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Article
Childhood Poisoning, A Casualty Unit Study In A Pediatric Teaching Hospital
التسمم عند الأطفال, دراسة في وحدة الطوارىء في مستشفى أطفال تعليمي

Authors: Basim H. Al-Hakeem د.باسم الحكيم --- Basil M. Hanoudi د.باسل هنودي --- Ghada F. Naji د. غادة فايق ناجي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2007 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 331-336
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

AbstractBackground: Poisoning is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood.Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological features of acute poisoning in children less than 16 years old who were admitted to the casualty unit, to analyze various conditions and management parameters in childhood poisoning.Methods: Ninety eight cases of poisoning were admitted over a 6-month study period (2nd of May - 3rd of November 2004). Data was collected upon admission and patients were subsequently followed-up. Study was conducted in the casualty unit, in the central child teaching hospital/Baghdad, questionnaire included age and sex of patients, detailed important family history features, poison related information, clinical presentations and initial management given. All the patient's families were advised on future safety measures at home regarding the poison used.Results: Patients admitted were with the age range of 1-2years. 57% of admissions were boys with mean age of 3.07 years, while female patients were 41% with mean age of 3.98 years. Ninety four percent of poisoning was accidental, occurred indoor and the storage place of the poison was a home store or home pharmacy. Forty percent of patients ingested oral medication, while 37% ingested kerosene and the rest ingested other household products. Most patients were admitted with no complain after a history of poisoning, for observation which did not require antidotes, while vomiting was the next common presentation, gastric lavage was the next common action taken in the hospital's casualty unit. Two percent of the patients had samples taken for toxicological analysis. Thirty eight percent of patients were discharged from causality unit in good general condition, while thirty five percent were discharged on parent's responsibility. There was 3.1% fatality rate in the study period. Conclusion: Improving health education and safety measures are essential in prevention of poisoning in children. Key words: Poisoning, kerosene poisoning, Childhood poisoning, Accidental ingestions.

الملخص:خلفية الدراسة: يعتبر التسمم سبب مهم في الأعتلال والوفاة عند الأطفال.هدف الدراسة: تؤشر هذه الدراسة الميزات الوبائية في حالات التسمم الحاد عند الأطفال الذين أدخلوا وحدة الطوارى, وتحلل مختلف الظروف وعوامل العلاج.طريقة الدراسة: تم جمع المعلومات من 98 حالة تسمم للأطفال الذين أدخلوا وحدة الطوارى في مستشفى الطفل المركزي التعليمي / بغداد, للفترة من 2/5/2004 ولغاية 3/11/2004 وتمت متابعتهم لاحقا.شملت الدراسة الأطفال ذوي الأعمار دون 16 سنة, وتم جمع المعلومات فيما يتعلق بعمر الطفل و جنس الطفل و تفاصيل معلومات عن عائلة الطفل و معلومات عن المادة السمية والاعراض السريرية للحالات و خيارات العلاج المقدم وحالة المريض عند مغادرة وحدة الطوارى. النتائج: أظهرت الدراسة أن%57 من حالات التسمم للأطفال كانت لذكور, وغالبية الأعمار للأطفال كانت 1-4 سنة, وأن 48% من حالات التسمم كانت عرضية, وأن 84.7% منها كانت داخل البيت, وفي 41.8% من الحالات كانت المواد السمية مخزونة فوق الرفوف أو في صيدلية البيت, وأن 39.8% من المرضى أصيبوا لأبتلاعهم مواد دوائية, فيما كان 37.8% منهم قد تناولوا مادة النفط الأبيض والبقية قد تناولوا المستحضرات المنزلية الأخرى.لم تؤخذ نماذج للتحاليل السمية في 2% من المرضى, وكان معظم المرضى الراقدين تحت المراقبة وبعلاج تحفظي وبدون شكوى سريرية, بينما كانت شكوى التقيؤ وعلاج غسل المعدة بنسبة أقل.ان 38% من الراقدين قد تم أخراجهم متحسنين من وحدة الطوارى, بينما كان 35% منهم قد أخرجوا على مسوؤلية ذويهم. أما نسبة الوفيات فكانت 3%. الأستنتاجات: تحسين التثقيف الصحي وسبل السلامة في حفظ المواد السمية يعتبر من الامور المهمة في الوقاية من التسمم عند الاطفال.


Article
A Three Years Review of Accidental Poisoning in Children at Fatema Al-Zahra Teaching Hospital, Baghdad.

