Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2018 volume:30 issue:3

Article
Evaluation of Hematocrit Level, Red Blood Cells and White Blood Cells Counts in Blood from Patients with Different Severities of Periodontal Diseases

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Abstract

Background: Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) occurs in the presence of chronic infection, inflammatory conditions or neoplastic conditions despite of adequate iron and vitamins storage. Gingivitis is the inflammation of the gingiva, periodontitis is the inflammation in the periodontium that extend deeper with loss of connective tissue attachment and supporting bone. The main pathogenesis of periodontal diseases and ACD is immune activation. Aims of study: Determine and compare the clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL)). Evaluate the hematocrit (Hct) level, red blood cells (RBCs) count and white blood cells (WBCs) count. Assess the correlations between the clinical periodontal parameters and hematological parameters at patients had gingivitis, chronic periodontitis (CP) with different severities (mild, moderate and severe) with healthy periodontium subjects. Materials and Methods: 35-50 years old, 150 male subjects were included in this study. They were divided into three study groups: group of 30 patients with gingivitis, group of 90 patients with CP which subdivided into (Mild CP=30 patients, Moderate CP =30 patients, Severe CP =30 patients) and control group 30 subjects with clinically healthy periodontium. Blood samples were collected then by automated blood analyzer the Hct, RBCs and WBCs were evaluated. Results: Comparisons among groups and subgroups revealed significant differences in Hct and WBCs, while RBCs was non-significant. Means values of RBCs count showed reduction in mild and severe CP subgroups. while, the Hct and WBCs mean values increased in patients with periodontal disease. The correlations between the clinical periodontal parameters with WBCs and RBCs were almost non-significant but, with Hct was mostly significant negative correlations. Conclusion: Inflammatory and immune responses in periodontal diseases caused change in different hematologic parameters which could contribute to the development of anemia of chronic disease.


Article
Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and High Sensitive C-Reactiveprotein as Biomarkersin Periodontitis in Iraqi Patients with Osteoarthritis

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Abstract

Background: Periodontitis (PD) is well-known chronic disease affecting the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease with compound reasons characterized by synovial inflammation, subchondral bone remodeling, also the formation of osteophytes, that cause cartilage degradation. Chronic periodontitis and osteoarthritis are considered widely prevalent diseases and related to tissue destruction due to chronic inflammation in general health and oral health. The aim of this study is todetermine the association of chronic periodontitis and osteoarthritits in patients by analysing tumor necrosis factor alpha TNFα and high sensitive c-reactive protein (hsCRP) in the serum. Materials and Method: A total of 80 patients of both sexes aged 35-50 years ,30 patients with osteoarthritis and moderate chronic periodontitis (CP+OA), 30 patients of both sexes aged 35-50 years with moderate chronic periodontitis alone (CP). And control group (C) of 20 healthy patients with healthy periodontium participated in this cross sectional study. we excluded the postmenopausal and pregnant woman from female patient and smoker patient also. All patients are free of medication and have good general health with no history of systemic disease. Participants with OA have documentation or radiographic imaging, consistent with degenerative arthritis in the absence of an inflammatory condition. Venous blood samples were drawn from each subject using pyrogen-free heparinized collection tubes. Tubes were centrifuged according to the manufacturer’s guidelines, then stored at -15°C till analyse. serum TNFα and hs CRP were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: A non-significant differences between studied group regarding serum level of hsCRP and TNF-α, as well as, the result revealed that the median of serum levels of hsCRP were little higher in chronic periodontitis with osteoarthritis group than chronic periodontitis group and control groups represent as 0.31, 0.29, and 0.24. Similarly, the medium serum level of TNFα was higher in chronic periodontitis with OAthan in other two groups (10.615, 10.533, and 9.682 respectively). The age and gender showed a non-significant difference between the groups Conclusion: The present study revealed that there’s a strong positive correlation between serum levels of hsCRP and TNFα in patients of all groups but there is no correlation between Osteoarthritis and chronic periodontitis.


Article
Bacteriological Findings within Internal Implant Hole Following Flapless Implant Placement

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Abstract

Back ground: Microbial penetration inside the implant's internal hole creates a bacterial reservoir that is related with an area of inflamed connective tissue opposite the fixture-abutment junction and this can affect the health of the peri-implant tissue. Aims of the study: Evaluate the types aerobic and anaerobic bacterial count-percentage and difference between Aerobic and Anaerobic microflora in the implant screw hole three months after implant placement. Monitor the periodontal health status of all patients, throughout the study. Material and methods: Study methodology; Eight partially edentulous patients received 20 dental implants and these implants done with flapless surgical procedure. All patients examined clinically to determined their oral health status by examination of their plaque index, Gingival index and Bleeding on probing, each two weeks for 90 days (8visits) throughout the study period. Three months after that, the plaque sample collected from the internal hole of fixture and transfer to bacterial investigation and assessment the amount of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. Results: Although the anaerobic viable count is higher than that of aerobic, but with statistically not significant difference between those counts (P>0.05).


