Table of content

Sulaimania Journal for Engineering Sciences

مجلة السليمانية للعلوم الهندسية

ISSN: 24101699/24156655
Publisher: university of Sulaimania
Faculty:
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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Sulaimania Journal for Engineering Sciences

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Contact info

Sulaimani Journal for Engineering Sciences
Email: sjes@univsul.edu.iq
abdullah.tayib@univsul.edu.iq
ako.hama@univsul.edu.iq
Tel: +964 (0)770 249 34 33

Table of content: 2017 volume:4 issue:4

Article
Analysis of Fatigue Failure of Francis Turbine Runner at Derbendikhan Hydropower Station
تحليل الفشل بسبب الكلل في مروحة التوربينات من نوع فرانسيس في محطة دربندخان الكهرومائية

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Abstract

Fatigue failures in Francis turbine runner are frequently occurred in hydropower plants, causing unexpected plant downtime and considerable financial loss. Decades of operational experience have shown that turbine runners develop fatigue cracks in areas, where stress concentrations and material defects coincide. In Francis turbine runners, cracks tend to propagate from the transition of the welded T-joint between the blade and the band or crown. This type of turbine runner, which operate under a wide range of heads and outputs, are subjected to considerable dynamic forces which can lead to fatigue cracking. The magnitude of these forces is a function of the hydraulic pressure, the water velocity and the geometry of the stationary parts guiding the water into the runner. This paper presents the water pressure and bending stresses for different operational conditions in a Francis runner of a Derbendikhan hydropower station. At the first step, the dynamic fluid calculation is used to determine the fluctuating water pressure on the blade of the runner. At the second step, for a period of operational nominal bending stress due to the fluctuating water pressure are determined. The result indicates that the hydropower plant was operated with the high fluctuating water pressure which is responsible for inducing bending stress response. The high bending stress on the blade is a probable reason for fatigue failure. Furthermore, the paper discusses the fatigue analysis of the runner. Typical results are presented and discussed.يحدث الفشل بسبب الكلل في مروحة التوربينات من نوع فرانسيس كثيرا في محطات توليد الطاقة الكهرومائية، مما يتسبب في عطل غير متوقع للمحطات وخسارة مالية كبيرة. وقد أظهرت الخبرة التشغيلية الطويلة بأن مروحة التوربينات تحدث فيها شقوق الكلل في المناطق التي يتركز فيها الجهد والعيوب المادية المتزامنة. تتكون الشقوق في مروحة التوربينات فرانسيس من مناطق ملحومة بين ريش التوربين والحزام أو التاج. يعمل هذا النوع من المراوح تحت مجالات واسعة من ارتقاع الماء وانتاج الطاقة ولذلك يتم تعرضها لقوى ديناميكية كبيرة التي يمكن أن تؤدي إلى كسر المروحة . تتغير قيمة هذه القوه الديناميكية مع تغير قيمة الضغط الهيدروليكي وسرعة المياه والشكل الهندسي للأجزاء الثابتة التي توجه المياه إلى المروحة . يعرض هذا البحث ضغوط المياه وجهود الانحناء لظروف تشغيل مختلفة لمروحة فرانسيس في محطة دربندخان الكهرومائية. في المرحلة الأولى من هذا البحث تم استخدام حسابات ديناميكية السوائل لتحديد ضغط المياه المتذبذب على ريش المروحة. اما في المرحلة الثانية تم تحديد جهد الانحناء بسبب ضغط المياه المتذبذب في فترة التشغيل. والنتائج تشير إلى أنه تم تشغيل المحطة الكهرومائية مع ضغط المياه المتذبذب بصورة عالية وهو المسؤول عن خلق جهد الانحناء العالي. جهد الانحناء العالي على ريش مروحة التوربين هو السبب المحتمل للفشل بسبب الكلل. واضافة الى ذلك يناقش البحث تحليل الكلل في مروحة التوربين. كذلك تم عرض النتائج ومن ثم مناقشتها.


