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Article
Evaluation of Staging of Carcinoma of Breast as anIndicator for Presentation of Patients

Authors: Mahdi Jasim Moosa --- Najeeb Sleiwah Jabbo
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2006 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 52-55
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The type of treatment of carcinoma
of the breast depends on its stage at presentation. Its
early detection is important.
Objective: Analysis of treated patients for
carcinoma of breast in regards to their stages,
considering it as an indicator for patient's presentation
and discusses the results in this collection.
Methods: A review study of cases treated surgically
for the last 10 years by the authors. Their stages were
recorded in addition to their age, gender and type of
histopathology.
Results: A collection of 110 patients was studied.
Those in the 5th decade were affected more. Females
were 107 and males were only 3. The right breast was
affected more than the left one. Infiltrative ductal
carcinoma was the commonest type of pathology
followed by the lobular carcinoma. Stage 2 was the
commonest stage at time of diagnosis and treatment.
Conclusion: In our collection, more than half of
our patients present during stage 2. This is a late
presentation. Earlier detection is necessary. An
important Program for early detection directed by the
authorities, using the periodic physical examination
and self breast examination and considering the start
of mammography screening program for those with
age range of (40-60). Programs for educating women
in regards to the risk factors and other information
about this disease through the internet should be
considered.
Keywords: Breast carcinoma, stage, presentation.


Article
Impact of tumor biomarkers and patient’s age on the “disease stage” in women with breast cancer in Erbil city
تأثير المؤشرات الحيوية للورم وعمر المريض على "مرحلة المرض" عند النساء المصابات بسرطان الثدي في مدينة أربيل

Authors: Jangi Sh. Muhialdin --- Showan Salam Marouf
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2015 Volume: 19 Issue: 2 Pages: 1019-1028
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Female breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, affecting more than one million women annually. The objectives of this study were, firstly, to evaluate the effects of breast cancer biomarkers such as human epidermal growth factor receptor-2and hormone receptor status on the stage of breast cancer at the time of presentation, and secondly, to assess the role of “women’s age” on the level of biomarker expressions and on the advancement in breast cancer disease stage at the time of diagnosis in a sample of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Erbil City. Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical records of women affected with breast cancer was performed from January 2013 to April 2014. Cancer staging was done based on the histopathological reports according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system. Patients were classified to either hormone receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive or negative based on immunohistochemistry or FISH analysis. Results: The mean age (+SD) at diagnosis was 48.9 (+12.4) years. About a quarter of breast cancer cases were diagnosed in young women aged less than 40 years, who had a proportionally more hormone receptor negativity and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 over-expression, and a significantly more advanced cancer stage at time of diagnosis compared to their older counterparts.Conclusion: Breast cancer biomarkers have huge impacts on disease stage, and are greatly affected by age of women at time of diagnosis of breast cancer.


Article
ABILITY OF Leishmania donovani TO CONGENITAL TRANSMISSION IN EXPERIMENTAL BALB/C MICE
قابلية طفيلي اللشمانيا الاحشائية Leishmaniadonovani على الانتقال الخلقي في الفئران المختبرية سلالةBALB/c

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Abstract

The aim of the current study was to investigate the ability of the transmission of Leishmania donovani parasite from pregnant mothers to their embryos in experimental BALB/c mice. After 5 days of copulation males with females,females were injected with 1012 parasite/ml of promastigote stage through the tail vein, which is grown in NNN-medium.This study demonstrated parasite ability to congenital transmission from mothers to their embryos by placenta through the appearance of amastigote in tissue sections of liver and bone marrow of infected mice fetusescompared with uninfected fetuses.

الهدف من الدراسة الحالية التحقق من قابلية انتقال طفيلي اللشمانياالاحشائيةLeishmania donovaniمن الامهات الحوامل الى اجنتها في الفئران المختبرية سلالة BALB/c ، بعد مزاوجة ذكور الفئران مع الاناث ، أذ تم حقن الاناث بجرعة 1012طفيلي من خلال الوريد الذنبي بالطور امامي السوط للطفيلي الذي نمي على وسط NNN-medium .أثبتت الدراسة قابلية الطفيلي على الانتقال الخلقي من الامهات الى اجنتها بواسطة المشيمة من خلال ظهور الطور عديم السوط في مقاطع انسجة الكبد ونخاع العظم لأجنة الفئران المصابة مقارنتاً مع الأجنة غير المصابة.


