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Article
Relationship of maximum bite force with craniofacial morphology, body mass and height in an Iraqi adults with different types of malocclusion

Authors: Ghufran D. Awad غفران عواد --- Ausama A. Al – Mulla اسامة احمد الملا
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 129-138
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Information concerning the maximum bite force in human population is important to clinicalorthodontics. Additionally, the influence of bite force on the vertical stability of any treatment result is important. Thenew position of the dentition should be compatible with the dynamics of the muscular and occlusal forces in allplanes. This study was conducted to 1) to measure and compare maximum bite force, body height and weightamong normal occlusion and malocclusion groups (cl I,cl II,cl III) in both gender 2) to evaluate the correlationbetween bite force and craniofacial morphology, body height and weight.Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 100 Iraqi adult subjects aged 18-25 years. It was classified in to fourgroups: cl I normal occlusion, cl I malocclusion, cl II malocclusion, and cl III malocclusion according to(skeletal) thevalue of ANB angle and (dental)the Angle classification. Each group consist of 25 (13 male, 12 female), Maximumbite force was measured by a digital device (GM10, Naganokeiki, Japan) by putting the sensor part of occlusalforce meter on first molar region, body height and weight were measured by using the Length and WeightMeasuring Standard (Tanita, 2008) and craniofacial measurements were achieved by analysis of lateralcephalometric radiographResults: The highest mean value of maximum bite force was found in normal occlusion followed by class IImalocclusion and then class I malocclusion and the lowest value was found in class III malocclusion, class I skeletalrelationship (cl I normal occlusion & cl I malocclusion group) had larger values of body weight when compared withskeletal class II& class III .Regarding the gender, mean values of maximum bite force and body height are higher inmale than female in normal occlusion and malocclusion groups, There is a positive correlation between maximumbite force and body height and weight in normal occlusion and class I malocclusion ,there is a positive correlationbetween maximum bite force and palatal plane, Ramus plane, mandibular plane, posterior facial height, cranialbase, dentoalveolar height, while there is a negative correlation with anterior facial height, Gonial angle, SN-Mp¢ª,PPMP&SN-PP¢ª angles.Conclusion: The normal occlusion group had larger values of bite force than malocclusion group,the maximum biteforce, body height is gender related, larger body build up was usually associated with larger bite force in class Iskeletal relationship, Individuals with characteristics of larger maxilla ,larger mandible, larger cranial base ,shortanterior facial height long posterior facial height, flat mandibular plane had the largest value of bite force.


Article
CROSS AND RADIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE SALIVARY GLAND IN CATTLE
دراسة عيانية وشعاعية للغدد اللعابية في الابقار

Author: S . AL Sadi سمية الساعدي
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 65-75
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The present work includes morphological and radiological studies of the salivary gland , saliva is the mixed secretion of these gland the secretion of saliva in ruminants is continuous ,it has been moistest oral mucosa, provide medium for dissolved food and control bacterial flora of the oral cavity , the aim of present work to report more detailed information about the salivary gland and duct in cattle which may be help in both anatomy and surgery aspect, for value impartment can easily removal all salivary gland tissue during surgical operation, the large salivary ducts occasionally cannulated to remove obstructions or to inject a contrast medium for radiographic examination and to be able to palpate the parotid and mandibular salivary gland and different the mandibular salivary gland from lymph nodes ,to be able to trace the ducts of the salivary glands and palpate the parotid duct in the cheek of cattle , to be extirpate the mandibular and monostomac sublingual salivary glands . Collected from (6) fresh preserved heads were used in this study, there were equally divided into two groups : first group to study of shape ,position and relation of major salivary gland also study the morphology of the minor salivary gland and second group study morphological and radio graphical of parotid , mandibular and sublingual duct in cattle.The study revealed that the three major paired salivary glands(parotid ,mandibular and sublingual gland ) in addition four minor salivary glands ( buccal ,lingual ,palatine and labial gland ) into the oral cavity and oropharynx in cattle the mandibular gland ,unlike that of other domestic animals , the mandibular salivary gland is larger than the parotid ,distinctly lobulated and lies in the curve along the medial side of the angle of the mandible and which divides into superficial and deep loop, is easily palpate in the inter mandibular space, the duct open in the sublingual caruncle , the parotid gland has been described having (5) processes ( three superficial and two deep ) ,sublingual gland this is smallest of the major salivary gland , sometimes consists of two parts (compact and diffuse ) it is the almond shaped gland lies deep to the floor of mouth ,un like the parotid and mandibular gland the sublingual gland has no true facial capsule also it has a single duct.Un like the major salivary gland, the minor salivary gland lack a branching network of draining ducts , buccal glands are well developed and arranged in three groups (dorsal, middle and ventral )in cattle , the lingual gland are small lobules under the mucosa and embedded in the musculature, the caudal third of the hard palate is not ridged and bears numerous orifice of the palatine gland ,the labial glands a compact mass near the angle of the mouth , the most commonly occurred radiological findings using surface landmarks parotid duct lies mid way between the facial tubercle and corner of the mouth ,the ducts of the mandibular and compact (monostomatic) sublingual glands open on the floor of the mouth at the sublingual caruncle, they run below the mucous membrane that connects the side of the tongue with the gums.