Author: Kholod Daher Habib
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Pages: 431-434
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Accidental poisoning due to ingestion of potentially toxic substances is a major cause of morbidity in children worldwide .The purpose of this Study was to determine the prevalence and patterns of ingestion potentially toxic substances by children in Fatema AL-Zahra teaching hospital which served the eastern parts of Baghdad and to recommend plans for poisoning prevention.METHODS:Medical records of patients admitted to the pediatric medical department (p.m.d) in Fatema Al-Zahra teaching hospital because of accidental poisoning during the last 3 years (January 2004 to December 2006) were reviewed.RESULTS:A total of 13351 children were admitted to the pediatric medical department during the study period .Of these,110 children were reported as cases of accidental poisoning .The highest percentage of poisoning were found in the 1-2 years (yr) age group about 56 cases (50.9%) . Hydrocarbons ingestion accounted for the highest proportion of childhood accidental poisonings 53cases (48%).CONCLUSION:Although one case of death was reported in this study, continuous education of parents and caregivers of young children is recommended, as this would help to reduce the chances and complications of accidental poisoning.


Article
Pattern of Acute Poisoning in Children

Author: Majid Abdul Wahab Maatook
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 512-517
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

This is a retrospective study of cases of childhood poisoning attending the paediatric emergency unit in Basrah province from January 2010 to January 2011 . One hundred and fifty one cases of children aged 12 years and below, cases due to acute poisoning were analysed, the majority of cases were aged between 1 – 5 years 71.5% , the male to female ratio was 1.3 :1, the most common toxicities occurred by ingestion of kerosene 47.01%, medications35.09%, organophosphrus 9.95% ,House items 5.97%, Co poisoning 1.98%. There were seasonal variations of poisoning events with a high frequency in spring 30.46%, and in summer 29.80%. on admission 85% of patients were complaining from mild to moderate symptoms , and 15% had severe symptoms . no fatalities occur during the study period.

هذه دراسة رجوعية للأطفال المصابين بالتسمم والذين راجعوا وحدة الطوارئ للاطفال في محافظة البصرة للفترة من كانون الثاني 2010 ولغاية كانون الثاني 2011 , تم تحليل 151 حالة تسمم حاد للأطفال ممن تقل اعمارهم عن 12 سنة, في معظم الحالات كانت اعمار المرضى تتراوح من 1 – 5 سنة 71.5% , وكانت نسبة الذكور الى الاناث 1.3 : 1, العدد الاكبر لحالات التسمم كان نتيجة تناول النفط الابيض 47.01% , ويأتي بعده الادوية 35.09%, ومركبات الفسفور العضوية 9.95% ,المواد المنزلية 5.97% ,والتسمم بغاز اول اكسيد الكاربون 1.98%. هنالك تغيرات فصلية حيث وجد ان اعلى الحالات كانت في فصل الربيع 30.46% وفي فصل الصيف 29.80% . وتبعا للحالات السريرية من حيث الخطورة كان 85% من الحالات بين خفيفة الى متوسطة و 15% يشكون من اعراض شديدة ولم تسجل اي حالة وفاة اثناء فترة الدراسة .

Keywords

Acute poisoning --- children --- pattern


Article
Acute Accidental Poisoning in Children Admitted to Child’s Central Teaching Hospital in Baghdad

Author: Mohammed Habib Abdul-Hamed ,Raed Yeihya Salman, Mohammed Ali Mohammed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2015 Volume: 14 Issue: 4 Pages: 506-513
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Poisoning defined as any substance causing a harmful effect when administrated accidently. Acute accidental poisoning is important medical emergency in children worldwide.OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of accidental poisoning in children, the association between accidental poisoning with gender and residence and to determine the clinical presentation and outcome of each poison.METHODS: A prospective study was carried out in Childs Central teaching hospital in Baghdad for all children bellow ten years with history of accidental poisoning during six months period Data including: age, gender, residence, type of poisoning, presenting symptoms, and outcome were studied.RESULTS: Total number of children admitted were 10280 cases, of these 250 cases were presented with history of accidental poisoning, accounting for (2.43%) of total cases admitted. Most of patients (93.2%) were within age group of 1-5years.Males to females ratio was (1.27:1).Most common poison was hydrocarbons(50.8%) followed by medications(31.2%) .Most of patients were from urban backgrounds(78.0%).Vomiting was the most common clinical presentation(28.8%). (80.0%) Patients discharged from emergency reception within 24 hours .The mortality rates were (0.8%) .CONCLUSION: Poisoning in children are well recognized problem and affecting large number of children. The mortality rate was low.


