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Al-daleel journal

مجلة الدليل

ISSN: 26176912
Publisher: the Holy Shrine of Imam Hussein
Faculty:
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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A quarterly refereed journal for intellectual and doctrinal studies published by Al-Daleel institute affiliated to Imam Hussain Holy shrine

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Table of content: 2017 volume: issue:1

Article
Faith and its position in the human thought
العقيدة وموقعها في الفكر البشريّ

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Abstract

Summary Human thought contains a great number of concepts and issues related to various topics, and to make use of which, scholars and researchers have paid too much attention to classifying them into groups of sciences according to their subject matter and the way of studying them, trying to discover the hierarchy between these sciences due to the order of their subjects; to get at a coherently cognitive system, including what is former and what is later according to reality and possibility, or according to learning and evidence. No doubt that among those concepts and matters, there is what is related to man’s perceptions and visions about the cause of the world and its characteristics and actions, which has been classified as world view or faith. In these pages, we want to show the conception of faith and its position in this human cognitive system, and its rank among all sciences in that system. Faith, in its two rational and religious dimensions, is at the top of theoretical sciences as to honor; for the honor of science is due to the honor of its facts and subject matters, and surely the science of faith is related to the most honorable and most perfect being at all; it is Almighty Allah, and His attributes and doings. So science of faith is prior to all sciences in terms of reality, and its subject matter are prior to all subject matters in terms of reality; for it is the starter and founder of them all. Thus, we can infer the following: Firstly, the sciences that one learns and holds form a cognitive system, and this means that they are cognitively interconnected in a way or another, and have a natural hierarchy among themselves. Some of them are earlier and others are later. The understanding of this hierarchy and system is of great benefit to learners; for they can know in which rank their specialization lies within this system, and thus can determine the sciences that precede the specialization they study and the sciences that come later. This matter is useful to a scholar to know from where to take the prerequisites of his specialty as established fundamentals, and which sciences can take their established fundamentals from his specialty; for when sciences have developed and been branched, it has become difficult for one person to know all specializations to make a scientific encyclopedia as it might have happened in the past. So it has become necessary for one to choose only one specialty to be creative in it. But in order to be realistic in his studies, one should take the prerequisites of his studies from one whom he trusts in and relies on in the specialties that have been before his one, and gives the results of his specialty to the people of specialties that come after him. He should not interfere in determining what has preceded, nor the results of what may come after his specialty, because this is not a specialized act, and may not lead to a realistic result. Secondly, there are some sciences that all scholars- in various specialties- should learn and know well, because they have common advantage in all specialties, and those sciences are the cognitive sciences. Thirdly, all sciences in their nature represent perfection for man, and involve in providing his welfare and happiness. However, they may be directed and used by evildoers and the unjust to achieve their interests and goals, and thus, their consequences would be against the happiness of mankind. Fourthly: the science of faith is the best and most important among all sciences; for it concerns the most exalted fact; it is the Creator and Maker of this world with all it has, and this is in terms of reality. Studying of faith may be delayed, in terms of evidencing, until after knowing some sciences that prove some prerequisites of faith questions, such as cognitive and natural sciences. The vision that one gets to has a great impact on the way of man’s life and fate. So it is a must for every one - whatever his/her specialty is - to learn the path that can be followed in order to get out of his/her own specialty into the research about the Creator in an objectively scientific way, as common to the people of sciences and scientific professions. So, if one gets to proving that, he would make his specialty as a path and a guidepost for others to promote and prove it in the hearts of people, and not to remain in the circle of the subject matter of his specialization, knowing nothing else. الخلاصة يحتوي الفكر البشريّ على كمٍّ هائلٍ من المفاهيم والقضايا المتعلّقة بمختلف الموضوعات، ولأجل صحّة الاستفادة منها، اهتمّ الحكماء والباحثون بتصنيف قضايا الفكر البشريّ إلى مجموعة علومٍ بحسب موضوعاتها وحيثيّة البحث فيها، وحاولوا اكتشاف الترتّب الطبعيّ بين تلك العلوم على حسب ترتب موضوعاتها؛ للخروج بمنظومةٍ معرفيّةٍ مترابطةٍ، فيها ما هو سابقٌ وما هو لاحقٌ بحسب الواقع ومقام الثبوت، أو بحسب التعليم ومقام الإثبات، ولا شكّ أنّ من بين تلك المفاهيم والقضايا ما هو متعلّقٌ بتصوّرات الإنسان ورؤيته عن علّة العالم وصفاتها وأفعالها، وهو الّذي تمّ تصنيفه باسم الرؤية الكونيّة أو العقيدة، ونحن في هٰذه الصفحات نريد أن نبيّن مفهوم العقيدة وموقعها في هٰذه المنظومة المعرفيّة الإنسانيّة، ومرتبتها بين مجموع علومها.