Article
Evaluation of Anti-Centromere Antibodies, Anti-SSA and Anti-SSB in Serum and Saliva of Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

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Background: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic autoimmune illness, which is consider by three main features: Sclerotic changes in the skin and internal organs, Vasculopathy of small blood vessels, Particular autoantibodies (1). The most important autoantibodies appeared significantly in SSc patients are anti-topoisomerase I autoantibody (Scl-70), anti-centromere autoantibody (ACA), and anti-RNA polymerase III autoantibody (RNAP3) (2). Anti-centromere antibodies (ACA) are infrequent in rheumatic conditions and in healthy persons but occur commonly in limited systemic sclerosis (CREST syndrome), and rarely appeared in the diffuse form of systemic sclerosis (3). Anti-Ro/SSA and antiLa/SSB, antibodies directed against Ro/La ribonucleoprotein complexes, can serve as a diagnostic hallmark of autoimmune disease specially Sjogren’s syndrome (4). Materials and methods: This study was carried out during the period from the middle of November 2015 until the end of November 2016 in Baghdad city. The sample of this study was divided into two groups : Forty systemic sclerosis patients: Those patients were treated at Rheumatology department in Baghdad teaching hospital in Baghdad city as well as Forty healthy control subjects, age matched with no signs and symptoms of any systemic diseases. Results: The serum anti-SSA in SSc patient was significant increased as well as the salivary anti-SSA in SSc patient was highly significantly increased than in the control subjects by using t-test. The present study found that there no statically difference in salivary ACA, anti-SSB and serum anti-SSB while serum ACA was significantly increased. Conclusions: autoantibodies play a role in pathogenesis of SSc patients represented by increased serum (ACA and anti-SSA) that it considered reliable indicator for SSc patients while unpredicted marker in saliva except anti-SSA. Anti-La/SSB is unreliable marker in both serum and saliva SSc patients. The presence of Anti-Ro/SSA antibodies in serum and saliva of SSc patient has been predictive marker for SSc overlapped Sjogren’s syndrome.


Article
Prosthetic Status in Relation to Weight Status and Occupation among Parkinson's Disease Patients in Baghdad-Iraq

Authors: Ali Farouk Al-Taweel --- Alhan Ahmed Qasim
Pages: 21-27
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Abstract

Background: The symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) can lead to problems in movement and coordination that lead to difficulty in maintaining well oral cleaning which can then negatively affect dental status of those Patients. The aim of present study: To evaluate prosthetic status in relation to weight status and occupation by age and gender among Parkinson's disease Patients in Baghdad-Iraq. Methods: The sample consisted of 104 patients with Parkinson disease attended to the Neurosciences Hospital in Baghdad city / Iraq, aged 60-79 years Prosthetic Status was recorded according to WHO(1997). Weight status was recorded according to Trowbridge 1988 and occupation was recorded according to Erikson and Goldthorpe (1992) and Ganzeboom et al (1989). Results: The subjects without prosthesis tend to be more from any prosthesis type followed by partial denture and bridge, all types of prosthesis found to be decreased with increasing of age in both arches except combination of bridge and partial denture and complete denture were found to be increased with increasing of age with statistically highly significant association between age and prosthesis in upper arch. Males were found to have more prosthesis than females but with statistically no significant association. The subjects without any prosthesis, both bridge and partial denture types in upper arch found more in normal weight than the over and obese ones, while the combination of bridge and partial denture with complete denture tend to have slightly more in over weight with highly significant association. In lower arch other two prosthesis categories tend to be more in overweight subjects than other their counterparts with equally distributed of partial denture between normal and obese ones whose this prosthesis tend to be more than the overweight ones with statistically significant association. The with+ without+ self-employees category tends to have no prosthesis, partial denture and bridge prostheses more than other their counterparts with approximately equally distributed of other prosthesis categories but with statistically no significant association in upper arch while in lower arch the percentage of subjects with free prosthesis was found in with+ without+ self-employees category, while the partial denture and bridge found to be more in with+ without+ self-employees and upper grade professional but these findings tend to be statistically no significant association. Conclusion: Age, gender, occupation and weight have an effect on prevalent of prosthetic status of Parkinson’s disease patients. This may be due to difference in previous oral hygiene, health awareness, severity of Parkinson’s disease and difference in income status between them.


