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Article
Non Motor Symptoms In Patients With parkinson's Disease In Baghdad Hospitals

Author: Ahmed Tahseen Muslim*, Ahmed Hasan Ahmed**, Nael Husain Zaer***, Zaki Noah Hasan****
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 122-127
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background:Parkinson’disease(PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by resting tremor, bradykinesia, cogwheel rigidity, and impairment of postural reflexes; the frequency of PD increases with aging.Clinically Parkinson's disease characterized by two groups of symptoms: motor and non-motor symptoms.Non-motor symptoms can be categorized as autonomic, cognitive/psychiatric (may include depression, dementia, anxiety, hallucinations), sensory and rapid eye movements (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD).Objectives:The objectives of this study are to find out the frequency of the non-motor symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson disease in a group of patients in Baghdad hospitals.Type of the study:A cross sectional study with analytic elements,Methods: It was conducted in movement disorders clinic in neuroscience hospital, outpatient clinic at Baghdad teaching hospital and AL-Kadhumain teaching hospital during the period between the 1st. of December 2013 through July 2014. One hundred and two patients diagnosed as idiopathic Parkinson disease by a consultant neurologist..Results:The study found that the mean age of patients with Idiopathic Parkinson disease was 60 years. Among them, two thirds of patients (68/102) were males, and 55 % (56/102) of patients were in advanced stage of the disease. The study also mentioned the percentage of non-motor symptoms of Idiopathic Parkinson disease and they ranged from the most frequent symptom[constipation(80%)] to the least frequent[bowel incontinence(16%)].Also the study shows the distribution of symptoms according to gender and the study found no significant difference between males and females. The study finds that there is no significant difference in symptoms development along the period of disease progression except for bowel incontinence [30.4 % (14/46) in early disease progression compared to 3.6 %( 2/56) in advanced disease] and sexual interest [34.8 %( 16/46) in early disease progression compared to3.6 (2/56) in advanced disease].Conclusions:Non motor symptoms of Parkinson disease is so frequent and represent a major burden on patients' quality of life and the study recommends a more concentration on them in the future..

Keywords

Keywords: Parkinson --- Motor --- Baghdad


Article
Delay – Cost Analysis For a Section Of Baghdad – Kirkuk Highway
تحليل الكلفة لطريق بغداد كركوك

Authors: Atheer N. Hameed اثير ناجي حميد --- Ali J. Kadhim علي جبار كاظم
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2011 Volume: 15 Issue: 4 Pages: 227-240
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This study aims to analyzing the delay – cost for a section of Baghdad - Kirkuk highway; this section (16 km length) has a lane width of 10 ft and shoulder width of 4 ft in each direction. The study results show that the average traffic delay for the studied section is (3 minute). The cost resulting from this delay for passengers and freights which had a negative effect on the Gross National Product [G.N.P] is (390,003,982 I.D./year).

تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى تحليل كلفة التأخير لمقطع من طريق بغداد – كركوك، هذا المقطع (16 km) له ممر واحد بعرض (10) قدم وأكتاف بعرض (4) قدم في كل اتجاه. أظهرت نتائج الدراسة أن معدل التأخير المروري للمقطع المدروس هو (3 دقائق). الكلفة الناتجة عن هذا التأخير للمسافرين والبضائع والتي لها تأثير سلبي على الناتج الإجمالي القومي تبلغ (390,003,982 دينار عراقي).


Article
Economic of potato production for Atumn season 2015-2016, Baghdad governerate as practical case
اقتصاديات انتاج البطاطا للموسم الخريفي 2015-2016 ,محافظة بغداد-أنموذج تطبيقي

Authors: Faisal H. Nasser فيصل حسن ناصر --- Osamah K. AL-Ukeili اسامة كاظم جبارة
Journal: Jornal of Al-Muthanna for Agricultural Sciences مجلة المثنى للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 40862226 Year: 2018 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 23-33
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Abstract

The research aimed at estimating the production function and the total cost function, as well as measuring the efficiency of resource use, technical, economic, price and cost efficiency. The study was based primarily on a simple random sample of (155) farmers in Baghdad governorate for the autumn season (2015-2016), The double logarithmic formula was the most suitable for the production function. The resource efficiency criteria indicated that potato farmers were efficient in using resources (seed, phosphate fertilizer, human labor) and were inefficient in using irrigation and pesticides. Cubic formula was more suitable for the total cost function according to the statistical, econometrical, and economical tests., The optimum size of production and size that maximize profit were 119.069, 143.398 ton, respectively. Technical, economic and price efficiencies were estimated at 34.25933, 34.25937, and 73.521%, respectively. While the cost efficiency was estimated at (0.454), and the net farm income that achieved over all the sample less about (10380.741) thousand dinars than that achieved at optimal size.