Article
Standards of the Validity of Faith
معايير صحّة العقيدة

Authors: Mustafa Azizi مصطفى عزيزي
Pages: 39-61
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Abstract

Summary Faith is the cornerstone of religious knowledge; for on which all moral values and individual and social behaviors depend. If faith is true, all what is based on it will be true, and if faith is corrupted, all that is based on it will be corrupted too. So, we must know acceptable standards and fully considered criteria in whose light we can distinguish between true faith and corrupted faith. In this article, we have discussed several criteria and standards to distinguish the right from falsehood in beliefs, including: the appropriateness of faith for common sense, its aptness to sound reason, the compatibility and internal harmony between the elements of doctrinal system, and the compatibility of faith with the scientific results required. Since this study depends on preliminary principles and studies, we have discussed, before showing the criteria, the doctrinal issues and their purposes, in order to reach the desired result. If we realize that a part of man’s beliefs is wrong and incorrect, and the remaining part is true and correct, then there must be some standards and criteria to distinguish true faith from untrue faith; in order to know the truthfulness of one of them and the falsehood of the other, since it is impossible for contraries to meet together. One of the most important studies in “Epistemology” is to find the standard to distinguish true knowledge from false knowledge. So, is there a criterion or criteria for evaluating human knowledge or not? The answer to this very important question distinguishes between the sophistic current - and skepticism - which denies any criterion and standard of knowledge, and believes in the relativity of knowledge and the denial of any certain absolute knowledge; and between the current that focuses on the existence of a standard and measure in human knowledge. In this article, we try to answer the following question: How do we distinguish between the true, correct faith and the false, incorrect faith? Here, we should distinguish between two questions: What is the standard for faith truthfulness and falsehood? How do we distinguish between true faith and false faith? There is a critical difference between the two questions; the first question generally looks into criteria and standards to differentiate between correct and incorrect knowledge, and suggests several things through which we can know true beliefs and false beliefs, whereas the second question is related to the application of standards to the evidences; it means that after knowing the general criteria for practically differentiating between true and untrue beliefs, how do we apply those standards to our beliefs to distinguish the true ones from the false? Logic undertakes this task and helps man in the application of standards to evidences, and guides him to see which is true and which is not. The subject matter of our study in this article is the answer to the first question. That is to say, we want to shed light on the criterion of truth and falsehood in general, and look for standards and measures that may help us to distinguish true faith from false faith. It can be said that there are standards and measures acceptable to the wise about the distinction between true faith and false faith. Here are they: 1- the measure of sound reason 2- the measure of common sense 3- the measure of internal compatibility and harmony of faith 4- the measure of scientific results required and expected from faith Therefore, every human being and every free scholar must apply these standards and measures to his idea and belief, and if his belief is consistent and applicable to these four criteria, then his faith will be true; otherwise, he should reconsider his faith without any fanaticism and obstinacy and make it in accordance with these criteria. In fact, the truthfulness of faith is not limited to these four criteria, but what we have mentioned are the most important of them. الخلاصة إنّ العقيدة حجر الأساس في المعارف الدينيّة؛ إذ تعتمد عليها جميع القيم الأخلاقيّة والسلوكيّات الفرديّة والاجتماعيّة؛ فإذا صحّت العقيدة صحّ جميع ما يبتنى عليها، وإذا فسدت العقيدة فسد كلّ ما يعتمد عليها؛ فلا بدّ لنا من معرفة معايير مقبولةٍ وموازين مدروسةٍ نميّز في ضوئها العقيدة الصحيحة من العقيدة السقيمة. فقد بحثنا في هٰذه المقالة عدّة معايير ومقاييس لتمييز الحقّ من الباطل في الاعتقادات؛ منها: ملاءمة العقيدة للفطرة السليمة، وملاءمتها للعقل السليم، والتلاؤم والانسجام الداخليّ بين عناصر المنظومة العقديّة، وتلاؤم العقيدة مع الثمرات والنتائج العلميّة والعمليّة المطلوبة. وبما أنّ هٰذا البحث يتوقّف على المبادئ والأبحاث التمهيديّة، فقد تطرّقنا قبل تبيين المعايير إلى أقسام القضايا العقديّة وغاياتها؛ تمهيدًا للوصول إلى النتيجة المطلوبة.