Article
Therapeutic Effects of Melatonin in Lead-Induced Toxicity in Rats
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Authors: Shatha H. Ali شذى حسين علي --- Saad A. Hussain سعد عبدالرحمن حسين --- Mustafa G. Alabbassi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2008 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 47-54
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Exposure to lead results in significant accumulation in most of vital organs, and free radical damage has been proposed as a cause of lead-induced tissue damage, where oxidative stress is a likely molecular mechanism. This study was designed to evaluate therapeutic effects of melatonin in lead-induced organ toxicity in rats. The therapeutic effects of melatonin on lead induced toxicity in rats were evaluated using 36 rats, which were allocated into 3 groups and treated as follows: Group I, includes 12 rats injected subcutaneously with 0.2 ml physiological saline for 30 days, followed by treatment with a daily dose of 20mg/kg melatonin, administrated I.P for the successive 30 days; groups II and III, each includes 12 rats , injected with lead acetate 100 mg/kg/day s.c for 30 days, followed by treatment with intraperotoneal injection of physiological saline (0.2 ml) or melatonin 20mg/kg/day for the next 30 days. At the end of treatment period, the rats were sacrificed by an overdose (100mg/kg) of thiopental (twenty-four hour after the last injection). Craniotomy and laparotomy were performed to obtain the brains, livers and kidneys for the assessment of tissue damage. The changes in total body weight, weight of major organs (brain, liver and kidney), oxidative stress parameters, hemoglobin content, liver and renal functions, and histological appearance of the studied organs were evaluated and compared with that of negative and positive controls. Treatment with melatonin reverses the damage induced by lead in many organs and tissues through the reduction of MDA levels in RBCs, brain, liver and kidney; increases GSH levels in all studied organs; in addition to the improvement in the indices of the functions of the organs studied. These findings demonstrated that melatonin is capable of reversing damage of rat tissues caused by successive doses of lead acetate, and animals had restored their organ functions due to treatment with melatonin.

ان التعرض للرصاص يمكن ان يتسبب بتركزه في معظم الاعضاء الحيوية كما ان الاضرار الناجمة عن الجذور الحرة قد تكون هي المسببة للاضرار بهذه الاعضاء , حيث ان الاجهاد التأكسدي هو الاكثر احتمالية ليكون الميكانيكية المسؤولة .تم تصميم هذه الدراسة لتقييم الفعالية العلاجية للميلاتونين في الفئران المصابة بالتسمم بالرصاص. ان التأثيرات العلاجية للميلاتونين على الفئران المصابة بتسمم الرصاص ليتم تقييمها باستخدام 36 فأرا , قسمت الى ثلاث مجاميع تلقت المعالجات التالية :المجموعة الاولى تتضمن 12 فأرا .حقنت تحت الجلد ب 2,. مل من المحلول الملحي لمدة ثلاثين يوما , وبعدها بجرعة 20 ملغم/كغم من الميلاتونين اعطيت في البريتون لثلاثين يوما . و المجموعتين الثانية والثالثة والتي ضمت 12 فأرا لكل منهما تم حقنها بخلات الرصاص بجرعة 100 ملغم / كغم / يوم تحت الجلد لثلاثين يوما اتبعت بجرع من المحلول الملحي ( 0،2 مل) او الميلاتونين 20 ملغم /كغم / يوم عن طريق حقن البريتون للثلاثين يوما التالية .في نهاية فترة المعالجة تم قتل الحيوانات باستخدام جرعة عالية من ثايوبنتال بعد مرور 24 ساعة من اخر معالجة . تم اجراء التشريح لاستحصال الادمغة و الاكباد والكلى لفحص تضررها . ان التغييرات في معدل اوزان اجسام واعضاء الحيوانات (الادمغة و الاكباد والكلى ) و مؤشرات الاجهاد التأكسدي ومحتوى الخضاب فحوصات وضائفكل من الكبد والكلى والتغيرات النسيجية في الاعضاء المدروسة تم تقييمها بعد مقارنتها ب كل من مجاميع المقارنة السالبة والموجبة . ان المعالجة بالميلاتونين يمكن ان يعاكس الضرر الناتج بالرصاص في العديد من الاعضاء والانسجة من خلال تقليل اكسدة الدهون ( مستوى المالوندالديهايد) في كل من خلايا الدم الحمر والدماغ والكبد والكلى ، اضافة الى زيادة مستوى الكلوتاثايون المدروسة مع تحسن ملحوظ في مؤشرات وظائف الاعضاء المدروسة .ان هذه النتائج توضح ان الميلاتونين له القابلية على عكس الاضرار الناجمة في انسجة الفئران من التعرض المتعاقب لجرع من خلات الرصاص ، وان الحيوانات قد استعادت وظائف الاعضاء فيها نتيجة المعالجة بالميلاتونين .