Article
Prediction of Tigris River Stage in Qurna, South of Iraq, Using Artificial Neural Networks
التنبؤ بمنسوب نهر دجلة في القرنة, جنوب العراق باستعمال الشبكات العصبيةِ الاصطناعية

Authors: Ali H. Al Aboodi --- Ammar S. Dawood --- Sarmad A. Abbas
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2009 Volume: 27 Issue: 13 Pages: 2448-2456
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) with back-propagation algorithm areperformed for predicting the stage of Tigris River in Qurna city, Basrah, south of Iraq. This model was adopted to investigate the applicability of ANNs as an effective tool to simulate the river stage for short term. By using the neural network toolbox in Matlab R2007b, three models are constructed as the first experiment. Multilayer percpetron with one hidden layer is used in the architecture of network. The best model is selected according to the trial and errorprocedure based on three common statistic coefficients (coefficient of correlation, root mean square error, and coefficient of efficiency). The best model from first experiment is used to predict the stage river for one, two, and three days ahead as the second experiment. Results indicated the ANNs with back-propagation algorithm are a powerful technique to predict the short term stage of Tigris River

تمت تهيئة الشبكات العصبية الصناعية باستخدام طريقة انسياب الخطأ لأعداد نموذج التنبؤ بمنسوب نهر دجلة في قضاء القرنة, محافظة البصرة, جنوب العراق. استخدم النموذج المعد للتحري عن إمكانية الشبكات العصبية الصناعية كأداة فاعلة في محاكاة منسوب النهر ثلاثة .(Matlab R2007b) للمدى القصير باستعمال صندوق عدة الشبكات العصبية في برنامج نماذج أنشأت كتجربة أولية حيث استخدمت الشبكة العصبية من النوع متعدد الطبقات لبناء معمارية الشبكة. أفضل نموذج اختير طبقا لعملية التجربة والخطأ مستندا على ثلاث معاملاتإحصائية معروفة هي (معامل الارتباط, جذر معدل الخطأ ألتربيعي, ومعامل الكفاءة). أفضل نموذج انبثق كحصيلة لنتائج المرحلة الأولى, استعمل لتنبؤ بمنسوب النهر ليوم, يومين, وثلاثة أيام لاحقة. بينت النتائج, إن الشبكات العصبية الصناعية المعايرة باستعمال طريقة انسياب الخطأ تقنية كفؤءة للتنبؤ بمنسوب نهر دجلة للمدى القصير.

Keywords

Prediction --- Tigris --- Stage --- Neural --- Networks


Article
Frequency of HLA-A and B Antigens in Iraqi Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease Preparing for Transplantation

Authors: Lazem H. Al-Taie --- Batool H. Al-Ghurabi --- Ahmed A .Al-Hassan --- Abid J. Dage
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: supplement Pages: 642-648
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The likelihood of developing end-stage renal disease in an individual is determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Human leukocyte antigen is the most polymorphic genetic system in man. Genes of this region influence susceptibility to certain diseases.OBJECTIVE:The purpose of the present study is to investigate the association of HLA class I (HLA-A and HLA-B) with the end-stage renal disease in Iraqi patients (Arab and Kurd).SUBJECTS AND METHODS:HLA-typing was assessed in 200 patients with end-stage renal disease and 110 healthy controls by microlymphocytotxicity assay.RESULTS:A survey of the distribution of HLA-A and HLA-B antigens frequencies yielded a significant variation between patients and healthy control group. Arab patients have significant increase in frequency of HLA-A2 as compared with healthy control (P=0.005). Whereas Kurdish patients revealed significant increase in frequency of HLA-B35 when compared with healthy control (P=0.033).CONCLUSION:The current study suggests that high frequency of HLA-A2 in Arab patients and HLA-B35 in Kurdish patients might be associated with susceptibility to risk of end-stage renal disease


Article
Effect of lactation stage and calve sex in some of milk components in Iraqi Riverine Buffalo

