Table of content

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal

مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان

ISSN: 18121217
Publisher: Mosul University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental sciences
Date of first issue: 2001
No of Issues: 27 issues
publishing biannually till 2012
publishing becomes triannually at 2013

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Contact info

University of Mosul
College of Dentistry - Deanery Building
Tel. 009647481705863

e mail:

Table of content: 2011 volume:11 issue:3

Article
Effect of Microwave and Ultrasonic Disinfecting Techniques on the color of Artificial Teeth: A Comparative Study

Authors: Omar A. Sheet
Pages: 1-11
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ABSTRACT Aims of the Study: To evaluate the influence of disinfection by microwave and ultrasonic cleaning techniques on the color parameters of different types of artificial teeth used in prosthodontic treatment. MATERIALS & METHODS: Three types of artificial teeth were used: Porcelain teeth, RMH acrylic teeth (double cross linked) and Seif acrylic teeth (cross linked). Samples were immersed in distilled water for 48 hours at 37ºC before taking measurements. The color parameters (hue, chroma and value) of study samples were measured by Easy shade device before treatment, after disinfection by microwave (800 watt for 6 minutes), and lastly after cycle in ultrasonic cleaner (15minutes with effervescent tablet). Data were statistically analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan Multiple Analysis Range Test to determine the level of significance. RESULTS: Color of acrylic teeth was affected more than that of porcelain teeth. Results showed significant differences (P<0.05) in chroma and value color parameters before and after disinfection for Acrylic teeth but not for hue parameter. CONCLUSIONS: Seif teeth colors changed during disinfection more than RMH teeth, while Porcelain teeth the least. Microwave disinfection technique do not affect significantly the color of denture teeth


Article
An extra oral prosthesis for extensive maxillofacial defect: A clinical report

Authors: BasharA.Tawfeeq --- Mohammed A. Abdulla
Pages: 12-16
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AIMS: Prosthetic rehabilitation of the patient by extraoral appliance, restoring the losing eye, part of the nose, cheek, roof of the palate (left side), and improving esthetic, phonetic and mastication of the patient. METHODS: Impression and making of the working cast, Sculpture of the wax pattern, artificial eye made from acrylic resin, body of prosthesis made from acrylic resin lined with soft lining material, silicon elastomers of maxillofacial applied to the prosthesis for life like skin appearance, and delivery of the prosthesis to the patient. CONCLUSIONS: Many methods of retaining the maxillofacial prosthesis have been used like tissue under cuts,magnets, medical adhesives, osseointegrated implants or combination of them. The prognosis was poor for the prosthetic treatment because of the extensive defect size, radiation applied all around the defect area make a challenge to get benefit from implant fixed in the surrounding bony area to enhance the retention of the prosthesis, and little bony support. For the case which describe in this report, retention obtained from hard and soft tissue under cut


Article
Antifungal Activity of Some Natural Oils on Heat Cured Acrylic and Tissue Conditioning Material

Authors: Reem N. Al-Irhayim
Pages: 17-24
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Aims of the Study: The current study aims to evaluate the effect of some natural products (olive oil, thymus oil,and grap seed oil) in relation to Protifex on disinfection of acrylic resin denture base and tissue conditioning materials (Heat Cured and GC extra soft denture liner). Materials and method: The total number of samples were 30 specimens , their dimensions were (10x10x2mm). 15 specimens were prepared from heat cured acrylic resin and 15 were prepared from GC extrasoft tissue conditioing material, for each group they were immersed for 8hrs in these oils after they had been infected with Candida albicans and incubated for 48hrs. This study compared antifungal efficiency of distilled water (Negative Control), effervescent Protifex tablet as a positive control, olive oil, thymus oil, and grape seed oil. The statistical tests used were one way analysis of variance test, Duncan multiple range test to compare the groups. Results: The results demonstrated that there were significant differences between all tested oils and D.W in relation to antifungal activity at (P=0.05). Conclusions: All the tested natural oils were effective as fungicidal agents and there is no significant difference among them


Article
The effect of addition chlorhixidine gluconate (powder) on the properties of heat cured acrylic resin

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Aims of the Study: The current study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of chlorohexidine gluconate (CHX) (powder) on some physical , mechanical properties and antimicrobial effect. Materials and Methods: In this study two hundred and forty samples of heat cured acrylic resin (Major base-2) were prepared and divided into: control group( without the addition of CHX) and experimental groups(with the addition of CHX(powder) at (1%, 2%, 3%)) to evaluate transverse strength, tensile strength, , surface hardness, dimensional accuracy, deflection , residual monomer in addition to antimicrobial effect for heat cured acrylic resin before and after the addition of CHX(powder). Results: Results showed a statistically significant difference at (p0.05) between control and experimental groups. The addition of CHX (powder) into heat cured acrylic resin increases its flexibility in addition to it's antimicrobial effect. Group of 1% CHX has the highest value of transverse strength, tensile strength ,surface hardness and dimensional accuracy after control group. Conclusions: In addition to its antimicrobial effect, CHX increases the flexibility of heat cured acrylic resin. As the concentration of added CHX increased, the flexibility of heat cured acrylic resin specimens will be increased

Keywords

CHX --- acrylic resin --- flexibility


Article
The Knowledge and professional attitudes toward denture adhesives in Mosul

Authors: Hydar M Shindala --- Hala K Ali --- Nadira A Hatim
Pages: 35-43
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Aims: The aims of the present study is evaluate the dentist knowledge and believes toward denture adhesive through generation of discussion among dentist (in ministry of health and ministry of higher education) in Mosul city. Materials and Methods: In a dental meeting that held on April 2009 in College of Dentistry ,university of Mosul ,a questionnaire paper was given to 264 dentist which consist of two: part the first one evaluate dentist knowledge about denture adhesive, the second one evaluate the dentist attitude toward denture adhesive. Result: The findings of the present study showed that (9.8%, 67.8% and 22.4%) of dentists had respectively weak, moderate and good knowledge toward denture adhesive while( 3.1%, 80.4% and 16.6%) had respectively negative, moderate and positive attitude toward denture adhesive materials. The 2 test showed non significant statistical relation between dentist knowledge about denture adhesives and their previous years of experience, place of work, sex and their degree of education. Statistical analysis methods used to analyze and asses the result of this study were SPSS version 13.0. Conclusions: The findings of the present study showed that dentist knowledge and attitude toward denture adhesive materials was moderate. Their information about denture adhesive indications, contraindications, advantages and disadvantages were very poor therefore prosthodontic specialist in College of Dentistry, University of Mosul should insist on denture adhesive in student's curriculum with increasing the credit hours


