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Article
Dental health knowledge, attitude and behavior among first year university students, Mosul.

Authors: May Gh Al–Ajrab --- Karam H Jazrawi --- Saher S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 138-152
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine the level of oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior among first yearuniversity students in Mosul city, to compare this level among different Colleges also between malesand females. Then the obtained results were compared with those of other studies carried out on similarage groups in other countries, to see if there was any significant difference between them. Materialsand Methods: Nine Colleges were randomly selected from Mosul University, from each College afifty random sample was selected to complete the questionnaires in the classroom. The questionnaires’language was in Arabic included a number of questions related to oral health knowledge, attitude andbehavior. Incomplete questionnaires were neglected. The size of the sample was 425 students, 216males and 209 females. Statistical analysis included calculation of frequency, percentage of answers,and chi-square test. Results: Most of the students (93.2%) brushed their teeth and the majority of them(54.8%) engaged in once daily brushing, less than half of them (48.7%) using other means of teethcleansing aids. A large percent of them had no ideas about the causes of dental caries (75.5%), and howto avoid it (76%). Their knowledge was poor regarding the age at which the primary and permanentteeth erupted( 23.8%, 22.8%) and completed (18.6%, 27.3%). More than half of the students (54.6%)had gingival bleeding but they didn’t know the cause of the bleeding (75.1%) and how to avoid it(75.5%). Most of them like eating sweets (82.1%). Small percent (22.4%) knew what is fluoride and itsbenefit in reducing dental caries (17.9%). Regarding sex differences, females’ answers were in generalbetter than those for males. Conclusion: College students seemed to have appropriate knowledge andbehavior on some oral health topics but these were limited on the others. Health education needs to bedone at universities for enhancing their knowledge attitude and behaviors

Keywords

Knowledge --- attitude --- behavior --- students.


Article
Effect of Adding Fine Gravel and Cement on Settlement of Sabkha Soil
تاثیر اضافة الحصى الناعم والسمنت على ھبوط التربة السبخة

Author: Hassan Obaid Abbas
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2012 Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 87-97
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Sabkha soil is one of the many types of collapsible soils and in turn is on of themany types of problematic soils. This soil is totally having good engineeringproperties when dry ,i.e ,moderately bearing capacity with low settlement .But onceare wetted they loose their entire structure (collapse) and undergo very largeinstantaneous settlement .A laboratory model test consists of a cylindrical steelcontainer of 270mm diameter and 300mm height, the soil is brought from Al-Khalisdiscrete .The density of soil is controlled by placing the required weight inside thecontainer of known volume, to the required height .A square footing 60x60mm makesfrom steel is used .The stress is applied from a fixed loading system designedespecially for model tests .In this study two types of treatment carried out ,the firsttreatment is added fine gravel only with percentages (2%,4.5%,6%) to soil which isnot give good improvement .The second type of improvement is added 3% of cementwith fine gravel (4.5%,6%) percentages which give good improvement, reduced thecollapsibility to 84% .Also, when adding 3% of cement with 4.5% fine gravel to soil,give good improvement, reduced the collapsibility to 90% .

تعتبر تربة السبخة هى احد انواع الترب الانهيارية وتسبب الكثير من المشاكل للمنشات المشيدةعليها اذ تمتاز بانها قوية ومتماسكة وهبوطها واطى عندما تكون جافة ولكن بمجرد وصول الماءاليها فانها تصبح ضعيفة جدا وتسبب هبوط عالى جدا .هذه الدراسة ركزت على استخدام معالجتين2%) واثبتت المعالجة ,%4.5 ,% لهذه التربة ,الاولى هى اضافة الحصى الناعم بنسب ( 6لهذه الطريقة عدم حصول تحسين ملحوظ لهبوط التربة .اما الطريقة الاخرى فهى اضافة سمنت6 % ) وقد حصل , % 4.5 % ) مع حصى ناعم بنسب ( 4.5 ,% 3 ,% بنسب ( 1.5.( % 90 - % تحسن كبير في هبوط التربة حيث قلت بنسبة تتراوح بين( 62


Article
Dental knowledge and behavior among technical medical institute students in Baghdad governorate