استهدف البحث تقدير دالة الانتاج ودالة التكاليف الكلية فضلا عن حساب كفاءة استخدام الموارد والكفاءة الفنية والاقتصادية والسعرية وكفاءة الكلفة. اعتمد البحث بالدرجة الاساس على عينة عشوائية بسيطة قوامها (155) مزارعاً في محافظة بغداد للموسم الخريفي (2015-2016), كانت الصيغة اللوغاريتمية المزدوجة هي الاكثر ملائمةً لدالة الانتاج. وأوضحت نتائج معايير كفاءة استعمال الموارد أن مزارعي البطاطا كانوا كفؤين في استعمال موارد (التقاوي , الاسمدة الفوسفاتية , العمل البشري ) وغير كفؤين في استخدام موارد (الري و المبيدات)، بينما كانت الصيغة التكعيبية أكثر ملائمةً لدالة التكاليف الكلية وفقاً للاختبارات الاحصائية، والقياسية، والاقتصادية ومنها تبين أن الحجم الأمثل للإنتاج وحجم الانتاج المعظم للربح بلغا نحو (119.069, 143.398) طناً على الترتيب, قُدرت الكفاءة الفنية والاقتصادية والسعرية نحو (34.25933, 34.25937, 73.521)% على الترتيب, بينما بلغت كفاءة الكلفة نحو (0.454). وان صافي الدخل المزرعي المتحقق على مستوى العينة يقل بمقدار (10380.741) الف دينار عن نظيره المتحقق عند الحجم الأمثل. استنتج البحث ان مورد كمية التقاوي كان له الأثر الاكبر في انتاج البطاطا وان هناك هدراً في استخدام الموارد المتاحة ادى الى جعل الانتاج الفعلي اقل من نظيره المتحقق عند الحجم الأمثل المدني للتكاليف , ويوصي البحث بضرورة قيام المؤسسات ذات العلاقة بالعمل على توفير تقاوي البطاطا ذات النوعيات الجيدة لتغطية حاجة المزارعين المحليين, ومن المصادر الجيدة وفي الوقت المناسب و بالسعر المناسب لزيادة انتاج و انتاجية هذا المحصول المهم وتخفيض تكاليف الانتاج، فضلا عن حماية المنتج المحلي باتباع سياسات سعرية تضمن دخل مجزي للمزارعين .


Article
Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Giardia lamblia Parasites in Patients of Four Regions in East – South Baghdad
إنتشار الطفيلي Blastocystis hominis و الطفيلي Giardia lamblia في مرضى من أربعة مناطق جنوب شرق بغداد

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Abstract

A total of 250 stool specimens from patients live in Al-Ameen, Al-Mashtal, Al-Baladiyat and Al-Nahrawan, districts of Baghdad city were collected. The watery and loose specimens were wet mounted with normal saline and buffered methylene blue then all specimens concentrated and examined with Lugol's iodine solution. The protozoal parasites of medical importance Blastocystis hominis and Giardia lamblia were respectively detected in 59 (24.6%) and 42 (17.5%), samples with mixed infection were in eight samples. Differences due to district lacked significance. Statistical significance was observed when the influence of age category was tested (P<0.05). The highest infestation percentage with both parasites was noticed in the 5 – 10 years category whereas the lowest percentage was in the 19 – above years category. Seasonal variations and sex of the infected patients with both protozoa did not reach statistical significance. Significant differences were observed between number of infected patients with B. hominis and G. lamblia in the age categories of respectively Al-Ameen and Al-Baladiyat districts. Significance was recorded in the differences between percentages of the age categories' females as well as of the age category 5 – 10 years males and females that were infected with G. lamblia Similar significance marked the percentages of infection of both sexes with B hominis in the age categories

