and reclaimed concrete aggregate (RCA) materials used as base layer. Combination of foundry sand with (5,10, 15and 20%) used as stabilizer and with reclaimed concrete aggregate (25,50 and 75%) are used as treated material . Based on the results of 60 days leaching period, the stabilized granular material with foundry sand with (5,10, 15and 20%) and with reclaimed concrete aggregate (25,50 and 75%) are used as treated material shows that higher resistance to leaching strain with different hydraulic gradient (i=2,4,8) under surcharge load and leaching period . The increase in leaching periods causes considerable decrease in compression strength of base layer treated with foundry sand about (22)% at( i2=4) . the increase in strength of reclaimed concrete aggregate about (23%) and (36%) at (i2=4,i3=8) respectively.

Keywords

Table of content: volume:22 issue: 2 (part-6)