Article
The relation among ramal width and length with some cervical and cranio-facial measurements in different skeletal classes

Author: Esraa S. Jassim
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 4 Pages: 167-174
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the relation among the ramal length and width with variouscervical and cranio-facial measurements for a sample of Iraqi adults with different skeletal classes.Materials and method: The sample composed of 71 Iraqi adults (36 females and 35 males) with an age rangedbetween 17-30 years and had different skeletal mal-relations using SNA, SNB and ANB to differentiate between themand assorting them into CL.I, CL.II and CL.III mal-relation. Each individual was subjected to clinical examination anddigital true lateral cephalometric radiograph that had been analyzed using AutoCAD 2007 software computerprogram to determine sixteen linear and ten angular measurements. Descriptive statistics were obtained andindependent samples t-test was performed to evaluate the gender differences in different classes. ANOVA test asused to compare the measurements among the skeletal classes in each gender, while Pearson’s correlationcoefficient test was used to determine the relations among ramal length and width with other measurements in allclasses.Results and Conclusions: All of the linear measurements were significantly higher in males than females. On the otherhand, the angular measurements showed non-significant gender difference except for SN-PP angle in class II group.ANOVA test showed statistically significant difference in upper gonial angle, Y-axis angle and the mandibular length.Ramal length and width correlated significantly with PFH, SN-MP angle and Co-Gn.


Article
STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF NH4F CONCENTRATION ON THE STRUCTURE OF ELECTROCHEMICALLY PREPARED TiO2 NANOTUBES
دراسة تاثير تركيز NH4F على تركيب الانابيب النانوية لـ (TiO2) المحضرة الكتروكيميائياً

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Abstract

In this study Titania nanotube arrays were prepared at room temperature (~25 ºC) via electrochemical anodization process of pure titanium foil in glycerol base electrolyte, different concentrations of ammonium fluoride salt (0.5 and 1.5wt.%) were added to the electrolyte as a tube enhancing agent. When anodizing Ti in 0.5 wt. % NH4F, nanotubes are formed with 54 ± 10 nm tube diameter, 20 ± 3 nm wall thickness and 1.76 µm tube length. When anodizing Ti in 1.5 wt. % NH4F, nanotubes are formed with 69 ± 10 nm tube diameter, 29 ± 3 nm wall thickness and 2.71 µm tube length. The morphology and structure of the Titania films were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). PACS numbers: 81.65.Mg, 82.45. +z, 81.10.-h.

في هذه الدراسة صفوف التيتانيا نانوتيوب حضرت في درجة حرارة الغرفة ~25 ºC بطريقة الانودة الكهروكيمائية لصفائح التيتانيوم النقي في محلول كهربائي اساسه جليسيرول (glycerol)، تراكيز مختلفة من ملح فلوريد الامونيوم 0.5 and 1.5wt.% اضيفت الى المحلول كعامل محسن للانبوب. عندما يؤكسد التيتانيوم في 0.5 wt%.NH4F ، كان قطر الانابيب النانوية المشكلة 10nm± 54 ، سمك الجدار nm 3± 20 و µm 1.76 طول الانبوب. عندما يؤكسد التيتانيوم في 1.5 wt%.NH4F ، كان قطر الانابيب النانوية المشكلة 10nm± 69 ، سمك الجدار nm 3± 29 و µm 2.71 طول الانبوب. تمت دراسة مورفلوجية وتركيب افلام التيتانيا بواسطة المجهر الالكتروني الماسح، مجهر القوة الذرية و حيود الاشعة السينية.