جمعت 250 عينة غائط من مرضى يقطنون في مناطق الأمين ، المشتل ، البلديات و النهروان من بغداد حضرت شرائح رطبة باستخدام المحلول الملحي و صبغة المثلين الأزرق المتعادلة مباشرة عند استلام العينات ذات القوام المائي و غير المتماسك، الجزء المتبقي من هذه العينات و العينات ذات القوام اللين خضعت للترسيب لأعداد شرائح رطبة استخدمت فيها صبغة Lugol's iodine من الأوالي الطفيلية ذات الأهمية الطبية ، وجد الطفيلي B hominis في 59 عينة (24.6%) و الطفيلي G lamblia في 42 عينة (17.5%). ثمانية عينات فيها إصابة مزدوجة لم تؤثر المنطقة السكنية معنويا على نسب الإصابة بالطفيليين (P<0.05) كان تأثير الفئة العمرية معنويا على نسب الإصابة بالطفيليين. و سجلت أعلى نسبتي إصابة في الفئة العمرية 5 – 10 سنوات و أوطأ نسبتي إصابة في الفئة العمرية 19 سنة فما فوق لم يكن لفصول السنة و الجنس تأثيرا معنويا على عدد المصابين بالطفيليين لوحظت المعنوية الإحصائية في عدد الإصابات بطفيلي B hominis في الفئات العمرية لمنطقة الأمين و في عدد الإصابات بطفيلي G lamblia في الفئات العمرية لمنطقة البلديات وجدت المعنوية الإحصائية في فروق نسب إناث المجاميع العمرية المصابة بالطفيلي G lamblia و في الفروق بين الجنسين المصابين بهذا الطفيلي من الفئة العمرية 5-10 سنوات. تميزت الإصابة بالطفيلي B hominis بوجود تأثير معنوي للفئات العمرية على نسب الإصابة في كلا الجنسين


Article
Quality of Life among People Survived from Terroristic Explosions: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Author: aMohammed DJassamFIBMS(Psych.) bAhmed Abed Marzook (MSc COMM MED) Yousif Abdul raheem FICMs/CM
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2014 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 56-61
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Increasing interest in quality of life (QoL) is the new approach for understanding and improvement of health care. Although there are many studies about quality of life, there is deficiency of data about quality of life of peoples survived from terroristic explosions.Objectives: To study the QoL for peoples survived from terroristic explosions and compare it with that of a controlled people. Methods: This study was conducted between, 1st of July till 31st of December 2013. The sample of this study was collected from peoples attending the outpatient clinics in four primary health care centers, Baghdad city (2 from Rusafa and 2 from Karkh). 183 individuals proved to be exposed to terroristic explosion and 199 individual not exposed to such event were recruited and Arabic version of the World Health Organization (WHO) self-reporting questionnaire (WHO-QoL-BRIEF) was used to assess the QoL.Results: This study revealed that peoples exposed to event of terroristic explosion show a serious defect in all domains of QoL (physical, psychological, social and environmental) as compared with that for non exposed peoples to such accidents in the same areas of the study.Conclusions: This study showed that peoples survived from terroristic explosions have a low QoL indicators as compared with those not exposed to such trauma .


Article
Detection of Thrombi in Left Atrial chamber by Transoesophageal Ecchocardiography in patients suffer from Non-rheumatic Atrial Fibrillation

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Abstract

Background: Background : Patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation have high risk of thromboembolism especially ischemic stroke usually arising from left atrial appendage .Transoesophageal echocardiography provides useful information for risk stratification in these patients as it detects thrombus in the left atrial or left atrial appendage. Objective : This study was conducted at Al-Kadhimiya Teaching Hospital to assess the prevalence of left atrial chamber thrombi in patients with chronic non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation using transoesophageal echocardiography and its clinical significance as well as to verify the superiority of transoesophageal over transthoracic echocardiography in the detection of these abnormalities. Type of the study: Cross sectional study.Patients and Methods : Forty (40) consecutive patients (11 female and 29 male), at a mean age of 46 ± 9 years (range 28–60) with chronic non-rheumatic Atrial fibrillation were enrolled to this prospective study between March 2006 and December 2006. Tansthoracic and transesophageal two dimensional , M- mode , Doppler, and color- flow echocardiography were obtained with a kretz diagnostic ultrasound system. Results : The prevalence of Left atrium thrombus was 12.5%, 5 patients from the total number which was 40 patients. All of them seen bytransoesophagealechocardiography and non are detected byTansthoracic echocardiography . All the left atrial thrombi were confined to the left atrial appendage (100%). Left atrial spontaneous echo contrast was detected in 10 patients 25% by transoesophageal echocardiography, but was not observed in patient bytransthoracic echocardiography. All the 5 thrombi were found in left atria were significantly associated with spontaneous echo contrast 100% (P-value <0.001), reduced left ventricle ejection fraction (p-value <0.05) , large left atrium diameter ( p-value <0.05) and low LAAV <20 cm/s (p-value <0.001) compared to those without thrombus . Conclusions : The study showed that the prevalence of left atrial thrombus and appendage is not uncommon in patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation and is exclusively seen in patients with left atrial SEC. Low Left ventricle ejection fraction , large Left atrium diameter , and low Left atrial appendages velocity are significantly associated with subsequent thrombus formation , and is more sensitive in the detection of these abnormalities compared with transthoracic echocardiography .