Author: Jinan Mohammed Rashad جنان محمد رشاد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 115-119
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Oral health knowledge is important for promotion and maintenance of oral health. This study aims tofind out the difference in oral health knowledge and behavior of medical and dental students in technical medicalinstitute in Baghdad governorate.Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried on 202 Iraqi students in technical medical institute of BabAl-Muadam quadrant in Baghdad governorate (92 dental students and 110 medical students). Students were invitedto complete a set of questionnaires on dental knowledge and behaviors that are related to oral hygiene and dentalvisits.Results: Highly significant differences were shown between medical and dental students related to dentalknowledge, dental students were found to have more dental knowledge than medical students. Concerning thetypical method for caries prevention, 90.2% of dental students compared to 35.5% of medical one were aware thatbrushing regularly, minimizing sweets, visiting the dentist and the use of fluoride are all effective means of avoidingcaries. For oral hygiene behavior, dental students were practicing twice daily tooth brushing, flossing and rinsing in aproportion greater than medical students. Irregular visits to the dentist were found to be common among bothmedical and dental students and toothache was the major factor for dental visits in both groups. The lecturers werefound to be the most effective source of dental information for dental students, while the most effective source ofinformation for medical students was the family.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that knowledge and behavior toward oral health and dental careespecially for the medical students need to be improved and there is a need for inclusion of oral health education inthe medical curriculum.

Keywords

Knowledge --- behavior --- dental visits


Article
Caries severity in relation to oral health knowledge and behavior of third and fifth year dental students / University of Baghdad (A comparative study)

Author: Nibal M. Hoobi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 164-168
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The knowledge of dental students is important because these individuals are the future dental healthproviders. The purpose of the present study was to explore the severity of dental caries in relation to oral healthknowledge and behavior between two different grades of undergraduate dental students in the College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad.Materials and methods: One hundred dental students were included in this study (50 third years and 50 fifth yearstudents). A questionnaire was distributed among them to evaluate their oral health knowledge and behavior.Dental students were examined for recording of dental caries severity.Results: Data analysis revealed that third year dental students had higher mean of decayed surfaces (DS) andmissing surfaces (MS), compared to the other group, the difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.01) for DSand significant for MS (P<0.05), while fifth year dental students were found to have higher mean value of filledsurfaces (FS) and the difference was highly Significant (P<0.01). However, higher DMFS value was recorded for finalyear students without any significant difference. Oral health knowledge was better for fifth grade and the differencewas highly significant (p<0.01) except for the question about complete removal of dental plaque by brushing only,the difference was significant (p<0.05) .Oral health behavior of third grade students was at lower level, the differencewas highly significant (P<0.01) except for the questions about frequency of brushing and sweet eating, it wassignificant (p<0.05) and it was not significant difference regarding use of siwak.Conclusion: The findings of this study highlights that increase the theoretical education of dental students in additionto clinical experience will improve their oral health knowledge and behavior, which in turn affect positively the oralhygiene towards health promotion and prevention of oral diseases

كا ن الغرض من ھذه الدراسھ ھو معرفة مدى شدة تسوس الاسنان وعلاقتھا بمعرفة صحة الفم و السلوك بین مرحلتین مختلفتین من طلاب كلیة طب الاسنان /جامعة بغداد شملت ھذهالدراسھ مائة طالب (خمسون طالب من المرحلھ الثالثھ وخمسون طالب من المرحلھ الخامسھ).وقد تم توزیع استبیان مكون من مجموعة اسئلھ فیما بینھم لتقییم معرفتھم بصحة الفموالسلوك بالاضافھ الى فحص شدة التسوس لھؤلاء الطلاب.وكشف تحلیل البیانات ان طلاب المرحلھ الثالثھ لدیھم متوسط اعلى من الاسطح المتسوسھ والاسطح المفقوده وكان الفرقاحصائیا معنویھ عالیھ للاسطح المتسوسھ في حین كان طلاب السنھ الخامسھ لدیھم قیمھ اعلى لسطوح الاسنان التي تم علاجھا وكان الفرق احصائیا معنویھ عالیھ وسجلت قیمھ اعلىلمجموع الاسطح المتسوسھ والمفقوده والمعالجھ لطلاب المرحلھ الخامسھ وكان الفرق احصائیا غیرمعنوي.كانت معرفة صحة الفم والسلوك الصحي افضل للمرحلھ الخامسھ.اوضحتھذه الدراسھ ان التعلیم النظري لطلاب المرحلھ الخامسھ بالاضافھ الى الخبره السریریھ ادت الى تحسین معرفتھم بصحة الفم والسلوك وھذا بدوره اثر ایجابیا على العنایھ بالفم نحوتعزیز الصحھ والوقایھ من الامراض.