Article
The Role of Faith in Building Ideology
دور العقدية في بناء الآيديولوجيا

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Summary Seeking perfection - which is inseparable from man who tries to find his self and his real association - does only come under a universal vision, to which human reason appeal in founding an ideology that contributes to diagnosing the beginning and the end of his movement; because of the nature of the growing relationship between what exists and what should exist. Man cannot find his real identity and solve the cognitive question - where from, where to, and wherein - except under the existential and cognitive realism of the divine universal vision (faith), which in turn is considered as the basis for the construction of judgments, ethics, and law, and which reflects the firm coordination between the doctrinal dimension and the practical dimension. Hence, this article comes to shed light on the role of the divine universal vision (faith) in establishing the ideological vision by studying extraneous conceptual notions to form the cognitive orientation of the article through the two most important axes that are inseparable from all their joints: the universal vision and the ideological vision, and then to move on to discussing the universal vision issues, in terms of real theological issues; and then according to that, to divide the universal vision into divine and material visions. After that, we come to the generative role between the divine universal vision and the ideological vision. Then, we end the study with discussing the cognitive introduction and approach used in it. So, any way and any philosophy in life must be built - like it or not - on a particular type of belief, view, and evaluation of existence, and on a special type of interpretation and analysis. To each principle, there is a specific impression and a certain pattern of reflection on the universe and existence. And this is the basis and intellectual background of that principle. This basis and that background is usually called the "universal vision". Every one of religions, laws, principles and social philosophies depends on a particular universal vision, and all the goals that some principle proclaims and calls people to keep to, all the methods it assigns, all the obligations and forbidden acts that it issues, and all the responsibilities that it founds are not but essential and necessary consequences of the universal vision that forms the main basis for that principle. الخلاصة البحث عن الكمال - الّذي يلازم الوجود الإنسانيّ الباحث عن ذاته وانتمائه الحقيقي- لا يتأتّى إلّا في ظلّ رؤيةٍ كونيّةٍ، هٰذه الأخيرة هي الّتي يحتكم إليها العقل البشريّ في تأسيس آيديولوجيا تساهم في تشخيص مبدإ حركته ومنتهاه؛ وذٰلك لطبيعة العلاقة التوليديّة بين ما هو كائنٌ وما ينبغي أن يكون، ولن يتمكن الإنسان من وجدان هويته الحقيقيّة، وحلّ الاستفهام المعرفيّ - من أين، إلى أين وفي أين - إلّا في ظلّ الواقعيّة الوجوديّة والمعرفيّة للرؤية الكونيّة الإلٰهيّة (العقيدة)، والّتي تعدّ بدورها الأساس لبناء الأحكام والأخلاق والقانون ممّا تعكس حالة الترابط الوثيق بين البعد العقديّ والبعد العمليّ. ومن هنا تأتي هٰذه المقالة لتسلّط الضوء على دور الرؤية الكونيّة الإلٰهيّة (العقيدة) في تأسيس الرؤية الآيديولوجيّة من خلال دراسة المفاهيم التصوريّة الدخيلة في تكوين الاتّجاه المعرفيّ للمقالة عبر أهمّ حدّين يلازمان جميع مفاصلها وهما: الرؤية الكونيّة والآيديولوجيّة للانتقال بعد ذٰلك إلى تناول قضايا الرؤية الكونيّة والمتمثّلة في خصوص القضايا الواقعيّة الكلاميّة؛ وبناءً على ذٰلك يمكن تقسيم الرؤية الكونيّة إلى الإلٰهيّة والمادّيّة لنخلص إلى الدور التوليديّ بين الرؤية الكونيّة الإلٰهيّة والرؤية الآيديولوجيّة، ثمّ تختتم هٰذه المقالة بالتعرّض إلى المدخل والمنهج المعرفيّين المستخدمين فيهما.