Article
Smoking Behavior Among School Students At Al-Doura/Al- Kurkh/Baghdad Year 2014. .

Author: *Abbas Fadhal Humadi
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2016 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 22-28
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. Cigarette smoking is a major ‘preventable’ cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is well-known that smoking has hazardous effect on many systems like pulmonary and cardiovascular system.Objectives: Study the prevalence of smoking among school pupils according to the mode of smoking, age, school grade, school environment and possible health risk associated with smoking.Type of the study: A cross-sectional study.Methods: Study was conducted between 1st of March 2014 to 30th of May 2014 at Al-Doura/Al- Kurkh/Baghdad by using convenient sample, including all pupils from 6 schools. The schools were 2 secondary schools, 3 intermediate schools and 1 professional secondary school from second Al-Kurkh education directorate. A total of 1258 boy pupils were studied. An anonymous self-completion questionnaire was used. The questionnaire included 15 questions (3 open questions and 12 close questions) about sociodemographic information, smoking information, and possible health disorders associated with smoking.Results: The present study had shown that the prevalence of smoking habits both (12.1% cigarette and 2.3% shisha) increased with age, class grade, and broader school environment. Both cigarette and shisha smoking produce various health disorders among schools' pupils. The results indicate that dry cough more frequent among shisha smoking pupils which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Age, school grade of pupils and broader school environment play the major rule in the increasing prevalence of smoking among pupils, both cigarette and shisha smoking had hazardous effect on pupils' health.


Article
Maternal knowledge related to anemia during pregnancy among a sample of mothers attending Primary Health Care centers. Baghdad.

Author: Maral F Thabit *
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 79-84
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Anaemia is a major public health concern and is one of the most prevalent health issue in women within reproductive age group.Objective: to assess maternal knowledge related to anaemia during pregnancy.Type of the study: A cross –sectional study.Method: The study including 200 mothers who attended selected primary health care centres, Baghdad during November and December 2015, they completed a previously prepared questionnaire coveringsocio-demographic characteristics and knowledge regarding anaemia in 4 main domains. The responses were analysed by using frequency, percentage and percent score for each statement and overall percent score for each domain and mean overallpercent score for all the four domains.Results: the main source of information of the participated mothers was health personal (59.5%).The overall percent score for the main domains was good 71% for aetiology of disease, excellent 91% for signs and symptoms of anaemia, good 75% for complications of anaemia and very good 75% regarding ways of prevention and treatment.Conclusion: Satisfactory knowledge level of mothers regarding anaemia during pregnancy.


Article
Knowledge, attitude and practice of Iraqi mothers towards Vitamin D supplementation to their infants in Baghdad Al -Rusafa 2016

Author: Tamara Abdul Wahab Rasheed *, Hawraa Khalil Taha**, Bekir Abdul Wahab Rasheed***
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 120-125
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Routine supplementation of vitamin D to infants is justifiable since vitamin D deficiency, and its consequences are highly prevalent not only in developing countries but worldwide. Maintaining a normal level of vitamin D is crucial in order to have a normal skeletal, as well as, extra-skeletal health. Knowledge of mothers regarding importance of vitamin D supplementation affect the health of their babies in a positive manner if accompanied by appropriate practice.Objective: To determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of Iraqi mothers of under or equal 12 months old infants in Baghdad, AL-Rusafa, regarding vitamin D supplementation for their infants. Type of the study: A cross-sectional study.Methods: A descriptive cross sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted at six primary health care centers in Baghdad AL-Rusafa. 400 mothers of under or equal 12 months old infants attending primary health care centers (PHCC)for routine vaccination and follow up of their infants were included in the study from the 10th of February 2016 till the 10th of June 2016. Results: A total of 400 mothers enrolled in the study, with a mean age of 27.11years ±6.65572, Only (45%) (n=180) of them had given their infants vitamin D drops, with a mean score of vitamin D supplementation practice of 1.26±1.51265 from 4 which was significantly correlated with their knowledge score which was 3.6100±2.14987 from 9 and their attitude score which was 3.6275±1.89644 from 6.Conclusion: The study revealed poor knowledge, fair attitude and poor practice among mothers regarding vitamin D supple¬ment for their infants.