Article
Oral Health Knowledge and Behavior in Relation to Oral Hygiene and Gingival Condition among a Group of Industry Workers

Author: Muna Abdulla منى عبدالله
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 2 Pages: 76-81
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: In Iraqi communities, the workers considered the largest population groups, so increasing their dental education by increasing the care for their dental health knowledge and behavior is very important, the present study was aimed to evaluate the gingival health and oral hygiene in relation to knowledge and behavior among a group of a workers selected randomly from Al Fedaa company in Baghdad city.Materials and methods: A sample of 110 workers (65 men and 45 women) included in this study, a questionnaire used to evaluate their oral health knowledge and behavior. The gingival health condition of the workers was examined by using Loe and Silness index (1963), Silness and Loe index (1964) was used to asses plaque quantity, and Ramfjord index (1959) used to asses calculus quantity, SPSS version 18 was used to analyze the data of the study statistically.Results: This study showed that no significant differences between plaque, calculus, and gingival index with the education degree of the workers. About the knowledge the result showed no significant differences in questions asking about type and characteristic of dental caries, best type of tooth paste, brushing technique. There is a significant differences found in questions regarding gingival health and bleeding. The behavior of the workers showed no significant differences in questions regarding quantity of brushing teeth, using assistant aid, better time for eating sweet, while there is a significant difference in question about smoking and gingival health and duration of brushing time.Conclusion: Increasing the dental education by using the help of social media, schools, and national educational programs will improve the dental knowledge and behavior which affect positively on the oral hygiene

Keywords

Behavior --- oral hygiene --- knowledge


Article
Fatigue Behavior Of Chopped Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites
سلوك الكلل لمتراكب الايبوكسي المدعم بألياف الكاربون المقطعة

Authors: Ekram .A.AL-Ajaj أكرام عطا العجاج --- Mohammed Hussein B. Hassan محمد حسين بشار
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء ISSN: 20704003 Year: 2010 Volume: 8 Issue: 11 Pages: 110-117
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Hand-lay up method was used to prepare the samples made of epoxy (EP) as a matrix reinforced with chopped carbon fibers (CCF). The fatigue behavior of epoxy resin /chopped carbon fiber composites was studied with different weight percentage of chopped carbon fibers (2.5%,5%,7.5%,10%,12.5%). The fatigue test was carried out under alternate bending method, which was made by applying sinusoidal wave with constant displacement (15mm), stress ratio R=-1,and loading frequency 10Hz, which is believed to give a negligible temperature rise during the test. The results of the maximum stress, fatigue strength, fatigue limit and fatigue life of the tested composites are calculated from stress(S)-number of cycles(N) (S-N) curves.
It was shown that increasing weight percentage of chopped carbon fibers increase the values of maximum stress for all composites, while the values of fatigue strength, fatigue limit and fatigue life increasing for all composites except the composite with reinforcing weight 12.5%, which was subjected to rapid failure (fracture). This failure could be due to the debonding of the chopped carbon fibers from the matrix epoxy.

حضرت العينات للفحص بطريقة التشكيل اليدوي من مادة الايبوكسي كمادة أساس ودعمت بألياف الكاربون المقطعة ( chopped carbon fiber(CCF.تمت دراسة سلوك الكلل لمادة الايبوكسي ومتراكباتها المدعمة بأليـاف الكـاربون المقطعة وبنسب وزنية مختلفة هي 10%, 7.5%, 5%, 2.5% و%12.5 بطريقة الثني المتناوب. أجري فحص الكلل بطريقة الثني المتناوب وبتسليط حمل جيبي بإزاحة بقيمة ثابتة مقدارها 15mm وبنسبة أجهاد R=-1 وبتردد 10Hzوالتي يعتقد بأنها تمنع أي زيادة في درجة الحرارة. وتم حساب أعظم جهد, مقاومة الكلل, حد الكلل وعمر الكلل لكل المتراكبات من منحنيات الإجهادS)) مع عدد الدورات N)) وأظهرت نتائج الفحص تأثير زيادة نسبة التدعيم على سلوك الكلل للعينات وذالك بزيادة قيمة أعظم جهد لجميع المتراكبات وكذلك بزيادة قيم مقاومة الكلل,حد الكلل وعمر الكلل لجميع العينات باستثناء العينة ذات النسبة الوزنية 12.5% والتي تتعرض للفشل السريع(الكسر) ويحدث الكسر بسبب عدم الترابط القوي بين ألياف الكاربون ومادة الأساس الايبوكسي.