Article
An Enveloped Auricular Prosthesis for Ear Defect: A Clinical Report

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Prosthetic rehabilitation of the patient by extraoral auricular appliance. Restoring defect part of the ear. Improving esthetic of the patient. METHODS: Impression taking and making of the working cast. Sculpture of the wax pattern. Try-in step for the wax pattern. Enveloped auricular prosthesis made from maxillofacial silicon elastomers. Delivery of the prosthesis to the patient. CONCLUSIONS: To make maxillofacial prosthesis, the shape, volume, position, texture and transparency of the patient's features tried to be respected. One of the greatest challenges faced is to reproduce the patient's exact skin color and provide adequate esthetics

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Article
Determination the flow of experimental modeling waxes by using Vicat apparatus

Authors: Ahmad W. Alubaidi --- Amer A Taqa --- Nadira A Hatim
Pages: 49-57
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Aim of the study: measuring the flow of new experimental modeling waxes. Materials and methods: preparation of one hundred twenty (120) samples of different experimental modeling waxes by mixing of different percentages of Iraqi natural waxes ( hard paraffin, soft paraffin and beeswax) and additives (starch, gum Arabic, rosin and Na-carboxymethylcellulose) using mold made from brass according to ADA specification and measure the flow of them by using vicat apparatus after making modification on it. Results: The experimental modeling wax (80% hard paraffin + 20% soft paraffin) and (80% beeswax + 20% soft paraffin) had the most nearest properties to control (Polywax) at 40c°and 45c° and experimental modeling wax (90% beeswax + 10% starch) to control (Major) at 40c° and experimental modeling waxes (80% beeswax + 20% hard paraffin), (80% hard paraffin + 15% soft paraffin + 5% beeswax), (70% hard paraffin + 20% soft paraffin + 10% beeswax) and (90% beeswax + 10% starch) to control (Major) at 45c°. Conclusions: The flow of waxes increased with increasing heating temperature from 40°C to 45°C

Keywords

flow --- wax --- vicat apparatus


Article
Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Properties of Saliva on Retention of Complete Denture (In Vitro Study)

Authors: Manar N Y Nazhat --- Tarik Y. KBashi --- Amer A Taqa
Pages: 58-66
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Aims of this research to study the effect of surface area on retention of complete denture. Materials and methods: Oral examination clinically, some of physical and biochemical analysis of human unstimulated whole saliva have been studied. They constituted in three groups (25 in each the first and the third group) and (50 in the second group). The first group was healthy and aged (20-30) years, the second group was healthy and aged (50-70) years, also the third group aged (50-70) years but with systemic diseases.The following parameters were studied: flow rate, pH, total protein, density, surface tension, viscosity and film thickness. Total protein concentration was responsible for physical and chemical changes specially viscosity. There was a direct positive correlation between total protein and surface tension, viscosity, density and film thickness, while there was a negative correlation between total protein and with flow rate and pH. The measurement of force due to surface tension of these samples have been done by preparing two pairs of circular discs of (PMMA) of (5.2,6.5) cm in diameter and compare of force between these groups, also compare these physical analysis with mathematic analysis. Results: indicated that in both the first and the third groups, the physical and mathematic analysis for retention showed non significant changes while in the second group showed significant changes. Conclusions :there was a positive correlation between force and wetted area and this force was due to wettability and not to water sorption

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Article
Evaluation of the effect of the temperature and time on the conversion factor of acrylic resin denture base material

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The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of change in time ,temperature (increase or decrease) on the degree of conversion and residual monomer release of the vertex heat cured acrylic resin. Materials and methods: The total number of samples (176) were divided into three main groups cured according to ADA and three curing cycles with modifications in time and temperature, degree of conversion and residual monomer properties were measured for all the samples. Results were analyzed statistically by (Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test) and showed that both changes in time and temperature showed significant changes in the degree of conversion, residual monomer. Conclusion is that the rapid simplified and regular manufacturer’s instruction curing cycles showed the best results regarding the degree of conversion, residual monomer


Article
Evaluation of the Effect of Implant-numbers, Position and Complete Over Denture on Alveolar Bone Resorption

Authors: Ali M. AlSheakh --- Nadira A Hatim
Pages: 80-92
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The aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the alveolar bone resorption every 2.5mm distal to the implant over denture to the retromolar pad in the mandibular arch, and to the maxillary tuberosity in the maxillary arch in edentulous patient according to number between two and four, and position of implants between canine and 2nd premolar. Materials and Methods: Eight patients (age range 45-60 years) were selected from the department of Prosthodontics/ College of Dentistry/Mosul University, who had at least one edentulous arch. All patients complaining from poorly retention conventional acrylic complete denture due to the residual ridge resoption, but the alveolar ridge height need at least 10mm implant length.After completing the surgical steps of 26 implants (two or four implant screw type titanium), over denture type with one step surgery for all implant types were constructed in conventional method after one month healing period. The prosthesis was delivered to the patients after one months of making the period elapsed. Dentures were delivered without socket attachment(six months). For assessment of alveolar bone height, for each patient panoramic exposure of OPG was recorded – three times [base line(at time of placement) , 6 months and 12 months]. Results: Results of this study showed, that mean difference of bone resoption range between [-0.2 –(-0.6)mm], and there was a significant difference of bone resoption between base line and 12 months to p0.05 according to number and position of implants. Conclusions: The conclusion of this study showed that, there was no significant different of alveolar ridge bone resoption between implants number in two or four implants over denture or implant position


Article
The Fungicidal action of Some Natural Products (Denture cleansers ) on Acrylic Denture Base Material

Authors: Rana Rabee AL- --- Nadira A Hatim
Pages: 93-99
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Aim: To evaluate some natural products (soda+ vinegar, soda + thymol , saturated salt solution) compared with the commercial denture cleanser (Protifex), for disinfection of acrylic denture base material from C. albicans (in vitro ). Materials And Methods: Thirty five samples, (10 x 10 x 2 mm length, width, and thickness respectively), were prepared from heat cured acrylic resin denture base material (Major heat cured acrylic resin ), using MacFarland Standard Bacteriologica Solution technique, tube No.2., using a light microscope with camera connected to computer for testing anti fungal efficiency of these natural denture cleansers (soda, vinegar, thymol, saturated salt solution). This procedure was done after 1hour, 4hours, and 8 hours of immersion. in comparison with samples immersed in distilled water, (Control). Results: The results demonstrated that at P=0.05 there were significant differences between all prepared solutions and control. The best prepared natural solution was saturated salt solution. There were significant differences between all times of immersion, the best was 8hrs. Conclusions: All the prepared natural denture cleansers were considered as fungicidal disinfectants, and a proper disinfection of the acrylic denture base material requires 8hrs of immersion in the prepared disinfectant solutions. The best prepared natural solution was saturated salt solution