Article
The Influence of Kindergarten Building’s Plan Patterns and Areal Standards in Children’s Unacceptable Behavior
تأثير أنماط المخطط الأفقي والمعايير المساحية لأبنية رياض الأطفال في السلوك غير المقبول لذى الأطفال مباني رياض الأطفال في مذينة أربيل حالة دراسية

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Abstract

The research has been done because of the delay and not keep in touch in responding to the requirements of contemporary child needs, which led to occur unlikable acts and unacceptable behavioral practices in kindergarten spaces by the children, that confirms in transforming kindergarten from a knowledge institution to a place which the child acquires unacceptable behaviors. Thus the research tries to explain the type of relationship between the child’s behavior and areal standards of the built environment in the kindergarten, through two main axes, the first axis studies the child and the way they learn behavior and the measuring methods of such behavior according to psychological theories in order to determine the most important indicators which specifies the two behaviors for the study (aggressive and isolation behaviors), while the second axis deals with the kindergarten buildings in terms of its plan and standards to identify the most influential properties on behavior. Therefore, the ex-axes have been applied in the case study to find out the relationship between them which consisted of three stages; the first stage is the general survey for the whole samples (the existed kindergarten buildings in Erbil city till 2014) which are governmental and private kindergartens, the second stage dealt with the selected samples which consisted of all kinds of governmental buildings and with several private kindergartens, while the third stage represents findings out of the case study and determining the relationship of the influential areal standards on the child’s behavior in order to test the research hypothesis The research concluded that the diversity in plan patterns led to appear various unacceptable behavioral practices in kindergarten spaces, as it found out that the most recorded cases of unacceptable behavior among children were riots and confusion behaviors, then the second one was violent behavior, the third one was destructive behavior and finally was isolation behavior, where the aggressive behaviors are more practiced by the children in kindergarten buildings as compared to isolation behavior. The research also concluded that the aggressive and isolation behaviors of the selected samples are more occurred in the classes compared to other spaces, while these behaviors are less practiced in the toilets ,finally it raises the recommendation for the research.


Article
Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling For High Strength Fibrous Reinforced Concrete Beams
إستخدام العناصر المحددة غير الخطية لتحليل العتبات الخرسانية المسلحة عالية المقاومة والمعسزة بالألياف الفولارية

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Abstract

This paper presents a nonlinear finite element model to investigate the influence of steel fibers on the flexural strength of high strength reinforced concrete beams. Two methods had been used to model the steel fiber using ANSYS 14. In the first model the effect of steel fiber on the mechanical properties of concrete has been neglected, and the steel fiber considered as smeared reinforcement. In the second model the effect of steel fiber on the mechanical properties of concrete is considered in material modeling. The theoretical results were compared with the experimental result. And the variable present in both models was fiber volume fraction (0.00, 0.75, and 1.5) %. The experimental beams consist of high strength steel fiber reinforced concrete rectangular beams with sectional dimension ( 150 x 100 ) mm and overall length (3000) mm simply supported, and loaded through two points loading, those beams are used for verification of the proposed models. Results showed that the first model is more reliable and compatible with experimental results than the second model. The analytical models also showed that increase in volume fraction of steel fiber improves the flexural rigidity and flexural strength of the high-strength fiber reinforced concrete beams.


Article
The Impact of Natural Lighting on Fostering Sustainable Behavior in Educational Buildings - Mosul University Buildings of as a case study
أثر الإضاءة الطبيعيت في تدعين السلوك الوستدام في الابنيت التعليويت ابنيت جاهعت الووصل حالت دراسيت

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Abstract

There were an increased importance and vitality of the subject of sustainability in now days; after the modern era has witnessed a rapid depletion of natural resources. It has been considered that the natural lighting was one of the main topics targeted in order to create a sustainable built environment. This research tries to draw the effect of natural lighting on the behavioral activities and their relationship with the built environment, through its impact on dynamic area termed "personal space", which plays a major role in regulating individual behavior, and interactions with the rest of the individuals in the built environment. The study assumes that the high intensity of natural lighting supports sustainable behavior among individuals. It also tests that hypothesis into the lecture halls at universities to highlight its validity and to use the results as design indicators for such spaces.


Article
Non Linear Finite Element Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Flat Plate Slabs with openings
التحليل اللاخطى للعناصز المحددة لنمذجة البلاطات الخرسانية المسلحة المسطحة والحاوية على الفتحات

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Abstract

In this study, a model using ABAQUS/ EXPLICIT program to predict punching shear resistance of reinforced concrete flat plates was proposed with opening in different situation subjected to vertical loading. A three dimensional non-linear finite element program (ABAQUS/EXPLICIT) based on Eight-Nodes hexahedral element damage-plasticity was utilized for modeling concrete with opening, in this investigation. Reinforcing bars were represented by one dimensional element embedded in the solid elements and for both tension and compression linear elastic-plastic behavior is assumed.Nonlinear analysis is used and the result of finite element shows good agreement with the experimental results.