Article
LEAD POSONING IN CHILDREN

Authors: rezzaq A.AL-Taee --- Qusay A. Al-Rahim* FRCP, FRCPCH, DCH(L) Rezzaq A. Al-Taee** DCH د.قصي عبد الرحيم
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2005 Volume: 47 Issue: 2 Pages: 105-108
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Lead is one of the first metals to have served mankind. It was among the earliest metals used by man and was known to the early Egyptians and Hebrews.Objectives: To study the epidemiology of Lead poisoning regarding age, sex, areas of distribution, type offeeding, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and the outcome. Methods: Fifty patients with lead poisoning were studied in Al-Mansour (Children's welfare Teaching Hospital), Medical City, Baghdad, were included in the study.Results: Forty five (90%) children were under one year of age. Twenty nine (58%) children were males. Forty four (88%) children were from Anbar Governorate. Thirty five (70%) were from rural areas. Six (12%) infants were solely breast fed. Forty (80%) children presented with convulsions. Twenty six (52%) children their haemoglobin levels were (5.1 - 9)g/dl. Basophilic stippling seen in (38%) and urinary delta ALA were raised >4mg/L in all children. Lead lines were seen in (54%) of the children wrist X-rays.Conclusions: Lead poisoning is a major problem in Al-Anbar Governorate, especially Qaeem region, so infants and children in this area should be screened. Estimation of lead levels at different sites of the river and other water sources, soil, animals, agricultural products and all types of alkohl. Lead poisoning should be suspected in any infant with unexplained encephalopathy and particularly if resident in Al-Anbar Governorate and all members of the family of the affected baby should be screened for lead poisoning.Keywords: poisoning, lead, children, Baghdad, Iraq.

Keywords

: poisoning --- lead --- children --- Baghdad --- Iraq


Article
Epidemiology of Drugs and Chemical Poisoning in Children In Babylon Governorate

Authors: Jasim Mohammed Almarzoki --- Kadhum Mehdi Mueen
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 774-779
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Acute Poisoning in children is one of main public health problems and regarded a frequent cause of admission to hospitals. Its epidemiology is necessary to determine the extent and characteristics of this problem.A hospital based retrospective study was done to determine the epidemiology of chemical and drug poisoning in children admitted to Babylon Gynecology and Pediatrics Teaching Hospital during one year duration from June 2013 to May 2014. Two hundred and twenty seven patient's records were reviewed regarding poisoning. One hundred and fifty one (66.5%) of them were males. Hydrocarbons poisoning was the most prevalent poisoning followed by drugs. Patients from rural areas were more than the patients from the urban areas (57.7%, 42.3%) respectively.


Article
Epidemiology of Poisoning In Hospitalized Children

Author: Ahmed S Al-Naaimi
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 4 Pages: 400-406
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background and Objectives: Poisoning is an important cause of childhood and adolescence hospital emergency presentations and admissions and a major health problem in this population sector. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology and pattern of poisoning in addition to its case fatality rate. Methods: A total of 1450 pediatric cases with poisoning admitted to the Central Teaching Hospital of Pediatrics, Baghdad, during the 10 years study period extending from the 1st of January 1993 to 31st of December 2002, were analyzed. Results: The peak age for poisoning cases in the present study was 1-4 years, constituting about three quarters of total pediatric admissions with poisoning. Males were more frequent than females in the present work, and this gender bias was more evident in younger ages and less evident in teenagers. Non-medicinal substances were responsible for the major part (three-quarters) of poisoning cases, especially petroleum products and pesticides. The overall case-fatality rate was 2.6%. The risk of death was higher in the more vulnerable age groups (infants and neonates). It was also higher in males and in cases with poisoning by other noxious substances eaten as food, followed by metals (mainly lead), systemic antibiotics and pesticides. However out of a total of 37 deaths attributed to poisoning that occurred during the present study period of 10 years, non-medicinal substances (especially petroleum products, pesticides and metals) were responsible for three-quarters of these deaths. Conclusion: Children under 5 years of age are the most-vulnerable group for poisoning incidents. In addition Petroleum products, insecticides and lead metal were responsible for the highest proportion of poisoning admission and fatality necessitating special steps directed towards the prevention of these problems.