Keywords

Denture cleanser --- anti


Article
Denture Disinfection by Microwave at Different Times and Powers

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Aims: To evaluate the best microwave power and the proper time that disinfect acrylic resin denture base material. Methodology: Fifty five samples were prepared from heat cured acrylic resin(10mmx10mmx2mm) then immersed in glass flask containing brain heart broth and inculated with swabs from patients wearing complete denture divided into: negative control group (untreated), positive control group immersed in 0.02% sodium hypochlorite for 8 hours, and nine groups of different microwave disinfection settings (different powers and times),then immersed in sterile BHI broth individually and diluted up to 10-4 and 0.01ml plated in blood agar and Sabouraud's dextrose agar and CFU/ml were collected. Results: analysis of the data showed a significant difference between tested groups. Conclusions: microwave disinfection at 900W and 540W for 3minutes showed both antifungal and antibacterial effect


Article
Aesthetic replacement of malposed upper lateral incisor by implant supported ceramic crown

Authors: Saad Yasin Nori
Pages: 107-112
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Aims of the Study: To show the possibility of replacement of malposed upper lateral incisor by implant supported ceramic crown without raising a flap after extracting the tooth Materials and methods: An Implant of Xive type made by Dentsply – Friadent of diameter 3.4 and length 13 mm was implanted immediately after extraction of the malposed upper lateral incisor of a woman of 44 years old through the socket without raising a flap .A removable upper single tooth partial denture was inserted immediately after implant insertion. After 3 months period exposure of the implant was done and a gingival former was fixed for 2weeks period after which an impression by elastic material was done after fixing transfer coping on the implant. A cast was made and a ceramic crown was made on the implant with proper shape and color and position which is fixed on the implant in the patient mouth. Results:The ceramic crown which is supported by the implant gave a better aesthetic result than the malposed natural lateral incisor regarding shape and position in relation to the adjacent teeth. Conclusions: Malposed upper anterior tooth could be replaced by implant supported ceramic crown successfully with out raising a flap giving better aesthetic value than before

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Article
Evaluation of propolis to modify soft denture lining materials, part I

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Aims to evaluate some properties of temporary soft liner (Bony plus) and permanent soft liner (vertex) before and after adding propolis extracts to it. Materials and methods ethanolic extracts of propolis(ethanolic extract of propolis) was added to temporary soft liner (Bony plus), and glycolic extract of propolis(glycolic extract of propolis) was added to permanent soft liner (vertex), then the volumetric dimensional changes, hardness, water absorption and solubility were evaluate, the total samples were (128). Results showed the presence of significant diffrence in the Hardness, Water absorption and Solubility of the modified soft liners (After adding propolis to it), and there was no significant diffrence in the volume of the soft liners before and after adding propolis.Conclusions the volumetric changes of modified and control group of permanent soft liner (vertex) was no significantly different, The modification type (for both permanent and temporary) of soft liner was significantly softer than the control group along the period of storage (1 month) and the modification type (for both permanent and temporary) of soft liner was significantly have more water absorption and solubility than the control group along the period of storage (1 month)

Keywords

Propolis --- soft liner --- hardness


Article
Laser versus conventional acid etching technique on bond strength on orthodontic brackets (An in vitro study)

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Aims: This in vitro study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of acid etching and/or diode laser (1064 nm) irradiation on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted human premolars were included in this study. Laser irradiation was done by using the new 1064 nm diode laser with output power of 2.5 Watt in continues mode, also use stainless steel orthodontic brackets (Roth, 22–slot size), and use orthodontic flowable composite resin which needs no bonding fluid. The 30 human teeth were divided into 3 groups (each group consist of 10 teeth): Group A–use acid etching (37% phosphoric acid) for 1 minute to bond bracket to tooth surface (control group), group B–use laser irradiation for 30 seconds with Indian ink (coated on teeth). Group C–use laser irradiation for 30 seconds with Indian ink after that use acid etching for 1 minute. Shear bond strength measured by using unconfined shear testing machine at a cross head speed of 5 mm/min. Results: The shear bond strength means were as follows: Group A: 11.27 MPa, group B: 6.21 MPa, group C: 14.04 MPa. The acid etching after 1064 nm diode laser irradiation (group C) has significantly higher bond strength (p 0.05) than remaining groups. In group B, orthodontic brackets had significantly lower shear bond strength (p 0.05) than remaining groups. Conclusions: These results indicate that acid etching after laser irradiation enhances and improves the bonding of orthodontic composite resin to human enamel. In the same time 1064 nm diode laser irradiation with ink coating is not consider as a replacement to acid etching in bonding of orthodontic brackets to human enamel


Article
Success and failure rates of orthodontic micro implants (a clinical study)

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Aims: To evaluate the rates of success and failure regarding the mobility of orthodontic microimplants in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic appliance treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 36 titanium microimplants (AbsoAnchor®, Dentos inc. Korea) inserted in 15 female patients. The mean age for the patients was 25.53 years. Microimplants of 1.2 mm in diameter and 6–10 mm in length were used. A self–drilling method was used. A small vertical stab incision and the microimplants inserted with a screwdriver. The patients were seen periodically every 3–4 weeks. A microimplant with complete absence of a clinically detectable mobility was considered as a successful one. Whereas failure was defined as a microimplant mobility within 8 months. Results and Discussion: The total success rate for microimplants for both jaws was (86.1%). Whereas a (91.7%) success rate was recorded in the upper jaw and in the lower jaw it was (75%).Despite of higher failure rates in the mandible, which may be attributed to the occlusal force, yet they remain non significantly different from those in maxilla. Conclusions: The relatively high success rates of microimplants make them an appropriate solution for providing absolute anchorage whenever being needed in orthodontic therapy


Article
Anterior open bite :causative factors and diagnosis

Authors: Anfal A Al–Ani
Pages: 136-143
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ABSTRACT The real difficulty behind the treatment of open bite is the easy relapse, for it has a multifactorial nature. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the reliability of two differential ways in the diagnosis of the open bites, looking out for the causative factors, aiding in more specific treatment plan and less relapse. Materials and Methods: A sample of 53 anterior open bite cases, all in the post–pubertal and early adulthood period (17–25 years), was assessed twice, clinically and cephalometrically. Due to clinical assessments, the whole sample was grouped as “Morphogenetic” and “Functional” groups. The same sample was also cephalometrically assessed and grouped as “Skeletal” and “Dento–alveolar” using mandibular plane angle, suspected that the morphogenetic group clinically matches the cephalometrically assessed skeletal group in number; also the functional group clinically matches the cephalometrically assessed Dento–alveolar group in number. Student’s t–test indicated a weak agreement between clinical judgment and cephalometric evaluation (p < 0.001). Results: Unexpectedly, the sample which assessed as skeletal hyper–divergent cephalometrically, half of it in fact was classified as functional cases clinically. This misdiagnosis may lead to inadequate treatment plan, in which relapse should be highly expected. Conclusions: These findings highlighted that, it is not enough to depend on “cephalometric evaluation” alone to design the treatment plan for open bite cases. Clinical evaluation is also important to point out the real causative factors for designing an adequate treatment plan (i.e., rehabilitation of the soft tissue bad habits, when needed) to reduce the prevalence of relapse