Article
The Impact of Physical Chaos on the Visual Pollution of Architectural Form
أثر الفوضى العمرانیە فی احداث التلوث البصري فی الشكل المعماري مدینة السلیمانیە حالة دراسیة

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Abstract The visual pollution is one of the biggest problems of this era, and due to the increasing occurrence of visual pollution in the city of Sulaimaniya, made it necessary to do this research, where the research is trying to bridge the lack of winning the mechanism of the effect of chaos knowledge in the events of visual pollution in architectural form in the city of Sulaymaniyah. Achieving the goal of the study into the possibility of finding a mechanism that affect the chaos in the events of visual pollution in architectural form is in two steps, the first step to identify the architectural form’s terms, right down to the limits of practical study, and the second step by definition process to study in terms of the approved method, where dealing with practical study topic phases main, first clarify the extent of existence of visual pollution in architectural form, and then demonstrate the impact of the chaos on the formation of pollution, include hypotheses tested by identifying the methods used in the measurement and analysis methods, and between the theoretical side the need to rely on engineering methods (engineering visual graphic analysis) and the statistical study of architectural models at different levels, right down to the results of these analyzes discussed with the verification of hypotheses, and thus put conclusions. Research has found that chaos is one of the main reasons in the formation of visual pollution in architectural form in the city of Sulaimaniya, by affect in a negative way to cause visual pollution in architectural form influential on visual perception and mental state of the recipients, through a variety of mechanisms that appear disparity between the effect of each one of them , depending on the method employed.


Article
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with Externally Bonded Steel Plate using ANSYS
إستخدام العناصر المحددة غير الخطية لتحليل العتبات الخرسانية المسلحة والمقواة بالألواح الفولاذية خارجيا وبإستعمال ANSYS

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Abstract

The present work presents a numerical study to simulate the behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with steel plates. The study is carried out using two un-strengthened RC beams and two RC beams strengthened with (1mm, and 3mm) steel plates. The beams are modeled and analyzed by nonlinear FEM using ANSYS v14.5. The numerical results are in good agreement with experimental load-displacement curves and ultimate load carrying capacity.يقدم هذا البحث دراسةَ عددية لتمثيل سلوك العتبات الخرسانية المسلحة والمقواة بالألواح الفولاذية. تم تطبيق الدراسة على عتبتين بدون تقوية وعلى عتبتين مع تقوية بالواح فولاذية احداها ١ ( ١٣٥x (ملم والثانی ) ١٣٥x٣ (ملم. واستخدم العناصر المحددة غير الخطية لتمثيل وتحليل العتبات بإستعمال برنامج ANSYS14 . بينت النتائج العددية توافقا جيدا مع النتائج المختبرية لسلوك الإزاحة والحمل ومقدار الحمل النهائی.


Article
Impact of Color on the Psychological Dimension of the Users of Interior spaces in Hospitals - General Hospital in Sulaimani city as a case study
أثر اللون على البعد النفسي لمستخدمي الفضاءات الداخلية في المستشفيات المستشفيات العامة في مدينة السليمانية حالة دراسية

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Abstract

The research aims to identify the effect of color on human health in general and psychological dimension, in particular, to enhance the performance of the interior spaces of hospitals by studying the used colors with the possibility of proper utilizing of it with user psychology and health in hospitals spaces. The study also aims to identify the implications of color expression and its impact on the interior design of hospitals and reaching solutions and suggestions achieving greater understanding of color and its utilizing to enhance the efficiency of the hospital spaces. The research follows descriptive and analytical methods which have been utilized through the description and analysis of the colors of some of the internal spaces of the selected public hospitals building in the city of Sulaimani, as Case Study. Furthermore, the search adopted field interviews of a group of specialists and users of those architectural spaces with different functions to find out the role of psychological effects of colors on it, and then determine the final conclusions and that is the existence of the possibility of the use of color to improve the psychological state of the patients, users of the internal spaces of hospitals and to help accelerating the healing process. يهدف البحث إلى التعرف على تأثير اللون على صحة الانسان بشكل عام والبعد النفسي بشكل خاص وتحسين الأداء الوظيفي للفضاءات الداخلية للمستشفيات عن طريق دراسة الألوان المستخدمة فيها مع إمكانية توظيفها بما يتلاءم مع نفسية وصحة مستخدمي هذه الفضاءات في المستشفيات. كما تهدف الدراسة إلى التعرف على الدلالات البنيوية والتعبيرية للون وأثره في كفاءة التصميم الداخلي للمستشفيات والخروج بحلول واقتراحات تحقق فهماً أكبر للون وكيفية توظيفه بشكل يعزز من كفاءة الفضاءات المستخدمة فيها. اعتمد البحث المنهج الوصفي التحليلي وذلك من خلال وصف وتحليل البعد اللوني لبعض الفضاءات الداخلية لثلاثة من المستشفيات العامة في مدينة السليمانية كحالة دراسية، كما اعتمد البحث المقابلات الميدانية لمجموعة من مستخدمي تلك الفضاءات ذات الوظائف المعمارية المختلفة لمعرفة تأثير البعد النفسى للون فيها، ومن ثم تحديد الإستنتاجات النهائية والتي تتمثل بوجود إمكانية إستخدام اللون في تحسين الحالة النفسية للمرضى مستخدمي الفضاءات الداخلية للمستشفيات والمساعدة في تسريع عملية العلاج فيها.