Article
THALLIUM POISONING :CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS THROUGH TWO OUTBREAKS IN BASRAH

Authors: Khalil I. Al-Hamdi خليل الحمادي --- Ahmed A. Al-Mohammadi احمد المحمدي
Journal: Thi-Qar Medical Journal مجلة ذي قار الطبية ISSN: 19929218 Year: 2012 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 143-150
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Background: Thallium is the most suitable agent for criminal poisoning of human being as it is tasteless and odorless. It usually associated with typical clinical features mainly dermatological and neurological manifestations.Objective:To report an two outbreaks of thallium poisoning in Basrah.Patients and Methods:This case descriptive study that was conducted in the Department of Dermatology -Basrah Teaching Hospital from January 2009 to February 2010 ,where a total of thirty two patients with thallium poisoning were enrolled in this study. At the first outbreak, 17 patients were seen at January 2009 due to ingestion of cake while 15 patientswere seen at the second outbreak at February 2010 who were accidental ingestion of rat poisons. A detailed history was taken from all patients regarding all demographics points related to this poisoning. Full clinical examination was performed looking for skin manifestationsin addition to other systemic involvement. Thallium in urine has been measured using the colorimetric method and was positive in all of them.Results: Thirty two patients with thallium poisoning were evaluated. The first outbreak including 17 patients ,with 13 males and 4 females, their ages ranged from 11-33 years with a mean of 24 years , all those patients gave history of eating cakes laced with thallium. Whereas the second outbreak that including 15 patients , 8 males and 7 females, their ages ranged from 5-30 years with a mean 15 years ,all those patients gave history of accidental ingestion of rat poisons . Among both out breaks the dermatological findings were mainly anagen hair loss in diffuse and patchy patternaffected the scalp and limbs. Also dusky ecchymotic red dermatitis like rash was observed on the face especially perioral region and dorsum of hands and legs.Neurologic manifestations, mainly of peripheral neuropathy, reported in 50% patients of the second group while no one of the first group showed any of these finding.Conclusion: Outbreak of thallium poisoning is now occurring in recurrent rate which may be lethal to human being as a result of accidental ingestion or for criminal purposes. It gives characteristic cutaneous, neurological and psychological features that can lead to the right diagnosis.


Article
Patterns of Poisoning Cases Reported in the Baghdad Poisoning Control Center during 2014
دراسة حالات التسمم المسجلة في مركز استعلامات السموم في بغداد خلال عام 2014

Author: Hasan Alhaddad حسن الحداد
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal for Pharmaceutical Sciences مجلة المستنصرية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 18150993 Year: 2017 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 88-97
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Poisoning is an important clinical emergency and represents a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, early diagnosis and management of poisoning significantly affect mortality and morbidity as well as health care costs. Understanding the characteristic of poisoning cases is important for treatment. The present study investigated the characteristic of poisoning cases in Baghdad Poisoning Control Center (PCC). Data on all poisoning cases reported in Baghdad PCC during 2014 were retrospectively obtained from the medical records. A total of 804 reports of poisoning caseswere analyzed according to geographical distribution, age of victims, gender, the type and class of poisoning agent, and the follow up after poisoning. The results of this study showed thenecessity to continue collecting data of patients admitted to emergency departments and poisoning control centers andaddress the main obstacles facing the management of poisoning cases and decrease morbidity and mortality.

تعتبر حالات التسمم من دواعي الطوارئ المهمة وتمثل عامل رئيسي لحالات المرض والوفاة في العالم. التشخيص والعلاج المبكر لحالات التسمم يؤثر إيجابا على عدد الوفيات والكلف المترتبة على علاج حالات التسمم. ان فهم خصائص حالات التسمم مهم لغرض استخدام العلاج المناسب للحالة. تم دراسة خصائص الحالات المسجلة في مركز استعلامات السموم في بغداد. حيث جمعت بيانات حالات التسمم المسجلة بأثر رجعي في عام 2014 من خلال استخدام البيانات الطبية لكل مريض. تم تحليل 804 حالة اعتمادا على الموقع الجغرافي وعمر الضحيةوالجنس ونوع المادة المسببة وكذلك متابعة المريض بعد تلقي العلاج. أظهرت نتائج هذه الدراسة ضرورة جمع البيانات الخاصة بحالات التسمم وتحليلها بصورة مستمرة بالإضافة الىمعرفة المعوقات الرئيسية التي تواجه عملية العلاج وتقليل حالات التدهور المرضي والوفاة.

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