Article
Evaluation of calcium hydroxide apexification in immature permanent incisors

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Aims of the Study: The aim of the present study is to identify the effectiveness of tgpaste of calcium hydroxide with barium sulfate in inducing a calcified apical barrier of an incompletely formed root in necrotic permanent incisors of children. Materials and Methods: Twenty children with twenty teeth with pulpal necrotic and an incompletely formed apex were included in this study. Working length determination, instrumentation, irrigation and dryness were carried out for the root canals then paste of non setting calcium hydroxide injected inside the canal and after each 3 months the patients were recalled to check the calcified apical barrier formation. Results: The average age of patients was years. The mean duration for apical barrier formation was 6.813+1.1 months (range 6–12 months). Discussion: The use of calcium hydroxide in apical barrier formation has shown promising results. Because of its enhanced success rate, easy availability for clinician and affordability for patients, it has gained widest acceptance all around the world. Conclusions: It is generally agreed that calcium hydroxide is the major ingredient responsible for stimulating the desired calcific closure of the apical area of non–vital immature permanent incisors


Article
Effect of chlorhexidine mouth wash and flouridated mouth wash on mechanical properties of orthodontic arch wires (An in vitro study)

Authors: Khawla M Awni --- Hind T Jarjees --- Hakam H Sabah
Pages: 150-159
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Aims: The aims of the this study were to measure the effect of chlorhexidine and fluoridated mouth wash on mechanical properties of stainless steel and nickel titanium wires and to study the effect of three time intervals (3, 7, and 10 days) immersion on these mechanical properties. Materials and Methods: Two types of orthodontic wires were taken which included stainless steel and superelastic nickel titanium wires (Dentaurum, Germany). The 0.016×0.016 inch wires were selected. Each type of wires divided into seven groups; control group and six experimental groups in which the wires immersed in the chlorhexidine and fluoridated mouth wash for 3, 7, and 10 days and then the mechanical properties of wires (yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, modulus of elasticity) measured by using the universal tensile testing machine. Results: The results of the present study showed that a significant difference in the mechanical properties of both stainless steel and nickel titanium wires between the control group and experimental groups immersed in the fluoridated mouth wash and this decreased in the mechanical properties as immersion time increased. Also the results of the present study showed that a non significant difference in the mechanical properties of both stainless steel and nickel titanium wires between the control group and experimental groups immersed in the chlorhexidine mouth wash. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that the fluoridated mouth wash decreased the mechanical properties of stainless steel and nickel titanium wires and this degradation in mechanical properties could contributed to prolong orthodontic treatment. While the chlorhexidine has no effect on mechanical properties of stainless steel and nickel titanium wires


Article
Correlation of the maxillary sinus with the craniofacial dimensions in different age groups (A study on digital lateral cephalometric radiographs of males in Mosul city

Authors: Mustafa M. Hamed --- Khidhair A Al–Jumaili
Pages: 160-168
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Aims: This study aimed to detect if there are a correlation between the maxillary sinus measurements ( height and depth) with the cranial and facial structures that probably could estimate a functional matrix rule of the maxillary sinus in the growth of these structure add to estimate the percent of increase from age group to another. Materials and Methods: A digital lateral cephalometric radiographs of 113 males with class I malocclusion from Mosul city were divided into three age groups: 14 patients Preadolescent (6-9 years), 70 patients adolescent (11-15 years) and 29 patients adult (17-42 years) with measurements taken involving the maxillary sinus height and depth, maxillary length, mandibular lengths, anterior facial height(upper and lower parts), posterior facial height (upper and lower part), cranial base dimensions then a correlation have been down between the maxillary sinus height and depth with the related dimensions of the craniofacial complex. Results: The correlation between the MSH and the related craniofacial dimensions in the three age groups showed a significantly positive correlations in nearly all of the measurement specially at adolescences and adults with just two significant positive correlations for MRL and TPFH in preadolescence, on the other hand correlating the MSH with the related measurement in general in single group showed a positive significant correlation for all measurement. While correlating the MSD with the related craniofacial dimensions showed a significantly positive correlation with MBL, TML and Nba in adult. For MBL and TML in preadolescence, but no significant correlation showed in adolescence, with a significant correlation for MSD with nearly all the related craniofacial dimensions in all age group in general. In all measurement the percentage of increase from preadolescence to adolescence more than that from adolescence to adult. Conclusions: we could concluded that in the three age groups the growth of the maxillary sinus probably may influence the related craniofacial structures as a functional matrix role in the growth mechanism


Article
The form of upper dental arch for Mosuli adults ( A computerized study)

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Aims: To find out the most frequent dental arch form in Mosuli adults. Establishment of the normative values of the upper dental arch dimensions. Materials and Methods: The sample of this study involved students from Mosul University, 95 students (58 females, 37 males) were selected. The age of the sample ranged between 18–25 years old. They were normal healthy individuals of Mosul origin. Full complement of permanent dentition, bilateral Class I molar and canine occlusion. The data recorded in this research were subjected to computerized statistical analysis using SPSS programs, including descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum), Student’s t–test was applied to test the significant differences between the genders. Results: There were highly significant differences between males and females of the vertical measurements, that males had larger arch length than females. Also, males had larger arch width with a highly significant difference at p < 0.01 in all width dimensions in maxillary arches. It could be noticed that the most prevalent arch form among the sample was the Mid form followed by the Narrow and Wide then flat & pointed forms. Conclusions: The mid arch form is the most frequent arch form followed by other types. All the measured dimensions (width and length) have significantly greater mean value in males than in females with significant difference for linear measurements. no significant difference in ratio between genders


Article
Evaluation of the effect of different points of orthodontic force application ( A typodont study)

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Aims: To determine the effect of different points of force application on dimensional positions and the ratio of space closure of maxillary canine using sliding mechanics. Mater– ials and Methods: The study included eight groups which were categorized according to the differences in the points from which the retraction force was applied. A 180 gm was applied by short elastic chain to retract the right maxillary canine on 0.018 0.025'' rectangular stainless steel (SS) wire and along 13mm available space. In both vertical and horizontal direction, photographs were taken by digital camera and the angle between canine extension bar and bite plane extension bar was measured by protractor to determine tipping and rotation whereas rate of space closure was measured by digital vernia. Results: The results showed that the maximum rate of space closure was achieved when elastic chain was attached between molar hook to canine hook and the minimum degree of tipping was achieved when elastic chain attached between premolar bracket to canine hook while minimum rotation occurred when the attachment was between premolar hook to canine hook. Conclusions: Changing the distance between the points of force application significantly affects the rate of space closure, tipping and rotation. The use of hook significantly increases the rate of space closure and decreases tipping and rotation