Article
Study of Raw Materials for Manufacturing Perforated Clay Bricks (Chamchamal, and Qaradagh Regions in Sulaimani/ Iraq)
دراسة مواد أولية لتصنيع الطابوق الطيني المثقب (في مناطق جمجمال وقرداغ في السليمانية / العراق)

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Abstract

There is no information about the optimum molding moisture content and molding pressure on the physical and mechanical properties of clay bricks. In this paper, the effect of moisture content and applied pressure during molding of brick samples for two selected locations of Sulaimani province in Iraq were studied. After firing the molded brick samples at a temperature of 1000oC, the physical and mechanical properties were studied from the following tests: firing shrinkage, water absorption, dry density and uniaxial compressive strength. The results indicate that the optimum moisture content for molding and manufacturing of clay bricks is within (0.6 to 0.7) of plastic limit of the raw materials. Also, it was found that the sufficient applied pressure during molding of clay bricks is 6 MPa.لا توجد معلومات كافية حول تأثير الرطوبة والضغوط التي تستخدم أثناء الصب على الخصائص الفيزيائية والميكانيكية للطابوق الطيني. تم في هذا البحث دراسة تأثير نسبة الرطوبة والضغوط التي تستخدم أثناء صب عينات الطابوق في موقعين مختارين في محافظة السليمانية. وبعد حرق عينات من الطابوق المصبوب عند درجة حرارة ( 1000ە م )، تم التعرف على الخواص الفيزيائية والميكانيكية باستخدام الاختبارات التالية: الانكماش الحراری ، امتصاص الماء ، الكثافة الجافة وقوة الضغط ذو محورين. وتشير النتائج أن نسبة الرطوبة المثالية لحد اللدونة للمواد الخام أثناء صب وتصنيع الطابوق الطيني هي ( 0.6 - 0.7 ). اضافة الى ذلك فقد وجد أن الضغط الكافي أثناء صب الطابوق الطيني هو 6 ميجا باسكال.


Article
Problems of Functional Performance and Space Gradient Organization in the Sidewalk of the Residential Street
اشكاليات الأداء الوظيفي وتنظيم التدرج الفضائي في رصيف الشارع السكني

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Abstract

Sidewalk space forms one of the key elements in the residential street which is appeared with planning transitions in urban neighborhoods in Iraq over the past century. Despite the importance of this space as a zone for a range of functional activities that are supposed to achieve within space graduation ensures regulation of the relationship between house resident and road user, but the reality of the housing districts case presents a lot of problems that accompanied the design and furnishing of this space so as to create a number of obvious drawbacks in the effectiveness of its use. This research aims and through the evaluation of realistic design for local environment of housing in the city of Mosul to extract the most negative aspects of the functional performance of residential street pavement, their causes and down to extract the necessary indicators that can contribute to more effective performance of this space and reinforce its value as a functional and regulatory privacy zone within the housing environment. شكل فضاء الرصيف احد العناصر الرئيسة في الشارع السكني والذي ظهر مع التحولات التخطيطية في الاحياء السكنية الحضرية في العراق خلال القرن الماضي. ورغم أهمية هذا الفضاء كحيز لمجموعة من الفعاليات الوظيفية التي يفترض تحقيقها ضمن تدرج فضائي يضمن تنظيم العلاقة بين الساكن ومستخدم الطريق الا ان واقع الحال السكني يعرض جملة من الاشكالات التي رافقت تصميم وتأثيث هذا الفضاء وبما يخلق جملة من السلبيات الواضحة في فعالية استخدامه. يهدف هذا البحث ومن خلال تقييم التصميم الواقعي لبيئة السكن المحلية في مدينة الموصل الى استخراج اهم سلبيات الاداء الوظيفي لفضاء رصيف الشارع السكني واسبابها وصولا الى استخراج المؤشرات الضرورية التي يمكن ان تساهم في زيادة فعالية ادائه وتعزيز قيمته كحيز وظيفي وتنظيمي للخصوصية ضمن بيئة السكن.

Table of content: volume:4 issue:4