Article
Morphological changes of the placentae from anaemic pregnant women associated with intrauterine growth restriction

Author: Mareb H. Ahmed, Dr. Abduljaber Y. Alhubaity
Journal: The Medical Journal of Tikrit University المجلة الطبية لجامعة تكريت ISSN: 18131638 Year: 2016 Volume: 21 Issue: 2
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract


Article
Morphological and histological study of the liver in migratory starling bird (Sturnus vulgaris)

Authors: Saddama Saed Faraj --- Genan Adnan Al-Bairuty
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science مجلة علوم المستنصرية ISSN: 1814635X Year: 2016 Volume: 27 Issue: 5 Pages: 11-16
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The present work was aimed to form the baseline data of normal morphological and histological structure features of liver in migratory starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Anatomically, the starling liver bird was dark red -brown in colour and located in the cranial third of the abdominal cavity and consisted of undivided lobes (left and right). The liver right lobe was larger than the left. Histological examination revealed that the liver parenchyma was covered by a connective tissue capsule which appears to be thicker in the rim of liver lobes than other area in the liver lobe. Liver parenchyma was arranged in an unlimited hepatic lobules, which composed of polygonal hepatocytes organized as irregular, radial interconnecting cords or laminae of one or two cells thickness around a central vein and separated by blood sinusoids. In the boundary of each lobule showed a portal area which consists of a branch of hepatic artery; one or more branches of hepatic vein and one to four branches of the bile duct which lining by cuboidal cells that characterized by their empty non-staining cytoplasm. The histochemical observation by using PAS staining in the current study revealed that the glycogen granules arranged close to the central vein and in the rim of liver lobules


Article
MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION AND HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE LIVER IN ADULT GUPPY FISH Poecilia reticulata
الوصف الشكليائي والتركيب النسجي للكبد في سمكة الكوبي البالغة Poecilia reticulate

Author: Jenan M. Al-Kawaz
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2019 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 43-51
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

The liver of adult guppy fish was represented by one irreqular lobe located on the left side of digestive tube curved a little to the right at the posterior part. The liver lacked the trabeculae which divide it's matrix into lobules and the matrix of liver was formed from plates or cords of hepatic cells arranged around the central veins sections and were separated from each other by sinusoids. The hepatic cells were polygonal in shape, large in size, light - staining, acidophilic cytoplasm and were containing spherical nucleus situated centerly and containing nucleoli. The sections of the branches of hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct were scattered in the matrix of liver.

تـمثل كـبد سـمكة الكوبي البـالغة بفـص مفـرد غيـر منتـظم الشـكل، يقـع الـى الجـانب الأيسـر من الأنبوب الهضـمي إلا انـه ينثـني قـليلا بإتـجاه الجـانب الأيـمن عنـد نهـايته الأمـامية. افتـقد الكـبد إلى وجـود الحـويجزات التـي تقسـم متـنه الى فصـيصات، وتـكون مـتن الكـبد من صـفائح أو حـبال من الخـلايا الـكـبدية المتـرتبة بصـورة شـعاعيـة حـول مـقاطع الأوردة المـركزية والمفـصولة عن بـعضها بالجـيبانـيات الـدمـوية. وكـانت الخـلايا الكـبدية مـضلعة الشـكل كـبيرة الحجـم فاتـحة الصـبغ ذات سـايتوبلازم متـجانس باهـت متـقبل للأصـباغ الحـامضية وحـاوية على نـوى كـروية مـركزية الموقع متـوسطة الحجم ذات مـادة كـرومـاتـينـية قـليلة حـاوية على نـوية واضـحة داكنـة الصـبغ تحـتل مركز النـواة. ظـهرت فروع كل من الوريد البابـي الكـبدي والشـريان الكـبدي وقناة الصـفراء منتشـرة بصـورة منـفصلة ضـمن مـتن الكـبد