Keywords

Sliding --- tipping --- rotation


Article
Dental caries experience , prevalence and severity in 13-15 years old students in Mosul city center

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The aims of the present study is to determine dental caries experience, prevalence and severity in a group of 13–15 years olds. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 516 intermediate school students were examined and dental caries was recorded by DMFT values. Also, the significant caries index, care and treatment need indices were used. Results: Mean DMFT values for the total sample was 5.17 with a statistically significant age difference, females tended to have more caries than males with significant gender difference. The significant caries index was 7.98, care index which shows the restorative care was 10.39. Discussion: There has been an increase in dental caries prevalence and severity in Mosul compared with a previous study that was undertaken during the United Nations’ sanctions on Iraq, due to the availability and relative cheapness of sugars and confectionaries after 2003. Conclusions: To improve children’s oral health, community school–based oral health educational programs should be established starting from primary and extending to intermediate schools, stressing on sugar restriction and oral hygiene measures, fissure sealants and fluorides can also be used effectively


Article
Comparison of stainless steel and nickel titanium coil springs effects on the space closure rate ( in vitro study)

Authors: Wafaa Gh Al–Shahery --- Fadhil Y Jasim
Pages: 193-198
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Aim of the Study: To compare the effects of stainless steel and nickel–titanium closed coil springs with the use of Roth bracket type and different arch wires on the amount of space closure during canine retraction in a Typodont simulation system. Material and Methods: Typodont system with Class II division 1 wax form and set of metal teeth, with Roth stainless steel brackets (0.022×0.030 inch) slot dimension. Eighty stainless steel readymade (Bonwill–Hawley arch form) arch wires divided in to two groups according to the size (0.019×0.025 inch and 0.020 inch), 40 for each size. Forty stainless steel and 40 nickel–titanium closed coil springs with force 200 gm. The distance between the distal wing of canine's bracket and the mesial end of second molar's tube was (31mm) which is the available space. Results: There was a significant difference in the rate of space closure between the two types of arch wires and between nickel titanium and stainless steel closing coil springs. Discussion: The rate of space closure significantly is greater with nickel–titanium closed coil spring. Nickel–titanium closed coil spring produce more sustained light continuous force. Conclusion: Nickel– titanium closed coil spring is an efficient material for canine retraction and space closure even with different wire sizes


Article
Assessment of KÖle analysis (Yuinzing modification) in Mosul city (a cephalometric study)

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Aims: The aim of this study is to assess Köle analysis (Tuinzing modification) for determining the possible positions of chin (soft and hard tissue) in skeletal Cl.I, Cl.II and Cl. III type of malocclusion of adult age group and for both genders. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on the lateral cephalometric radiograph of (118) subjects of adult age group (18-25) years old; Cl I type (28 male and 19 female), Cl II type (19 male and 17 female) and Cl III type (18 male and female 17). SNA, SNB and ANB were used to estimate the type of skeletal malocclusion. For the analysis, 2 lines perpendicular to SN line are drawn touching the most anterior point of the upper lip-Ls (upper lip plane) and one from the infra orbital point-Or (orbital plane). The position of the chin points (hard and soft tissue) were assessed via determining the position of (Pog and Pg) respectively in relation to these two vertical planes using five scores: Score 1: give to the chin point that situated posterior to orbital plane. Score 2: give to the chin point that situated in a touch with orbital plane. Score 3: give to the chin point that situated in between orbital plane and upper lip plane. Score 4: give to the chin point that situated in a touch with upper lip plane. Score 5: give to the chin point that situated anterior to the upper lip plane. Results: The positions of Pog and Pg: Cl I mainly at score (2 and 3) respectively, Cl II mainly at score (1and 2) respectively and Cl III type Pog gave rise to slight increase of score (3 than 2) while Pg gave rise to slight increase of score (3 than 5) with no significant difference between genders for all classes. Conclusions: Köle analysis (Tuinzing modification) may be valuable for determining chin (soft and hard tissues) of Cl I, Cl II and Cl III types of malocclusion of adult age group and for both genders


Article
Bacteriological and immunological study of aggressive periodontitis in Mosul

Authors: Alaa M. Altaei --- Mahmoud Y.M. Taha
Pages: 207-214
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Aims of the study: to isolate and identify microorganisms causing aggressive periodontitis, and to estimate the changes in the levels of IL-1, TNF- and CRP in serum as well as to determine peroxidase activity in saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on total number of 40 (35 patients with aggressive periodontitis, 18 females and 17 males aged between 16-35 years and 5 control group between 20-30 years old). Samples were taken from the lesion for bacteriological study. Serum and saliva were collected and ELISA test was performed. Results: The bacteriological results showed that A. actinomycetemcomitans was the most prevalent bacteria in aggressive periodontitis, followed by facultative anaerobic. The serological and biochemical studies showed that interleukin-1 was significantly elevated in the study group while tumor necrosis factor was not, whereas peroxidase enzyme activity and C-reactive protein were also highly significant elevated in the study group. Conclusion: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was the major etiologic bacteria of this disease as well as significantly high levels of, CRP, peroxidase activity and IL-1 could be regarded as strong markers for more precise understanding the immunological aspect of this disease


Article
Antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extract of some plant leaves on aerobic and anaerobic pathogens

Authors: Ghada Y AbdulRahman
Pages: 215-219
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ABSTRACT Aims: To evaluate the antibacterial effect of ethanolic extracts of three medicinal plants (Camellia sinensis,green and black tea, and Ziziphus spp) on different aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Material and Methods: The leaves of black tea, green tea, and ziziphus from local markets were collected and extracted in ethanol, the antibacterial activity of 50 ,5, and 0.5% of the ethanol extracts against Escherechia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Actinobacilus actinomycetemcomitans, viridians streptococci and black pigmenting bacteria were investigated using paper disk diffusion technique. Results: The results obtained showed that ethanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activities against Escherechia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Actinobacilus actinomycetemcomitans, viridians streptococci and black pigmenting bacteria. The extracts produced inhibition zones ranging from 2 – 32 mm against the test bacteria compared with chlorhexidin (12-15mm). Conclusions: The ethanolic extracts of the examined plants were effective antibacterial agents against the aerobic and anaerobic bacteria especially the periodontopathogens so we suggest to use them in treatment and prevention of gingivitis and periodontitis


Article
Sensitivity of treponema denticola isolated from infected periodontal pockets to some mouth rinses and common antibiotic