Article
First Doctrinal Necessity
الواجب الاعتقاديّ الأوّل

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Summary The question of first doctrinal necessity is one of the most controversial issues in theology. The books of theology have discussed it and raised the question about it among all other doctrinal obligations. This matter has turned into a controversial topic, taking a very scope that every scholar has come to offer his own vision about the first doctrinal necessity. From the most important theories in this study are: doubt, intent and will, consideration and reasoning, and the knowing of Allah. So if it is meant by first doctrinal necessity the first according to the original meaning, then it must be said that one of its evidences is the knowing of Allah. But if first is meant to be the first in any case, then it is meant to be the first doctrinal necessity. Thus, if we believe in innate and heartfelt knowing of Allah, then the belief in Allah and having faith in Him will be the first necessity. الخلاصة مسألة الواجب الاعتقاديّ الأوّل واحدةٌ من أكثر المسائل إثارةً للنقاش والجدل في علم الكلام، ومن أهمّ نظريّات هٰذا البحث: الشكّ، والقصد والإرادة، والنظر والاستدلال، ومعرفة الله. فإذا كان المقصود من الواجب الأوّل هو الأوّل بحسب المقصود الأصليّ فيجب القول إنّ مصداقه هو معرفة الله، وإذا كان المقصود من الأوّل هو الأوّل بأيّ عنوانٍ كان، فالقصد هو الواجب الاعتقادي الأوّل. وإذا كنّا نعتقد بمعرفة الله الفطريّة والقلبيّة، فالاعتقاد بالله والإيمان به سيكون أوّل واجبٍ.


Article
Integral Approach And Ontological Vision
المنهج التكامليّ والرؤية الوجوديّة

Authors: Salih Al-Waeli صالح الوائلي
Pages: 107-137
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Summary This article offers a serious analytical study of systematic thinking process to get to the highest universal facts, which are called as the universal vision or philosophical vision that constitutes man’s cognitive belief about this existence. The aim of this study is to offer a view on positive methodological behavior in the process of building the doctrinal system by making use of all cognitive tools, and to make the most use of its data in proving the existential realities, and provide a real discussion of the contradiction between them. We also try, in this study, to get to a clear vision in making the cognitive tools integrative and not destructive, through the reference to their only authentic source, which is reason; the absolute scientific perceptual dominating tool in all levels of thought. Through the various tools of knowledge, we can define the paths of making the universal doctrinal vision. In the first rank of faith, we have only the judgments of reason independent of any other tool; otherwise, we are faced by the imperatives of period, sequence, and the impossibility of getting to required certainty. As to the second rank, we can depend on two tools; the first is sense to prove the claim of prophethood by seeing the miracle or relying on recurrent traditions, and the second is to depend on text in proving the supernatural world in details. However, all that should be under the shade of reason and its judgments, for any other tool has no independence in any judgment; because they all depend, in their authenticity, on reason. الخلاصة البحث هو دراسةٌ تحليليّةٌ جادّةٌ لعمليّة التفكير المنهجيّ في الوصول إلى الحقائق الكونيّة العليا الّتي يعبّر عنها بالرؤية الكونيّة أو الفلسفيّة الّتي تشكل عقيدة الإنسان الإدراكيّة حول هٰذا الوجود، والهدف من هٰذا البحث هو إعطاء رؤية حول السلوك المنهجيّ الإيجابيّ في عمليّة بناء المنظومة العقديّة من خلال استثمار الأدوات المعرفيّة كافّةً والاستفادة القصوى من معطياتها في إثبات الحقائق الوجوديّة، وتقديم معالجة حقيقيّةٍ للتعارض الحاصل بينها بدوًّا، كما ونسعى من خلال البحث التوصّل إلى رؤيةٍ واضحةٍ في جعل الأدوات المعرفيّة تكامليّةً لا تهادميّةً؛ وذٰلك بالرجوع إلى مصدر حجّيّتها الوحيد الّذي هو العقل الإدراكيّ الحاكم العلميّ المطلق في مستويات الفكر كافّةً.