Author: Lina A. Mahdi
Journal: Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الطبية البيطرية ISSN: 20779798 Year: 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 110-114
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The present study was carried out at local buffalo flock in AL-Najaf province , by using data collected for 40 reverine buffalo in different lactation stage thought the year 2013 to determine the effect of lactation stage and sex of birth in milk protein , lipids , lactose ,ash solid not fat ,calcium ,density, freezing point and water. Results was showed a significant effect (p≤ 0.05 ) of lactation stage in milk lipids, protein, ash and freezing point , the highest values were in late period of lactation (9.5g/l ,4.0 g/l ,0.84 g/l and -29.85 c°) respectively. Lactose and density were increased significantly (p≤ 0.05 ) in the beginning of lactation period its about 4.53 g/l and 54.33ml/gm respectively compared with end of lactation period its about 3.38 g/l and 43.67 ml/ gm respectively. S.N.F ,calcium and water were not affected significantly by lactation stage. Significant effect (p≤ 0.05 ) of calve sex in milk lipids, protein and freezing point , the highest values were in milk of dams that calved female (7.83g/l ,3.92 g/l and -27.36c°) respectively. Lactose and density were increased significantly (p≤ 0.05 ) in the milk of dams that calved male its about 4.62 g/l and 53.17ml/gm respectively. S.N.F ,calcium, ash and water were not affected significantly by calve sex.


Article
Preliminary Design of A multi- Stage Axial Compressor

Authors: Ruqeaa Ismail M. Al-Rubyee --- Ihsan Y. Hussain --- Munther I. Al-Druby
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2008 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 2534-2551
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A numerical calculations algorithm has been developed in the present work for a thermodynamics and aerodynamic design of an axial flow compressor. The design calculations were based on thermodynamics, gas dynamic, fluid mechanics, aerodynamic and empirical relations. A two- dimensional compressible flow is assumed with constant axial and rotor blade velocities. A free –vortex swirl distributions was used in the design. These calculations include; power of the compressor, thermodynamic properties of the working fluid, stage efficiency, number of rotor and stator blades, tip and hub diameters, blade dimensions (chord, length and space) for both rotor and stator, velocity triangles before and after the rotor, Mach number, solidity, degree of reaction, flow and blade angles (blade twist) and lift and drag coefficients along the blade and lift. A repeated stage calculation is made to calculate the above parameters along compressor stages. The twist of the blades can be calculated along the blade length at any required number of sections selected by the designers to obtain smooth blade twist profile. The developed algorithm was tested on a compressor cascade series type NACA 65(12)10 with circular camber angle of (30). The results show that; the lift coefficient decreases as mean flow angle increases, the drag coefficient increases along blade length at a mean flow angle of (15), the relative Mach number increases along blade length as mean flow angle increases, the ratio of total drag coefficient to lift coefficient increases when the mean flow angle increases, the drag coefficient decreases along blade length as the solidity increases, the cascade efficiency increases as the mean flow angle increase to (45).

تم في هذا البحث تطوير خوارزمية حسابات عددية للتصميم الثرموديناميكي والايروديناميكي لضاغطة محورية. تم في هذه الحسابات التصميمية اعتماد معادلات الثرموديناميك, ديناميك الغازات, ديناميك الموائع, الايروديناميك و بعض العلاقات التجريبية بالاعتماد على الفرضيات التالية: اعتبار الجريان ثنائي البعد وانضغاطي, ثبوت السرعة المحورية وسرعة الريشة الدوارة والتوزيع الدوامي الحر لالتواء الريش. تم في هذه الخوارزمية ايجاد اهم الخواص واكثرها فاعلية في حسابات تصميم الضاغطة.تم ايجاد قدرة الضاغطة وخواص المائع الحرارية للريش الدوارة والثابتة, كفاءة المرحلة الواحدة, عدد الريش الدوارة والثابتة, الاقطار عند قمة وقاعدة الريشة بثبوت قطر وسط الريشة, ابعاد الريشة الدوارة والثابتة (طول, عرض و وتر), مثلثات السرع قبل وبعد الريشة الدوارة, رقم ماخ النسبي, النسبة الفراغية, درجة رد الفعل, زوايا الجريان وزوايا الريش الدوارة والثابتة ( التواء الريش) ومعامل الرفع على طول الريشة. تم اجراء حسابات لتحديد التواء الريش عن طريق اختيار عدد من النقاط على طول الريشة(حسب رأي المصمم) والحصول على درجة التواء مقبولة. تم اعتماد أسلوب حسابات المرحلة المتكررة لتسهيل الانتقال من صف إلى آخر أو خلال مراحل الضاغطة. تم إجراء اختبار خوارزمية الحسابات العددية على متعاقبة من سلسلة الضواغط نوع NACA65(12)10 ذات معدل تحدب دائري وزاوية تحدب (30) درجة. أظهرت النتائج إن معامل الرفع يقل بزيادة متوسط زاوية الجريان, يزداد معامل الكبح عند اقل متوسط زاوية جريان, ازدياد رقم ماخ عند زيادة متوسط زاوية الجريان, زيادة نسبة معامل الكبح الكلي الى معامل الرفع بزيادة متوسط زاوية الجريان, يقل معامل الكبح على طول الريشة عند زيادة النسبة الفراغية, تزداد كفاءة المتعاقبة عند زيادة متوسط زاوية الجريان وصولا الى زاوية مقدارها (45) درجة بعده تبدأ بالنقصان تدريجيا.