Authors: Amera M. M. Al-Rawi --- Summaya A. S. Muhammad
Pages: 220-227
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Aims: Treponema denticola is one of the most important periodontal pathogens because of its high lytic enzymatic activity leading to tooth lose and its ability to invade tissues and spread via blood stream causing systemic infections, this study coming to be the first local study concerning with this anaerobic fastidious bacterium and looking at the possibility of rely on the culturing methods in determining the most preferred chemotherapeutic drugs for limiting of bacterial activity and spread, as well as investigating the range of the antimicrobial activity of some mouth rinses and number of antibiotics. Materials and Methods: 139 samples were collected from periodontal pockets with a depth of 3 mm under supervision of specialist dentitist, then placed in a reduced transport medium. The activity and effective spectrum of different concentrations for three kinds of widely used mouth rinses in the treatment of periodontal infections including Biofresh K, Biofresh F and Zak towards this bacterium was studied using sensitivity test methods, furthermore, the minimum inhibitory cocentration of antibiotics amoxillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, azithromycin and mitronidazole was determined using antibiotic discs diffusion method. Results: The results showed that Biofresh K is the best in the term of bacterial killing as its inhibition activity continued to 1:16 dilution and when the sensitivity of T.denticola isolates to some antibiotics was tested, it was appeared that ciprofloxacin is the best causing growth inhibition with the lowest minimum inhibitory cocentration (0.0001mg), and when the synergistic effect of the tested antibiotics was studied it is becoming clear that the lowest antibiotic concentrations can cause growth inhibition when the two antibiotics (mitronidazole + ciprofloxacin) or (mitronidazole + amoxillin) are used in combination. Conclusions: It is possible to depend on culturing methods for determining the sensitivity of the bacterium T.denticola to chemotherapeutic drugs. Biofresh K is the best among the rinses under study and the antibiotic CIP is the best one with the lowest MIC and the lowest concentration of the antibiotics resulting in growth inhibition can be achieved when they are used in combination


Article
Detection of hepatitis B viral markers in saliva and serum chronic carriers in Erbil governorate

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Introduction: Hepatitis B virus is a serious public health problem worldwide and major cause of acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The high resistance of HBV to inactivation and its high concentration in blood and other body fluids such as saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, breast milk and tears accounts for its high infectivity. It has been estimated that dental practitioners are three to five times at a higher risk than the general population through the exposure to the oral secretions and blood of potentially infectious patients. Aims of the Study: The overall aim of this study is to investigate the infectivity of saliva of chronic HBV carriers through detection of HBV antigens and their corresponding antibodies and HBV DNA. Materials and Methods: Serum and saliva samples from 65 confirmed chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers were examined for the presence of HBV markers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results:Out of the 65 chronic HBV carriers, 17(26%) were seropositive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg+) and 48(74%) were seronegative for HBeAg and seropositive for antibody to HBeAg (HBeAg−/anti-HBe+). The detection rates of saliva for HBsAg, anti-HBc, HBeAg and anti-HBe were 55%, 65%, 53% and 100%, respectively, to that of serum. The detection rates of HBV DNA for serum and saliva were 90% and 60%, respectively. Conclusions: Based on these results we have arrived at the conclusion that saliva of these carriers might be potentially infectious

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HBs Ag --- saliva --- serum --- chronic carrier


Article
Evaluation of missile injuries in the maxillofacial region in Mosul city –Iraq (2007-2011)

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Aims: The aim of this study was to describe a new classification for missile wounds with the treatment for each type, describing a classification for bullets and blast missiles and other effects of explosion. Moreover; to determine the factors affecting morbidity of wounds. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 213 patients who were admitted to AL-Jumhurri Teaching Hospital in Mosul City, Iraq in the period extending from 1/2/ 2007 to 1/2/2011 who have sustained different injuries in the Maxillofacial region resulting from different types of war missiles. All patients were evaluated by clinical examination, plain radiography of the maxillofacial region and history of accident was recorded. The study focused on three groups: Group A: Included (80) patients with bullet injuries in which the bullets were still inside the body in the maxillofacial region, Group B: Included the victims of (5) explosions that included (93) patients with blast missiles, Group C: Included (40) patients injured with high and low velocity bullets that involved soft or soft and hard tissue. The recommended surgical operations for missile extraction and definitive treatment application were employed by the same oral and maxillofacial surgeon. The type, shape of missiles, description of injuries and treatment were recorded. Results: The study showed that the most common bullets were the classical type 67.5% while the most common explosion effect was from shells 39.7%.The study also described a new classification for missile wounds with description of treatment for each type. No statistical significant difference was disclosed in the morbidity of injuries between low and high velocity missiles that involved soft tissues only or a combination of both soft and bone tissues at p value <0.05, while there was a highly significant difference in the morbidity of injuries between soft tissues and soft with bone tissues involvement in low velocity missiles at p value<0.01 and there was a very highly significant difference in high velocity missile sat p-value < 0.001. Conclusions: The present research placed a new specific classification for missile wounds and their management, and placed a classification for missile and explosion effects. The study also concluded that the morbidity of missile injury in the maxillofacial region depends on the type of tissue involvement more than the effect of missile velocity

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Article
Conservative approach to the mandible for a resection for a massive floride cement-osseous dysplasia, case report

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All variations of fibro-osseous diseases demonstrate replacement of normal bone by fibrous connective tissue matrix within which varying amounts or combinations of osteoid and mature bone and in some instances cementum-like tissue are deposited. Case Report: Patient aged 46 years, was blind since 1991, admitted to the Department of oral and maxillofacial surgery, (Alsalam Teaching Hospital, Mosul), June 2010, presented with a 14 years duration increasingly bilateral massive hard swelling in the lower jaw. The decision taken according to the clinical and radiographical findings, that matching the presentation of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, the affected mandible resected through a conservative 3 incisions. Results: the H and E stain examination of the whole resected mass reveals a definite diagnosis of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia. Discussion: Benign gnathic lesions, even massive, could be resected via a conservative surgical approaches, the histopathological findings is a type of investigation and not the only sole clue, while the sum of clinical findings and other aids of investigations make the final decision


Article
The use of the three sided flab in the maxillary anterior segmental osteotomy

Authors: Ne`am F. Yasen --- Ayad M. Isma`el --- Bassam F. Yasen
Pages: 259-264
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Aims:Evaluation of new surgical approach to anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy (AMSO). Materials and Methods: Twenty five jaws operated on for AMSO with the use of three sided flap, using sulcular type of incision of the soft tissues to access the bone to be osteotomized. Patients underwent surgical correction under general anesthesia and follow up extended postoperatively till complete healing process occurred nearly six months later. Results: From the total number of cases, twenty four jaws healed properly; and only one jaw (premaxilla) was lost due to necrosis of bone with loss of the associated teeth due to accidental and complete detachment of bone from the overlying soft tissues during surgery, although this procedure offers the avoidance of loss of any part of the soft tissue envelope. Conclusion: The three sided sulcular incision doesn’t interfere with blood supply of both hard & soft tissues, with many advantages over other types of access flaps