Article
Assessment of Dental Caries among Internally Displaced Children in Baghdad

Authors: Athraa M. Alwaheb --- Akram F. Alhuwaizi
Pages: 28-31
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Abstract

Background: The internally displaced children are vulnerable groups have less access to dental services, worse oral health, and bear a disproportionate burden of oral diseases. Aim of the study: This study was conducted on group of internally displaced children living in Baghdad governorate camps to measure their dental caries prevalence and experience and find out the association between dental caries and the duration of displacement in camps. Subjects and methods: A sample of 1393 children were selected, 567 internally displaced children from camps in Baghdad governorate and 826 school children as control matching in age and gender. The age of children ranged from 5-12 years old. Oral examination was performed using WHO 2013 criteria, to measure dental caries using CPI probe. Results: There were a significant difference of dmfs and dmft between Internally displaced children and Schoolchildren. Caries free Internally displaced children were 39.2% and 30% among school children. There was no statistically significant correlation between camp duration and dental caries experience in deciduous teeth while a significant relation was found in permanent teeth. Conclusion: This study revealed an increase in dental caries experience with increase in duration of displacement. Hence this survey highlighted the need of internally displaced children to dental health education programs and preventive measures and give information for monitoring the caries which is helpful for policy makers.


Article
Assessment of Dental Caries among Internally Displaced Children in Baghdad

Authors: Athraa M. Alwaheb --- Akram F. Alhuwaizi
Pages: 28-31
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Abstract

Background: The internally displaced children are vulnerable groups have less access to dental services, worse oral health, and bear a disproportionate burden of oral diseases. Aim of the study: This study was conducted on group of internally displaced children living in Baghdad governorate camps to measure their dental caries prevalence and experience and find out the association between dental caries and the duration of displacement in camps. Subjects and methods: A sample of 1393 children were selected, 567 internally displaced children from camps in Baghdad governorate and 826 school children as control matching in age and gender. The age of children ranged from 5-12 years old. Oral examination was performed using WHO 2013 criteria, to measure dental caries using CPI probe. Results: There were a significant difference of dmfs and dmft between Internally displaced children and Schoolchildren. Caries free Internally displaced children were 39.2% and 30% among school children. There was no statistically significant correlation between camp duration and dental caries experience in deciduous teeth while a significant relation was found in permanent teeth. Conclusion: This study revealed an increase in dental caries experience with increase in duration of displacement. Hence this survey highlighted the need of internally displaced children to dental health education programs and preventive measures and give information for monitoring the caries which is helpful for policy makers.


Article
Molar Buccal Tubes Front and Back Openings Dimensions and Torsional Play

Authors: Hiyam J. Al-Zubaidi --- Akram F. Alhuwaizi
Pages: 32-39
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Background/: Buccal tubes are orthodontic attachments used on the posterior teeth instead of bands, so it is important to focus on the effect of their properties on orthodontic treatment. The aims of the present in vitro study are to evaluate and compare the buccal tube front and back openings dimensions and the torsional play angle of six different brands. Materials and Methods: The samples consisted of Single bondable, non-convertible first molar buccal tubes from six brands supplied from six companies (Dentaurum, Forestadent, Ormco, 3M, American Orthodontic, A-Star). Regarding tube opening dimension, ten buccal tubes of each brand were examined by an optical microscope. Each tube was fixed during examination using synthetic mud and oriented for observation of the front and back slot openings. A picture was taken for both tube openings and the result appeared on the computer's screen where width and height measurements were made. While regarding torsional play angle, ten buccal tubes of each brand were used. Each tube was fixed on a metal block attached to a surveyor base. Then an L-shaped wire was inserted inside the front opening of the tube. Two photographs were taken, one with the wire in free fall position and the other with the wire elevated by a 10g weight with the same angle of shooting as the first photograph. Later, the two images were superimposed in Adobe Photoshop program, and an electronic MB-ruler Software was used to calculate the angle which represents the torsional play within each tube. The data were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA and LSD tests. Results: There are marked differences between measured tube dimensions and the manufacturer stated dimensions with the front tube openings being generally larger than the back opening dimensions. Furthermore, the torsional play angle was highest in A-Star and smallest in Ormco's tubes. This angle was significantly correlated to the height of the tube front opening. Conclusion: It can be concluded that tube dimension varies among different companies and effect greatly torsional play angle.


Article
The Impact of Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) of Kindergarten Teachers on Their Oral Condition in Al-Rusafa Sector/ Baghdad-Iraq.