Article
The Relation between Faith and Behavior The doctrine of modern deferment as an example
العلاقة بين العقيدة والسلوك عقيدة الإرجاء نموذجًا

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Summary This study deals with the relation between faith and behavior, showing its kind, discussing the mutual effects, and defining the position of this relation in the cognitive system of Islam, and its influence in moral progression and spiritual perfection of man, which may take him to the position of full monotheism (essence, attributes, and actions). The study also discusses the negative side of the phenomenon of separation between faith and behavior. Perhaps the most dangerous of these intellectual trends is that which the Murji’ah believe in, because it would politically justify the rulers’ injustice and oppression on the one hand, and socially will spread in the Muslim society moral degeneration and behavioral deviation on the other hand. The Murji’ah - whether we say it is a political creed assuming religious faith, or it is a doctrinal creed whose thought has been employed for politics - call for the separation of faith from behavior, and believe that faith and he belief in the two testimonies (shahadatayn) are sufficient, no matter how deviated man is in his behavior. There is no doubt how dangerous this Umayyad thought is from two sides: The first is that it justifies deviation and considers it legal in the name of religion, just as the Umayyads made injustice legal in the name of religion, when they fabricated the theory that said it was illegal to rise against unjust rulers. This theory had given oppressive rulers immunity in the face of any revolt against them that lasted for more than a thousand years. With this theory, they numbed the Umma and stopped its progress and development, until it has reached what it is in nowadays of backwardness and decline. The Second is the danger of the method they follow in their reasoning. It is the method of selective ijtihad based on selecting certain evidences to produce such a dangerous theory. And all of that comes under the argument of ijtihad, which is also the most dangerous theory known to Islamic thought at all; because it is the only tool they have adopted to tear up religion and break up the Umma in the name of religion and the name of legality of ijtihad, where the Umma is still paying the price of this deadly theory with its animosity and disgusting sectarian wars. In spite of the extinction of the Murji’ah as a theologian sect, and, in fact, the extinction of deferment thought in general, we see that there are ideas spreading from time to time in our nowadays societies, having the impressions of this thought and its extensions that separate faith from behavior, like the thoughts spread among the youth, especially in schools, universities, and open societies, that call for the unnecessity of committing to religious obligations, under the pretext that purity of heart makes man in no need of committing to those obligations, being unaware of the role of faith and behavior in spiritual perfection and moral progress for man. In fact, faith and behavior are two wings with which man does fly to the ranks of perfection. So, true faith can change the entire course of man’s life, and lift him from the bottom of material life to the top of moral height. البحث في هٰذه الدراسة يدور حول العلاقة بين العقيدة والسلوك، وبيان نوعها ودراسة تأثيراتها المتبادلة بينهما، وتحديد موقع هٰذه العلاقة في المنظومة المعرفيّة للإسلام، وتأثيرها في الرقيّ المعنويّ والتكامل الروحيّ للإنسان الّذي قد يوصله إلى مقام التوحيد التامّ (الذاتيّ والصفاتيّ والأفعاليّ)، كما درس البحث الّذي بين أيديكم الجانب السلبيّ لظاهرة الانفكاك بين العقيدة والسلوك، وسلّط الضوء على عقيدة الإرجاء نموذجًا.