Article
One stage immediate loading implants “experimental study on dogs”

Authors: Anwar A. Al Saeed انوار السيد --- Mohammed J. Essa محمد عيسى --- Zaid G. Hamdoon زيد حمدون
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 76-84
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: One stage immediate loading to implants offers some clinical advantages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concept of one-stage immediate loading implant (screw type) in comparison to non-loading group.Materials and Methods: One stage dental implant (Denti Dental Implant System), Hungary, 10mm in length, and of 4-4.5mm in diameter, was used. Five adult dogs of 15-22 Kg body weight were selected in the current study. Extraction of left fourth premolar and first molar was done, and the region was left to heal for about 2 months. Twenty implants were installed, ten implants of (4-4.5mm in diameter) were inserted in the left posterior region of the lower jaw which was loaded by Nickel Chrome crown which is considered as (study group), and ten implants of (4- 4.5mm in diameter), without crowns were inserted anteriorly to the loaded groups and considered as (control group).Results: The current study shows that one of the immediate loaded implant of 4mm in diameter lacked primary stability, which exfoliated later on. There were significant differences at level of loading, diameter and their interaction. Analysis of variance revealed that the smaller diameter implants were significantly higher value of mobility than larger one. The study shows a high incidence of successful rate of the immediate loaded implants of 4.5mm, similar to the non-loaded group, while low incidence of successful rate of loaded implants with 4mm in diameter in compare to the non-loaded group.Conclusions: The study reported that immediate loading of freestanding implants can achieved osseointegration by using screw shaped implant with large diameter (4.5mm) similar to the non-loaded type. The larger implant diameter associated with higher successful rate and less bone loses when compared with smaller diameter in both groups


Article
COST AND TIME CONTROL DURING PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION STAGES IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
السيطرة على الكلفة والوقت خلال مرحلتي التخطيط والانشاء في المشاريع الانشائية

Author: Ibtisam Mohammed Ali ابتسام محمد علي
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2011 Volume: 4 Issue: 4 Pages: 509-527
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

This research aims to develop time scheduling model including time cost trade off analysis, resource leveling and cash flow management during planning stage and project control during construction stage. To achieve research objectives, available options to improve project financing and current controlling techniques have been studied. The proposed model has been formulated using Excel program to combine CPM computations, time-cost trade off analysis, resource leveling, cash flow analysis and project control. The project management software (MS-Project) has been adopted to perform resource allocation and resource leveling to facilitate achieving the optimum solution in which the project can be performed with minimum cost, supposed deadline and within limited resources. The proposed model utilizes Solver built in Excel program to optimize interest charges or overdraft amount. This research reached the conclusion that it is possible obtain optimum solution performing time cost trade off analysis and resource leveling using Evolver program and then take the results of optimization process to perform cash flow optimization. The proposed model can measure deviations of actual progress from the baseline and monitor project progress to decide on proper corrective actions.Research results have been applied to a hypothetical case study and the application results come identical with research objective. Conclusions have been reached, recommendations regarding adopting and using the research results in construction planning and project management has been suggested.