Authors: Israa S. Al-Atiyah --- Nada J. Radhi
Pages: 40-47
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Background: Teachers are considered as dynamic force who take a pivotal position in any educational system. Since they may play a significant role in passing the preventive information and health promotion, it is important that their own oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices conform to the professional recommendations. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among kindergarten teachers, and their impact on teachers’ oral health condition in Al-Rusafa Sector, Baghdad, Iraq. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 80 kindergarten teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among these teachers. This questionnaire format contains two parts that deals with oral health knowledge, attitude and practices of teachers, and this was followed by clinical oral examination for all the teachers. Simple random sampling technique was employed for the selection of the study participants. Descriptive analysis was done and data was analyzed using Bonferonni t-test and ANOVA test. Results: Teachers demonstrated adequate but incomplete knowledge regarding oral health. More than 85.0% of teachers were aware of preventive measures to keep good oral health and knew the bad influence of neglecting the oral hygiene. About 65.0% of teachers had the awareness about dental plaque composition and its bad effects. Meanwhile, 45.0% of them were aware about the signs of tooth decay, also 32.5% were aware about the benefits of regular correct brushing on the gingiva. No obvious differences were noticed regarding teachers’ DMFS, plaque and gingival indices mean values in association to the level of teachers’ knowledge, however, a positive relation were found between favorite attitude and practices and mean values of DMFS, plaque and gingival indices. Conclusions: The studied kindergarten teachers demonstrated adequate but incomplete oral health knowledge with many of them adopting poor attitude and practices. There is a definite and immediate need for an integral educational program for kindergarten teachers on basic oral health knowledge and favorable practices. Moreover, teachers’ healthy practices can affect their oral health condition positively.


Article
The Impact of Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) of Kindergarten Teachers on Their Oral Condition in Al-Rusafa Sector/ Baghdad-Iraq.

Authors: Israa S. Al-Atiyah --- Nada J. Radhi
Pages: 40-47
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Abstract

Background: Teachers are considered as dynamic force who take a pivotal position in any educational system. Since they may play a significant role in passing the preventive information and health promotion, it is important that their own oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices conform to the professional recommendations. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among kindergarten teachers, and their impact on teachers’ oral health condition in Al-Rusafa Sector, Baghdad, Iraq. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 80 kindergarten teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among these teachers. This questionnaire format contains two parts that deals with oral health knowledge, attitude and practices of teachers, and this was followed by clinical oral examination for all the teachers. Simple random sampling technique was employed for the selection of the study participants. Descriptive analysis was done and data was analyzed using Bonferonni t-test and ANOVA test. Results: Teachers demonstrated adequate but incomplete knowledge regarding oral health. More than 85.0% of teachers were aware of preventive measures to keep good oral health and knew the bad influence of neglecting the oral hygiene. About 65.0% of teachers had the awareness about dental plaque composition and its bad effects. Meanwhile, 45.0% of them were aware about the signs of tooth decay, also 32.5% were aware about the benefits of regular correct brushing on the gingiva. No obvious differences were noticed regarding teachers’ DMFS, plaque and gingival indices mean values in association to the level of teachers’ knowledge, however, a positive relation were found between favorite attitude and practices and mean values of DMFS, plaque and gingival indices. Conclusions: The studied kindergarten teachers demonstrated adequate but incomplete oral health knowledge with many of them adopting poor attitude and practices. There is a definite and immediate need for an integral educational program for kindergarten teachers on basic oral health knowledge and favorable practices. Moreover, teachers’ healthy practices can affect their oral health condition positively.


Article
Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in Relation to Periodontal Health Status Among a Group of Hypertensive Patients

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Background: Hypertension is probably the most important public health problem around the world. People with periodontal disease may be at greater risk of hypertension. The inflammatory effects of periodontal disease help to promote endothelial dysfunction in arteries which may lead to changes in blood pressure. Salivary MMP-8 has been associated with both periodontal disease and prevalent hypertension. Aim of study: This study was conducted to measure salivary matrix metalloproteinase - 8, in relation to periodontal health condition among a group of patients with hypertension in comparison with control group. Materials and methods: Ninety subjects, aged 45-50 years old were included in this study, seeking treatment for chest pain in Ibn-AlBaytar center for cardiac surgical treatments in Baghdad, Iraq. The subjects were divided into study group (45 patient) who were diagnosed to be a hypertensive patient, and a control group (45 subject), with no hypertension. Plaque status was evaluated according to the Silness and Loe, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. Unstimulated saliva was collected from all subjects to analyses MMP-8. Result: A high mean value of plaque index, clinical attachment level and probing pocket depth for the study group than the control group with statistically no significant difference. In addition to that, a significant positive correlation between the plaque index and the clinical attachment level among both groups. Salivary MMP-8 level showed a higher level in the study group than in the control group, with statistically significant difference between groups, and a significant positive correlation was detected between salivary MMP-8 with plaque index, among study group, Conclusions: Higher percentage of periodontal diseases was found among patients with blood hypertension. In addition, high level of salivary MMP-8 is potentially associated with periodontal status of the study group.