Keywords

Key words: mother --- vit D --- Baghdad


Article
Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight in Ibn al-Baladi Hospital in Baghdad Governorate
عوامل الخطورة المرتبطة بانخفاض اوزان الاطفال حديثي الولادة في مستشفى ابن البلدي في محافظة بغداد

Author: Muna Abdul-Kadhum Zeidan منى عبد الكاظم
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2019 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-9
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Background: low birth weight is a reliable indicator in monitoring and evaluating the success of maternal and child health programs and has been defined as a birthweight less than 2500 grams. Aims of study: to determine the mean birthweight of the studied sample and to identify factors associated with the low birth weight. Methodology: A cross-sectional study conducted in Baghdad in Ibn Al-Baladi hospital. Sampling was convenient & sample size was 200. The study started from 1st October 2016 to 30th March 2017. Data was collected by questionnaire to obtain social- demographic information. Results: The result shows that mean weight of cases was 2.09 kg as compared to 3.5kg in controls, and the 12% were illiterate. About (36.9%) of the women with low birthweight were mainly at less than 37 weeks of gestation age , the number of women who had more than one child was higher among LBW than among normal birthweight. Analysis of results by (chi-square test) show that low educational level, preterm, short birth space interval less than 2 years, and multigravida, and low ANC visits and smoking were significant factors associated with low birthweight Conclusions: This study shows the low educational level, medical and ○obstetric and low visit t○ antenatal clinic and smoking factors have strong association with low birth weight. Recommendation: The study re commended that re gular health education program through mass media and regular education program in ANC units for pregnant women to avoiding LBW babies. Keywords: low birth, weight, Factors, mother, Baghdad

خلفية البحث: انخفاض اوزان المواليد حديثي الولادة هو مؤشر موثوق في مراقبة وتقييم نجاح برامج صحه الام والطفل ويعرف انخفاض اوزان المواليد حديثي الولادة عندما يكون اقل من 2 كيلو غرام ونصف غرام.الهدف: الهدف من الدراسة هو تحديد متوسط وزن انخفاض اوزان المواليد حديثي الولادة وايجاد العوامل المرتبطة بانخفاض اوزان المواليد حديثي الولادة. المنهجية: دراسة وصفية مقطعية اجريت في بغداد في مستشفى ابن البلدي للولادة لعينة غرضية وحجم العينة كان 200. حيث جمعت المعلومات والبيانات باستخدام استبانة معدة مسبقا للحصول على المعلومات الاجتماعية والديموغرافية لكل امرأة. النتائج: : اظهرت الدراسة ان متوسط وزن الحالات كان 2.09كيلو غرام مقارنه 3.5 كيلو غرام للأصحاء, وحوالي 12 % من العينة كن اميات ,36.9% اطفال قليلي الاوزان كانت بشكل رئيسي في الثُلثِ الثالث مِنْ مرحلة الحمل, وعدد النساء اللاتي انجبن اكثر من طفل واحد كن ممن . بعد تحليل النتائج بطريقة ( مربع كاي ) تبين وجود ترابط معنوي واضح بين قله الوزن عند حديثي الولادة وبين ( عمر الام, تدني المستوى التعليمي, والولادة المبكرة , وقله المباعدة بين حمل واخر , والاحمال المتعددة , وقله عدد الزيارات للمركز الصحي , والنساء المدخنات). الاستنتاج : اظهرت الدراسة تبين وجود ترابط معنوي واضح بين قله الوزن عند حديثي الولادة وبين ( عمر الام, تدني المستوى التعليمي, والولادة المبكرة , وقله المباعدة بين حمل واخر , والاحمال المتعددة , وقله عدد الزيارات للمركز الصحي , والنساء المدخنات). التوصيات : توصي الدراسة بأنشاء برنامج منتظم للتثقيف الصحي خلال وسائل الاعلام وبرنامج تثقيفي منتظم في وحدات الرعاية الصحية التي للنساء الحوامل لتجنب انخفاض اوزان للمواليد حديثي الولادة.

Keywords

low birth --- weight --- Factors --- mother --- Baghdad.

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