Article
Qur'anic approach to rooting of Faith Applied analytical study
المنهج القرآنيّ في تأصيل العقيدة دراسةٌ تحليليّةٌ تطبيقيّةٌ

Authors: Yahya Aal Dukhi يحيى آل دوخي
Pages: 169-203
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Summary In this study, we discuss the Qur›anic approach that establishes faith in man, by offering the tools that form the Quranic approach or that the Quran has used It is the approach of common sense, reason, debate and story. So, our study discusses these methods objectively and scientifically, and shows the applications of every approach taking them from the Qur’an itself. After defining common sense, we deal with its applicable area, such as the phenomena of livelihood, life and death, and Knowledge of the Unseen. These areas cause to man an obsession that drives him, by common sense and conscience, to believe in the oneness of Allah. So is the rational approach. Reason in the Qur›anic and Hadith texts is the implicit authority, while prophets are the explicit authority. Reason, for man, is the tool of thinking, and the measure of distinguishing between good and evil. In fact, the realizing of all good is done by reason. We have defined reason and mentioned its applications, including the belief in the Wise Maker and Administrator, and the belief in prophethood and afterlife, and so on with the rest of the other approaches, such as debate which is just a goal and purpose, but not a means to get to the right and distinguish it from falsehood. Then comes the historical narrative approach, which has so many divine lessons and examples. The result of this study is to get to the fact that the Qur’an has rooted in man certain beliefs that form the basis of the faith in Almighty Allah. As to the term of Qur›anic approach included in this study, we mean by it our understanding of the method and the way which the Holy Quran followed through its holy verses, to consolidate and root faith in the soul of man. The method used in these verses may be to raise reason, common sense, or persuasion, so that man may get to know well Almighty Allah, know His prophets and messengers, and know resurrection and the Afterlife. And so on in the rest of the doctrinal system. The Holy Quran has given to faith a great role in man’s life, and deepened in the human soul certain methods that man can follow with light and guidance. Our study tries to show these methods and define their applications through Quranic verses and exegetic views. Here, we brief the methods as the following: 1 - Innate approach: its reference to the general fundamentals of religion concerning the oneness of Almighty Allah. We have talked about the important applications of this approach through phenomena leading to it, such livelihood, knowledge of the unseen, and so on. And all of them are in harmony with this approach. They take man to believe in his Lord and Creator. 2 - Rational approach: this approach may be the most important one in the consolidation of faith. Surely, the main axis for the belief in Allah, prophethood, and the afterlife is reason. So, reason, as a criterion, is present throughout this study. We have discussed its important role in believing in the maker of life, prophethood, and resurrection, through Qur’anic applications and their analysis according to reason. 3 - Persuasive dialectical approach: the basis of this approach is reason too. It seeks the facts for its own sake, and provides clear, irrefutable arguments and proofs that make opponents objectively accept and acknowledge them. We have also offered an elaborated discussion on its fields in the question of monotheism, administration of the Creator, knowing the prophet, and believing in him, and so on. 4- Story and its method has active role in rooting and establishing of faith, through its psychological and emotional impact on human soul. The Holy Qur’an has given to story a great importance in this concern. So, has come the stories of Prophet Noah, Abraham and David to confirm this purpose. الخلاصة في هٰذا البحث نتناول المنهج القرآنيّ الّذي يرسخ العقيدة عند الإنسان، وذٰلك بطرحنا للأدوات الّتي يتألّف منها المنهج القرآنيّ أو الّتي استعملها القرآن الكريم، وهي منهج الفطرة والعقل والجدل والقصّة، فبحثنا هو دراسة هٰذه المناهج بموضوعيّة وعلميّة، وذكر التطبيقات لكل منهجٍ من القرآن نفسه، فالفطرة بعد تعريفها عرّجنا على مجالها التطبيقيّ، كظاهرة الرزق وظاهرة الحياة والموت وظاهرة علم الغيب، فهٰذه المجالات تخلق عند الإنسان هاجسًا يدفعه بالوجدان والفطرة إلى توحيد الله والإيمان به، وهٰكذا المنهج العقليّ، فالعقل في النصّ القرآنيّ والروائيّ هو الحجّة الباطنة، كما أنّ الرسل الحجّة الظاهرة، فهو أداة التفكير عند الإنسان، ومعيار التمييز بين الخير والشرّ، بل إنّ إدراك الخير كلّه يكون بواسطة العقل، وقد حدّدنا تعريفه وذكرنا أيضًا تطبيقاته، ومن ضمنها، الاعتقاد بالصانع الحكيم المدبّر، والاعتقاد بالنبوّة والمعاد، وهٰكذا الحال في بقيّة المناهج الأخرى، كالجدل الّذي هو غايةٌ وهدفٌ وليس وسيلةً للوصول إلى الحقّ وتمييزه عن الباطل، والمنهج القصصيّ التاريخيّ ففيه من السنن الربّانيّة والعبر والدروس ما لا يخفى، ونتيجة هٰذه البحوث هي الوصول إلى أنّ القرآن غرس وأصّل في نفس الإنسان العقيدة الّتي هي أساس الإيمان بالله جلّ شأنه. وأمّا مفردة المنهج القرآنيّ الّذي تضمّنته هٰذه الدراسة، فنقصد بها فهمنا للأسلوب والطريق الّذي سلكه القرآن الكريم، من خلال آياته الشريفة؛ لتأصيل وترسيخ العقيدة في نفس الإنسان، فقد يكون المنهج المتّبع لدلالة هٰذه الآيات هو إثارة العقل أو الفطرة أو الإقناع؛ لكي يصل الإنسان إلى معرفته - جلّ وعلا - ومعرفة أنبيائه ورسله والبعث والمعاد، وهٰكذا في بقيّة المنظومة العقديّة.