Article
Impact of Glycated Haemoglobin on salivary glucose among type 1 diabetic mellitus patients aged 18-22 years

Authors: Juman D. Al- Khayoun --- Ban S. Diab
Pages: 54-58
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Background: Diabetes mellitus consists of a group of diseases characterized by abnormally high blood glucose levels. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is a form of haemoglobin used to identify the average concentration of plasma glucose over prolonged periods of time. It is formed in a non-enzymatic pathway by normal exposure of hemoglobin to high levels of plasma glucose, The main alterations observed in the saliva of Type 1 diabetic patients are hyposalivation and alteration in its composition, particularly those related to the levels of glucose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of Glycated haemoglobin level on the level of salivary glucose which may have an effect on oral health condition. Materials and methods: The total sample composed of 50 adults aged 18-22 years. Divided into two groups: 25 uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (HbA1c > 7), 25 controlled diabetes mellitus (HbA1c ≤ 7). Stimulated salivary samples were collected under standardized condition according to the criteria of Tenovuo and Lagerlöf (1994). Salivary glucose was estimated by using spectrophotometric analysis. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 18 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) to specify the statistical differences between the two groups. Results: the data of the present study assessed the correlation coefficients of HbA1c and salivary glucose and found that among uncontrolled diabetic group the relation between HbA1c and salivary glucose was significantly in positive direction (r = 0.483 p<0.05). While among controlled diabetic group, there was no relation between HbA1c and salivary glucose as the correlation coefficient was found to be equal to zero. Conclusion: the measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin, that is one of the well-established means of monitoring glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus, had a positive effect on the level of salivary glucose as its level increase with increasing the severity of diabetic disease.

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Article
Evaluation of the efficacy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy

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Background: Cervical lymph nodes are prone to involved by a number of pathologic processes. They are common sites for lymphoma, metastasis, and reactive enlargement in a number of conditions. Aims of the study:-Clinical evaluation of patients with cervical lymphadenopathy. Differentiation between benign and malignant lymph nodes by means of ultra sounds (US) and Correlate the US findings with cytological and/or histopathological findings of cervical lymph nodes. Subjects, Materials and Methods:-The present study was carried out over a period of 6 months and included 81 patients of different age groups presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy. Each patient was examined clinically, then comprehensive sonographic examination of the neck for cervical lymph nodes (L.Ns) was performed using ultrasound machine (GE Wipro Proseries). The scanning was performed with the patient in the supine position, and with the neck hyperextended using a pad or pillow under the shoulders in order to provide optimum exposure of the neck. The parameters considered in this study include: site, long axis (L), short axis (S), shape index (S/L), echotexture, margins, ancillary features like calcification, necrosis, matting and surrounding tissue changes. These findings were correlated with fine-needle aspiration cytology, core and excisional biopsy. The nodes were classified as benign (reactive) and malignant (lymphomatous and metastatic). Results: The age of patients ranged from five to seventy five years, they were 45 male and 36 females, there was association between family history and development of malignant lesions. Regarding clinical evaluation, and according to consistency, (13) hard L.Ns were malignant and (1) was benign, (27) rubbery L.Ns were malignant and 40 soft L.Ns were benign. According to fixation to underlying structure, forty one L.Ns were fixed, (40) were malignant and (1) was benign. Forty L. Ns were not fixed, on histopathological evaluation all were benign. On US, the results showed that malignant lymph nodes are mostly appeared as round shape, homogenous echotexture, nodal shape (S/L ratio) accurate for differentiating benign from malignant lymph nodes. Most of the malignant nodes had well-defined borders. Calcifications, necrosis, matting, were characteristically found in benign lymph node. A combined ultrasound-guided and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis had a high accuracy as compared with situations in which they were used alone. Conclusions: Sonographic findings have a high accuracy in differentiating benign from malignant cervical lymph nodes. An ultrasound scan can be used as the first-line imaging tool in the diagnostic evaluation of cervical lymphadenopathy. Using gray scale features are particularly useful to identify the causes of cervical lymphadenopathy.

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Table of content: volume:30 issue:3