Keywords

guppy fish --- liver --- morphology --- histology


Article
The relationship between aquatic macrophytes and some gastropoda (snails) in the lower reaches of Hammar marsh

Author: Inaam A. A. Qazar
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2016 Volume: 2 Issue: 4 Pages: 23-32
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

This study was carried out during 2011-2012 to evaluate the preference of some freshwater snails to specific macrophytes than others. Snails were collected from different aquatic plants; Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton crispus, Salvinia natans,and Hydrilla verticillata at four stations. The presence of these plants was affected by the water temperature, they almost disappear in winter leading to low snail numbers at that season. Eight snail species were found at the study area; Bellamya bengalensis (Lamarck, 1822), Bithynia hareerensis Glöer, and Nasser, 2008 ,Gyrauluse hrenbergi (Beck, 1837), Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774), Melanopsis nodosa Férussac, 1823, Physlla acuta Draparnaud, 1805, Radix auricularia (Linnaeus,1758), Theodoxus jordani (Sowerby, 1832). Statistical analysis shows a significant differences (P<0.05) between macrophyte's snails number, C. demersum and H. verticilata was the most preferred macrophyte in this study, while S. natanus recorded no occurrence of snails.

Keywords

Snail --- Macrophytes --- Periphyton --- Occurance --- Morphology.


Article
Morphological study on full term placenta of the maternal pregnancy anaemia with intrauterine growth restricted

Authors: Mareb H.Ahmed --- Abduljaber Y. Alhubaity
Journal: The Medical Journal of Tikrit University المجلة الطبية لجامعة تكريت ISSN: 18131638 Year: 2017 Volume: 23 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Placentae from 50 pregnant women were collected from Albatool Obstetrics and Gynecology Teaching Hospital in Mosul-Iraq. Thirty of them belonged to anaemic pregnant women associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), while the other 20 belonged to uncomplicated pregnancy (as a control group). The parameters studied were mean gestational age, birth weight of babies, mean placental weight, diameter, surface area, and mean placental volume. The main findings in the placentae from anaemic women were compared to the control group.Results reveal that there is a significant decrease in mean birth weight, mean placental weight, diameter, surface area and mean volume of the placentae in anaemia of pregnancy group associated with IUGR as compared with control group.Alterations in various parameters may be due to compensatory phenomena to fulfill the demand of O2 to fetus, subsequently affecting the growing fetus. Appropriate precautions if taken during pregnancy, complications due to anaemia can be reduced.In conclusion, this study demonstrated that severe anaemia in pregnant women alters the placental morphology, leading to fetal growth restriction and prompt treatment of anaemia must be taken to improve placental growth and a favorable obstetric outcome.


Article
Size and Morphology of Sella Turcica in Iraqi Adults

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AbstractTo measure the size and describe the morphology of sella turcica on true lateralcephalometric radiographs; and to determine if there is any statistical significantdifference in the size of sella turcica regarding the genders and skeletal classes.The sample included 130 pretreatment digital lateral cephalometric radiographs(67 female and 63 males) with an age range between 17-25 years, collected from theOrthodontic Department in the College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad. Thesample was divided according to ANB angle into 3 skeletal classes. The size of sellaturcica (length, depth, and diameter) was measured and its morphology wasdetermined. Frequency distribution and percentage described the morphology,independent samples t-test was used to test genders difference, while ANOVA testwas performed to show if there is any statistical significant difference in the size ofsella turcica among the skeletal patterns.Males had slightly higher sella turcica measurements than females with a nonsignificantdifference between genders; on the other hand, class III sample had highersella turcica measurements with a non-significant difference among the skeletalclasses. In addition to the normal morphology, six distinct variations of sella turcicawere identified with the highest percentage to the normal morpholgy.All the linear measurements of the sella turcica were within standard range.Neither gender nor skeletal patterns showed significant differences in sella turcicalinear measurements. Normal morphology of the sella turcica was found in themajority of subjects.

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