Article
Knowledge & Health Seeking Behavior of Newly Delivered Mothers Regarding Neonatal Jaundice
المعارف والسلوكيات لدى الامهات حديثات الولاده حول اليرقان الولادي

Authors: Najlaa Fawzi Jamil نجلاء فوزي --- Enas Imad Matloob Najlaa Fawzi Jamil ايناس عماد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2017 Volume: 30 Issue: 2 Pages: 52-57
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Neonatal jaundice is one of the most common diseases globally. It's believed that delays in detection and improper treatment of neonatal jaundice can be responsible for neonatal morbidity and mortality. Knowledge and health seeking behavior of mothers play an important role in the course of this health condition.Objectives: to assess the knowledge and health seeking behavior regarding neonatal jaundice of newly delivered mothers. Determine the influence of some maternal characteristics on knowledge, and health care seeking behavior regarding neonatal jaundice.Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted on newly delivered mothers at Al-Yarmouk teaching hospital in Baghdad for the period from May to the end of August, 2016. Data was collected via direct interview with the newly delivered mothers using a special questionnaire form to assess the knowledge and health seeking behavior regarding neonatal jaundice. In addition, the data collected comprised some characteristics of the mother.Results: The study included 500 mothers. Only 4% of mothers had good knowledge, while others were between fair and poor knowledge levels.Appropriate health seeking behavior was adopted by only 21% of the study group regarding the management of neonatal jaundice.Cultural beliefs and traditional care practices still have an impact on mothers as (78.4%) of them had used traditional methods for treating their babies. Better education and being employed influenced mothers' knowledge and health seeking behavior. Mothers parity showed its' influence on knowledge level only.Conclusion:There are gaps in mothers' knowledge and health seeking behavior regarding neonatal jaundice. Targeted education during antenatal care by health professionals is needed tohelp mothers recognize neonatal jaundice, refrain from potentially harmful home interventions and promptly seek healthcare.

Keywords

Knowledge --- Behavior --- Mothers --- Neonatal --- Jaundice


Article
Nonlinear Analyses of Partially Composite Steel Beams Encased in Concrete with Innovative Position of Stud Bolts

Author: Raad K. Shukur
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2009 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 3368-3391
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Static behavior of three partially encased composite steel beams with cambering under flexural condition is investigated in the context of studying some alternative positions for the headed studs. Shear resistance between the cambered I-shaped beam and the concrete was provided by headed studs in two positions: vertically welded on the bottom flange and horizontally welded on the faces of the web. In the present study, a nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis has been used to predict the load-deflection and moment-rotation behaviors of composite encased beams consisting of steel sections using the finite element computer program (ANSYS V. 10). Composite encased beams are analyzed and a comparison is made with available experimental load-deflection curves, good agreement with the experimental results is observed. Cambering of steel section is introduced on the steel section of the composite beams encased in concrete. It is found that using of steel section with cambering can increase the ultimate load capacity of the composite encased beam by relatively (15%) and also it is found that deflection are nearly (65% to 80%) the deflection of the same beam without cambering. Parametric studies have been carried out to study the increasing of the moment-carrying capacity due to the use of encased concrete; meanwhile the slip along the beams length is studied. The strain distributions along the steel section and encased concrete depth are also examined. The effects of concrete compressive strength on the stiffness of the composite encased beams are also investigated with the Poisson’s ratio of concrete and the effect of cambering of steel-section.

في البحث الحالي, تم التحري حول سلوك ثلاث نماذج من العتبات المركبة المثنية و المغلفة جزئياُ بالخرسانة تحث تأثير الاحمال الساكنة ضمن نهج عام يتمحور حول دراسة الموقع الافضل لوضع روابط القص ((Shear Studs. تم توليد مقاومة القص بين الكونكريت و المقطع الفولاذي المثني و من خلال روابط القص عن طريق موضعين رئيسين: الروابط الملحومه طولباُ و الروابط الملحومه أفقياُ. أستخدم في الدراسة الحالية, طريقة العناصر المحددة للتحليل اللاخطي ثلاثي الابعاد و ذلك لغرض تحري علاقة كل من الحمل بالهطول و كذلك العزم بالدوران للعتبات المركبة و التي تحتوي على عنصر فولاذي مثني مغلف بالخرسانة وباستخدام برنامج العناصر المحددة للتحليل الانشائي الـ(ANSYS). تم تحليل العتبات المركبة ذوات المقاطع المغلفة و تمت مقارنة نتائج منحنيات القوة و الهطول مع النتائج العملية المتوفرة, تم ملاحظة توافق جيد بين النتائج المستحصلة من البرنامج و النتائج العملية. تم توليد تحديب (أنثناء) في المقطع الفولاذي للعتبات المركبة المغلفة بالخرسانة. لقد لوحظ بأن استخدام المقاطع المثنية في العتبات المركبة و المغلفة بالخرسانة يؤدي الى زيادة قابلية تحمل تلك العتبات بمقدار (١٥٪), و كذلك لوحظ بأن الهطول الدوران يتراوح مابين (٦٥٪ الى ٨۰٪) من هطول الدوران للعتبات التي تحتوي على مقاطع مثنية. تم دراسة تأثير وجود الخرسانة المغلفة على زيادة قابلية تحمل العزوم للعتبات القشرية المركبة و المغلفة جزئياً بالخرسانة, في تلك الاثناء تم دراسة التزحلق الذي يحدث في سطح الاتصال و على طول العتب للعتبات المركبة أيضاً. بالاظافة الى ذلك تم دراسة نمطية توزيع الانفعالات على العمق الكامل للمقاطع الفولاذية و كذلك الخرسانة المغلفة. تم التحري عن مدى تاثير مقاومة أنضغاط الخرسانة على جسائة العتيات المركبة و المغلفة بالخرسانة.. و اخيراً, تم التحقق من تاثير كل من (Poisson’s ratio), مقدار تحدب (ثني) المقطع الفولاذي و مقدار نعومة (دقة) النموذج المعمول بالـ(ANSYS) على قابليات تحمل العتبات المركبة.