Article
Biochemical and immunological study of saliva in relation to oral health status in thalassemia major patients in Mosul

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Aims: The present study aimed to investigate some biochemical (Lysozyme and Peroxidase enzymes) and immunological (S-IgA) changes in saliva of thalassemia major patients and the correlation of these changes with the oral health status measured by the dmft/DMFT (decay, missing, filling tooth index for deciduous and permanent dentition), plaque and gingival indices.Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Ibn Al-Atheer Teaching Hospital in Mosul and involved (91) subjects. The study group (70 thalassemia major patients) and the control group (21 normal non-thalassemic subjects). The study group was divided into two subgroups (35 each) according to the history of disease. Data was collected from each patient including medical status and oral health status indices and saliva samples were collected from each patient and stored at -20 oC to be analyzed for salivary Lysozyme by lysoplate method, salivary Peroxidase activity and salivary secretary S-IgA by ELISA.Results: Showed that the dmft/DMFT plaque and gingival indices in thalassemia major patients were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than normal subjects. The salivary lysozyme in thalassemia major patients was significantly lower (P < 0.001) than normal subjects. The salivary peroxidase activity was nearly higher in thalassemic patients than normal subjects. The salivary S-IgA in thalassemic patients was significantly lower (P < 0.001) than normal subjects. Conclusions: The study showed a significant correlation between the changes in some of the salivary constituents and the high prevalence of dental caries, plaque and gingivitis in thalassemia major patients


Article
Craniosynostosis forehead reconstruction using sagital bony bar (case report)

Authors: Ali S. Mahmood --- Hilmy A. AL- Hafidh
Pages: 277-280
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A four years old boy was referred to Ibn-Sina Teaching hospital / Mosul city complaining from deterioration of vision 2 months ago, which was documented by an ophthalmological examination. A medical cranial imaging was taken; it showed fusion of sagital, coronal and metopic sutures with diffused beaten copper appearance. The patient was admitted to the neurosurgical department, a measurement of intracranial pressure via lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid manometry showed a 340 mm CSF reading which is very high. Surgery was planned by a neurosurgical and maxillofacial surgical team. Under general anesthesia, a bi-coronal flap was raised, incision and removal of a wide bony bar along the closed sagital cranial suture and the skull bone was released by nibbling. The eye balls were separated from the orbital bones, the anterior part of orbital roof was removed; the flatted forehead was removed and reconstructed by using the bone that was removed from the sagital area and fixed in its new place by titanium plates and stainless wire. The postoperative course was uneventful and the child's visual acuity returned to a normal condition dramatically. Follow up for three years showed normal cranial growth, normal vision and no medical complications that may be related to the surgical operation


Article
Hemodialysis and oral heath

Authors: Raed Y. Kh. Al-Rawee --- Rawaa Y. Kh. Al-Rawee
Pages: 281-289
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Aims of study: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the oral health, the educational level and decay frequency in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 100 patients, 43 of them were controlled patients admitted to the general dental unit in Al-Salam Hospital, while the remaining 57 patients underwent hemodialysis in the Dialysis Unit in Ibn-Sina Hospital in Mosul. Special consent form for each patient was obtained along with a noninvasive oral examination. Results: By using SPSS, significant pvalue was detected between education level & disease, the visit to dentist & disease. ANOVA test was done for study groups & gingival index, plaque index showed significant relation. For decayed teeth, significant pvalue was observed. Conclusion: Present study results confirm the hypothesis that periodontal disease prevalence exists in hemodialysis patients, so regular dental visits are needed to ensure optimal oral health in dialysis patients. Education of hemodialysis patients for their oral health and bilateral motivation between medical staff and dentists is mandatory


Article
Detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the saliva of patients having pulmonary tuberculosis

Authors: Gassan Y. Hamed
Pages: 290-295
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Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of saliva as a sample for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis(T.B.) by looking for acid fast bacilli in a direct smear and comparing it with sputum and to determine whether the isolation of M. tuberculosis is from the lung or disseminated through blood. Material and Methods : The study sample consisted of 25 patients of both sexes. Age range was (17 - 65) years . Approximately 2 ml of unstimulated mixed saliva from each subject and parotid saliva were collected for direct smear for acid fast bacilli by Ziehl-Nelson acid fast stain. Five samples were inoculated on Lowenstein Jensen media and storenbrink media .Results: About 60% of unstimulated mixed saliva revealed positive acid fast bacilli, while all samples of parotid saliva showed negative acid fast bacilli. The five samples of saliva which were inoculated on Lowenstein Jensen media and stonebrink media showed positive culture. To our knowledge, we did not find any study performed on saliva as a sample for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis to compare our finding with these studies, so the comparison was made between the sensitivity of saliva and the sensitivity of sputum . In this study, the sensitivity of direct smear of saliva for A.F.B was equal to 60% of the sensitivity of sputum. The sensitivity of direct smear of sputum for A.F.B. ranged from (2280%). There were no clinical manifestations like gummas; granulomas; ulcer; alveolar abscess and osteitis. CONCLUSION: This clinical and laboratory study revealed that M Tuberculosis which was present in the mixed saliva resulted from contact of oral tissue with infected sputum; Mixed saliva was less efficient than sputum in diagnosis of T.B. disease . Saliva can be inoculated on different media and that newly diagnosed patients with T.B disease don't have any clinical manifestations in the oral cavity


Article
Artificial saliva sorption for three different types of dental composite resin (An in vitro study)

Authors: Rajaa T. Sulieman --- Amer A Taqa
Pages: 296-302
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Aims: To evaluate the artificial saliva sorption for three different types of light activated composite resin. Materials and Method: A total of thirty six specimens (bars) (3x8x15)mm were prepared from three different types of light activated composite resin. (Tetric N-ceram, Iv o clar-vivadent-Liechtenstein. Arabesk – voco – Germany. Soltaire–2, Heraeus, kulzer, Germany). Twelve specimens were prepared from each type of composite resin. Complete fabrication of composite resin specimens, polished and kept in three different types of artificial saliva medium, three specimens from each type of composite resin as interactive specimens kept in type of artificial saliva and the last three specimens kept in Deionized water as control medium. The weight of each specimens was measured at an analytic balance before and after different time intervals of storage (1,2,7,21,35,60) days to measure the amount of absorption of artificial Saliva (gaining and loss of weight). The study showed a significant difference (P< 0.05) in artificial saliva sorption among the three different types of composite resin at different time intervals when kept in different artificial saliva medium. Tetric N-ceram (nano composite) has more affect with three different types of artificial saliva medium (gaining and loss weight) followed by Arabesk, Soltaire-2 composite resin for different types of artificial saliva at different time intervals. Conclusion: Dental composites are sensitive to artificial salive medium (gain and loss of weight) Tetric N ceram (nano – composite) interact actively followed by Arabesk and Soltaire-2 for three different artificial saliva medium at different time intervals