يهدف البحث الى تطوير نظام جدولة يتضمن تحليل توافق الوقت مع الكلفة وتسوية الموارد وادارة التدفق النقدي خلال مرحلة التخطيط والسيطرة على المشروع خلال مرحلة التشييد. للوصول الى هدف البحث تمت دراسة الخيارات المتوفرة لتحسين تمويل المشروع ودراسة تقنيات السيطرة الموجودة. لقد تمت صياغة الموديل المقترح باستخدام برنامج اكسل ليتضمن حسابات طريقة المسار الحرج وتوافق الوقت مع الكلفة وتسوية الموارد وتحليل التدفق النقدي والسيطرة على المشروع. تم اعتماد برنامج ادارة المشاريعMSProject لانجاز تخصيص وتسوية الموارد وذلك اتسهيل الوصول الى الحل الامثل والذي يضمن انجاز المشروع بأقل كلفة ممكنه والوقت المحدد ضمن عقد المقاولة وكذلك ضمن محددات الموارد. وقد تم استخدام Solver ضمن برنامج أكسل لايجاد القيمة المثلى لمجموع الفائدة المحملة أو مجموع الاموال المطلوبة لتمويل المشروع. تم الاستنتاج من خلال البحث الى انه من الممكن التوصل الى الحل الامثل من خلال انجاز تحليل توافق الوقت مع الكلفة وتسوية الموارد بأستخدام برنامج Evolver ويتم اخذ نتيجة الحل الامثل لآنجاز امثلية التدفق النقدي. من خلال الموديل المقترح يمكن قياس الانحرافات لتقدم العمل الحقيقي عن المخطط انجازه ومراقبة تقدم عمل المشروع لاتخاذ الاجراءات التصحيحية المناسبة. تم تطبيق نتائج البحث على حالتين دراسيتين وكانت نتائج التطبيق مطابقه لما هدف اليه البحث. لقد تم التوصل الى عدد من الاستنتاجات كما وضعت عدد من التوصيات والمقترحات بشأن تبني واستخدام نتائج البحث في حقل التخطيط وادارة المشاريع الانشائيه كذلك وضع عدد من المقترحات لبحوث لاحقه ذات صله بموضوع البحث.

Keywords

Cashflow --- Control --- Time --- Cost --- Construction Stage.


Article
Effect of Dialysis Duration on the Immunochemical Changes
تأثير فترة الديلزة على المتغيرات الكيمومناعية

Author: Shatha MJ. AL-Khateeb د. شذى محمد جواد الخطيب
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2012 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 66-72
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Objective: To study the effect of dialysis on the immunochemical changes of some interleukins and other biochemical parameters.Design setting: A total of 25 patients with end stage renal disease (mal and female) underwent dialysis with different duration were included in this study. Their age ranged from (22-75).The patients were divided according to the duration, the first group who received dialysis less than one year and the second group who received dialysis more than one year Healthy control group were sex, ethnic, matched and semimatched in age with patients group were selected. Results: Using ELISA technique, serum IL-1α and IL-8 were estimated for dialyzed patients when divided in to two groups (less than one year and more than one year). Also Serum FT3 and albumin were also measured for the above two groups compared with healthy controls. All the above parameters showed different pattern. Conclusion: Hemodialysis duration was influenced serum levels of interleukins and other biochemical parameters.Key words: End stage renal disease, Dialysis, Interleukins.

الغــــــرض: دراسة تأثير الديلزه على المتغيرات الكيمومناعيه والكيميائيه الحياتيه وبعض الانترلوكينات.التصميـــــــــــم: تضمنت الدراسة (25) عينه ذكور وإناث تراوحت أعمارهم بين ( 22-75) سنه من مرضى في الحالات المتأخرة من إمراض الكلى الخاضعين للديلزه في أوقات مختلفة.تم تقسيم المرضى اعتمادا على فترة الديلزه حيث تضمنت المجموعة الأولى الديلزه لأقل من سنه بينما كانت المجموعة الثانية لأكثر من سنه والتي قورنت مع الأصحاء.النتائـــــــــــج: باستخدام تقنية ELISA)) تم قياس الانترلوكين IL-8) و α IL-1) في مصل الدم لكلا المجموعتين أعلاه , تضمنت الدراسة كذلك دراسة هرمون الغدة الدرقية الحر والالبومين وكانت كل المتغيرات قد أظهرت منحى متغير مقارنة بالأصحاء.الخلاصـــــــــة: إن فترة الديلزه قد أظهرت تأثيرا على الانترلوكينات والمتغيرات الكيميائية الحياتية.

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