Article
GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF IMPERFECT LAMINATED COMPOSITE PLATES WITH A VARIABLE FIBER SPACING
تحليل اللآخطية الهندسية للصفائح المركبة المتطبقة والغير مضبطة مع تغير مسافات الألياف

Author: Ali I. Al-Mosawi علي إبراهيم الموسوي
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2011 Volume: 4 Issue: 4 Pages: 439-455
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

The primary objective of research is to determine the improved structural efficiency of plates can be with variable fiber spacing. The Post-buckling of laminated composite plate with variable fiber spacing is obtained numerically, using eight node isoparametric quadrilateral elements (serendipity element) with five degree of freedom per node. The mathematical formulation is based on first-order shear deformation theory and von-Karman non-linearity. The effect of the initial geometric imperfection, fiber spacing, orientation fiber, and direction of in-plane loading were considered. Numerical results for boron/Epoxy fiber reinforced laminates are presented for the different effects of the composite plate under in-plane loading. This study showed that the post buckling behavior of composite plate very sensitive for type of distribution fiber and the seventh distribution equation gives maximum buckling load and smallest deformation.

الهدف الرئيسي للبحث هو لتحديد إمكانية تحسين الكفاءة الإنشائية للصفائح من خلال تغير مسافات الألياف. تم حصول النتائج العددية للإنبعاج اللاحق للصفائح المركبة والمطبقة مع ألياف متغيرة المسافات باستخدام عناصر رباعية الشكل ذات ثمانية عقد مع خمسة درجات الحرية للعقدة الواحدة. الصيغة الرياضية موضوعة على نظرية التشوهات القصية الأولى ولاخطية (von-Karman).تم الأخذ بنظر الإعتبار تأثير التشوهات الهندسية الابتدائية؛ مسافات الألياف؛ زاوية تدوير الألياف؛ وإتجاه الأحمال المحورية. النتائج العددية الخاصة بالـطبقات المسلحة بـ(البورون/إيبوكسي) تم تقديمها لمجمل من المؤثرات للصفائح المركبة تحت أحمال محورية. أظهرت هذه الدراسة إن الإنبعاج اللاحق للصفائح جدا حساس لنمط توزيع الألياف وان معادلة التوزيع السابعة تعطي أكبر حمل إنبعاج وأقل تشوه.


Article
The Effect of Recasting on the Castability of Prepared Nickel-Chromium Dental Base-Metal Casting Alloy

Authors: Suhad Jabar Hemed سهى جبار حميد --- Mohammed Talib Al-khafagy محمد طالب الخفاجي
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2007 Volume: 3 Issue: 4 Pages: 103-111
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Background: Evaluation the effect of recasting process on the castability value of prepared Ni-Cr dental base-metal casting alloy and compare it with other conventional alloy.Materials and methods: The prepared Ni-Cr alloy was locally prepared in Iraq by Al-Khafagy (2003), while the CB Blando Ni-Cr was used as conventional alloy. A wax mash of 1mm opening and (10*10) segments square was invested in phosphate-bonded investment and casted by using induction casting machine. The number of complete cast segments was counted, divided by (220) and multiplied by (100) to obtain a percentage designated the castability value (Cv).Results and discussion: The prepared Ni-Cr alloy samples were showed lower castability values than the conventional alloy, this may be related to unalloyed silicon and manages and loss the role of these elements in improvement of castability of prepared Ni-Cr alloy. The castibility value was decreased as the percentage of used alloy increased, however, ANOVA test revealed a non significant differences within the groups. Practically, the experimental and conventional alloys could be recastd if the recasted process will not affect the other properties of such alloys.

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