Article
ضرورة البحث عن الدين والعقيدة؛ شبهةٌ وردودٌ

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Abstract

الخلاصة يشكّك البعض بفائدة البحث عن العقيدة لأسبابٍ وذرائع مختلفةٍ. وحاولنا في هٰذه المقالة التركيز على الشبهة القائلة بعدم فائدة بحثٍ كهٰذا وبأنّه لغوٌ، وذٰلك من خلال تعميم هٰذه الشبهة وتوسيع دائرتها لتشمل الدين. ومع أنّ هٰذه الشبهة يمكن أن تنشأ من عوامل مختلفةٍ، بيد أنّ العامل الّذي ركّزت عليه هٰذه المقالة هو اليأس من الوصول إلى نتيجةٍ معيّنةٍ وقطعيّةٍ في البحث عن الاعتقادات الصحيحة. وقد أثبتت التجربة أنّ الإنسان يصل إلى نتيجةٍ معيّنة في بحثه في أيّ علمٍ، وأنّه يستفيد من النتائج المستخلصة من بحثه. وإذا ما نظرنا نظرةً أوسع فسنرى أنّ الإنسان يسعى وراء الأشياء ذات النتيجة القطعيّة بالنسبة له، أو تلك الّتي يأمل أن تكون ذات نتيجةٍ قطعيّةٍ، ولا يبدو البحث عن العقيدة والدين - حسب وجهة النظر هٰذه - بحثًا هادفًا. في معرض جوابنا النقضيّ عن هٰذه الشبهة، نرى أنّها واردة على النتائج الّتي يمكن الحصول عليها من العلوم الأخرى، خصوصًا العلوم التجريبيّة. فمواضيع مثل احتساب مقدار الْمُحْتَمَلِ إلى جانب مقدار الاحتمال في تعيين قيمة أيّ عملٍ، وحكم العقل والفطرة بضرورة جلب المنفعة ودفع الضرر المحتمل، وعدم وجود يقينٍ منطقيٍّ بعدم فائدة البحث الدينيّ، وإمكان الوصول إلى اليقين في المسائل الأساسيّة للدين الصحيح عن طريق المصادر والمعايير المعتبرة، بل تحقق هٰذا اليقين؛ وكون البحث عن الحقائق- ومن جملتها الدين والحقائق الدينيّة- أمرًا فطريًّا، وإرجاع مواضيع التديّن والبحث عن الإلٰه وعبادته إلى الفطرة؛ ولزوم البحث عن الكمال بين الرؤى الكونيّة والآيديولوجيّات المرتبطة بها وضرورة الوصول إليه على أساس الميول الفطريّة لدى البشر؛ تعدّ مفاتيح حلّ الشبهة المذكورة.

Table of content: volume: issue:1