Article
Evaluation of accuracy of two electronic apex locators of different frequencies in dry and wet condition (In vitro study)

Authors: Ma'an M.Nayif
Pages: 303-309
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Objective: To evaluate and compare the precision of two electronic apex locators (C-Root I Apex locator III, Guangdong, China & AFA Apex Finder 7005, Orange, USA) of dual and multi-frequency dependent impedance in dry and wet condition. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five straight single-rooted teeth with mature apices were used. A flat coronal reference point prepared followed by access preparation and canal widening with Gates Glidden drill. A size 15 K-file introduced inside the canal so that the actual canal length to the major foramen was determined visually under illuminated magnified lens (x5). Teeth were embedded in alginate mold then electronic measurements with two locators of different impedance frequency were made to the apex reading in dry canal condition and with presence of physiologic saline solution using same file. Data was analyzed with ANOVA and T-test ( =.05). Results: Comparison of apex locators reading show no significant difference between the locators at both conditions of the canal (p>0.05). No significant differences were found between the actual working length and electronic length for either apex locators (p>0.05). In contrary both EALs measurements show significantly larger absolute difference in presence of solution than value in dry condition (p<0.05). Conclusion: Both apex locators were reliable in determining the electronic working length of the teeth

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Article
Flexural strength of dual cured composite resin cements polymerized with different light sources

Authors: Sabah.A. Ismail --- Eman M. Yahya --- Ali M. Rasheed
Pages: 310-316
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Aim: To determine the flexural strength of dual cured composite resin cements polymerized with LED light and Quartz-tungsten halogen light and to determine the effect of curing and storage time on the flexural strength. Materials and Methods: feldspathic porcelain (IPS InLine) used to produce uniform disc-shaped specimens (10mm diameter and 1.5mm thickness ). An electronic caliper was used to confirm precise specimen dimensions. Vita shade 2A was selected. One commercial dual-polymerizing composite resin cement was used (Variolink II; Ivoclar Vivadent ). The resin cement was placed in brass molds 8 ×6× 2 mm in size that lined with a teflon used to prepared the specimens to determine flexural strength. After insertion of the resin cements a glass slab was pressed over the mold and removed any expressed materials around the margins of the mold. A mylar strip (0.07 mm) was used to prevent adhesion of the resin cement to ceramic disk. Two types of light source were used: Quartz-tungsten halogen light and LED. The specimens divided into 8 groups (10 specimens for each). For each light source the curing time done for 20 and 60 sec. and the specimens either tested 15min. after curing or after 24hrs. Measurements for the 3-point flexural strength test were performed at a constant crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical data analysis was performed by three-way ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Tests to determine the significant group. Results: three- way ANOVA indicated there is no statistical significant differences between the two light sources (p>0.05), were as there is statistically significance between the flexural strength of specimen cured for 60 sec. and tested after 24hrs more than other groups (p<0.05). Conclusions: adequate curing time with 60sec. and instruction for the patient not to use of the restoration until at least 24hrs after the insertion of the restoration is advocated


Article
The effect of storage media on the degree of conversion of different types of composite resin

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Aims: This study was performed to evaluate the effect of Pepsi, orange juice and coffee as storage media on the Degree of Conversion (DC) of three types of composite resin. Materials and Methods: Three types of visible light-curing composite restorative material (Te-Econom, Tetric ceram and VOCO) were used in this study, The specimen disks of composites were prepared using Polyethylene mold 5mm in diameter and 1mm in height, The degree of conversion was measured for each group after storage for 7days in light-proof boxes containing storage media, The degree of conversion of the samples was measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), One way analysis of variance and paired differences tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The results revealed that there was a significant difference in the degree of conversion of the three types of composite resins when stored in all type of storage media as compared to dry samples(control group). Conclusions:The degree of conversion of the three types of composite resin was increased when stored in different storage media. Key words: Storage Media, degree of Conversion, composite Resin

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Article
Evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate MTA as traumatic pulp capping material (An In vitro study)

Authors: Neam N. AlYousifany
Pages: 323-329
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Aims of the Study: The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mineral trioxide aggregate MTA as direct pulp capping material in permanent teeth with traumatic exposure. Materials And Methods: twenty four permanent teeth for healthy patients ages between 15-40 accepted direct pulp capping treatment after accidental traumatic exposure during cavity preparation done by graduate students, in Conservative Department , College of Dentistry, University of Mosul. The teeth were treated directly with MTA material over the exposure site then based with Glass Ionomer cement and restored with permanent restoration . clinical , and radiographic examinations were carried out after 1 week then follow up after 6,10,12,24 weeks. Results: six month clinical &radiographic follow up were carried out for all patients . At recall appointments, patients were evaluated for reparative dentin formation, pulpal calcification, continued normal root development and evidence of pathosis. One patient did not return for recall appointments and evaluations after one week , another one failed to return after six weeks interval . The remaining had favorable outcomes on the basis of clinical finding , electrical pulp tester & radiographic appearance . Conclusion : within the limitation period of the present study , MTA can be considered as a reliable pulp capping material for manangment direct pulp exposure in permanent teeth


Article
Efficiency of diode laser and sodium hypochlorite as root canal disinfectant against Enterococcus Faecalis: An In vitro study

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Objectives: The main objective of the current in vitro study is to compare the antimicrobial efficiency of diode laser 1064nm at different output powers and times with sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations and times against E. faecalis when used as root canal disinfectant. Materials and methods: 140 human extracted single-rooted teeth were decoronated to a length 14mm from the apical foramen to the cervical border of the root, then adjusted working length to 13mm, autoclaved and inoculated with a suspension of E. faecalis at a concentration 4×105 cfu and incubated at 37˚C for 24 hours. Samples were divided into 14 groups each group consisted of 10 prepared roots, sixty samples were irrigated with NaOCl solution at different concentrations and times. Sixty samples were irradiated at different powers at the total irradiation time 30 and 60 sec, the remainder twenty samples were control positive and negative groups. Results: All concentrations, powers and times for both diode laser 1064nm and NaOCl had significant antimicrobial effects against E. faecalis. 5.25% NaOCl at both 2 minutes and 5 minutes had the highest antimicrobial effect with no significant differences from 3W laser/10sec and 2.5W/10sec for (6 cycles) but significantly different from 3W/5sec (6 cycles). The lowest effect was 0.5% NaOCl/2min that significantly different from all other groups. Conclusion: Diode laser device seems to be highly suitable for killing E. faecalis as NaOCl irrigant in root canals if appropriate energy and irradiated time used

Table of content: volume:11 issue:3