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Le temps dans “En Attendant Godot" de Samuel Beckett

Author: Sahira Hamdan
Journal: Al-Adab Journal مجلة الآداب ISSN: 1994473X Year: 2019 Issue: 129 Pages: 1-28
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

At Beckett, waiting is not a vacuum but a consecutive efficiency. It could be an instinctive or sterile act. All this depends, perhaps, on the perception of waiting. For Beckett, it is also a world of life, an expectation of inspiration, knowledge, cognition or possibly death .Time as the human being conceives it is a creation of the spirit whereas time is a clean and unchangeable entity from which we can not escape. According to Beckett, we can not escape the consequences of time. Yet we suffer without much resistance. Thus, the pace of modern life is very fast, men try to follow but do not succeed easily; it leads to immobility .This extreme speed of time makes us think of one of the characteristics of madmen, frenzy of human beings. This situation has become one of the features of our time: a society on the one hand rigid, ordered according to strict and repeated schedules, and on the other hand a chaotic society, because of the too fast pace of life that it imposed.It means that to live serenely in the modern world, you have to be crazy. Beckett argues that it is they who possess wisdom and lucidity and who come closer to the truth because madness joins the absurd and the absurd reigns over the human condition.Through his plays, he analyzes society with hindsight, staging crazy, wacky and bizarre characters who, in society, correspond to marginal beings, rejected by the social norm.In his masterpiece; the temporal unit is two days, but it could be a few days in everyone's life. Time is a synonym for what is stated in the title of the play, it is an endless process of waiting, but which appears again discreetly every day. Beckett thought of the title "Waiting without Godot", to divert the viewer's attention from this ambiguous character and push him to worry about the subject of "Waiting"; So that he does not attach himself to the character of the play and think that our existence as a whole is an expectation.

Chez Beckett, l'attente n'est pas un vide mais une efficacité consécutive. Elle pourrait être un acte instinctif ou stérile. Tout cela dépend, peut-être, de la perception de l'attente. Pour Beckett, c'est aussi un monde de vie, une attente de l'inspiration, de la connaissance, de la cognition ou éventuellement de la mort. Le temps tel que l'être humain le conçoit est une création de l'esprit alors que le temps est une entité propre et inchangeable auquel nous ne pouvons échapper. Selon Beckett, nous ne pouvons pas échapper aux conséquences du temps. Pourtant, nous le subissons sans grande résistance. Ainsi, le rythme de la vie moderne est très rapide, les hommes essayent de le suivre mais n'y parviennent pas facilement ; on aboutit à l'immobilité. Cette extrême rapidité du temps nous fait penser à l'une des caractéristiques des fous, frénésie des êtres humains. Cette situation est devenue l'un des traits de notre époque : une société d'une part rigide, ordonnée suivant des horaires stricts et répétés, et d'autre part une société chaotique, du fait du rythme trop rapide de la vie qu'elle impose. Ça veut dire que pour pouvoir vivre sereinement dans le monde moderne, il faut être fou. Beckett soutient que ce sont eux qui possèdent la sagesse et la lucidité et qui se rapprochent de la vérité parce que la folie rejoint l'absurde et que l'absurde règne sur la condition humaine.A travers ses pièces, il analyse la société avec recul, en mettant en scène des personnages fous, farfelus et bizarres, qui, dans la société correspondent à des êtres marginaux, rejetés par la norme sociale.Dans son chef-d’œuvre ; l'unité temporelle est de deux jours, mais elle pourrait être quelques jours dans la vie de chacun. Le temps est un synonyme de ce qui est indiqué dans le titre de la pièce, c’est un processus d'attente interminable, mais qui apparaît de nouveau discrètement chaque jour. Beckett a pensé au titre "En attendant without Godot", pour détourner l'attention du spectateur de ce personnage ambiguë et le pousser à se préoccuper du sujet de "L'attente" ; Afin qu’il ne s'attache pas au personnage de la pièce et qu’il pense que notre existence dans son ensemble est une attente. Mots de clés Théâtre, Avant-garde, Bectte , Temps, Attente

Keywords

Theater --- Avant-garde --- Bectte --- Time --- Waiting


Article
سُوسيولوجيا أَثر أَزمة المواطنة في النص المسرحي (مُستَويات تَشكُل الهَوية اجتِماعياً)

Author: علي عبد الامير عباس
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2015 Volume: 23 Issue: 4 Pages: 2073-2086
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Modern period has produced theories and different ideologies that influenced and sometimes led the societies which accept foreign opinions and even ideologies through their intellectual and philosophical dominant on the cultural destinies of people. These so called western doctrines have gradually begun to be dominant in the Arabic structure in general and the Iraqi in specific. The problem is that the acceptance of all foreign western intellect may have effect on the validity of the Arabic intellect, institutional and the intellect of the individual to adopt this foreign intellect. Thus, there is an argument to treat citizenship as a concept and falls into its trap because of this foreign intellect. The argument is that either to refuse and keep the Arabic intellect or accept and get involved in the gab of the crisis and this paper has been devoted to tackle this topic. The power is represented by the potential of each individual. This effective potential can be only applied through transient way to take decisions which depend on persuasion though the best arguments to reach mutual sense that is the mutual speech and group action which give life its real sense. There is no doubt that there is reciprocal relationship between the dimensions of citizenship concept and its current crisis in the society. This relationship is built on the basis of human dignity concept which is represented by a system of rights, law, knowledge and values and dignity is regarded as an entrance to all these above terms as well as the basis of all human values and this constitutes the individual and society rights system for human being

أفرزت الفترة الحديثة بعض النظريات والايديولوجيات المختلفة التي أثرت وقادت في بعض الاحيان المجتمعات ذات البنى التي تتقبل الآراء الوافدة لا بل الايديولوجيات من خلال تسلط الآراء الفكرية والفلسفية لها, على مُقدرات ثقافة الشعوب وبما يسمى المذاهب الغربية التي بدأت شيئا فشيئا تتغلغل في بِنَية الجسد العربي لا سيما الجسد العراقي, لكن الإشكالية تقوم على التقبل الكلي للوافد من الغرب دون الرجوع أو التفكير من ان ذلك قد يؤثر في أسلمة الفكر العراقي والمؤسساتي والطابع الفكري للفرد لتبني هذا الفكر الوافد, فأصبح هنالك جدلية بين المواطنة كمفهوم والوقوع في فخ أزمتها, نتيجة الافرازات الغربية في الجسد, فإما الرفض والحفاظ على الهوية وإمّا التقبل والولوج في هوة الأزمة, وهذه الورقة البحثية تخوض غمارها عن هذا الموضوع .ولأن السلطة هي إمكانية كل فرد, وإمكان فعلي لا يتبلور إلَّا من خلال طريقة عابِرة لاتِخاذ القَرار الذي يعتمد على الاقناع لأشراك أفضل الحُججِ للوصول الى الحِس المشترك, وهو الخطاب المشترك والفعل الجماعي الذي يُضفي المعنى الحقيقي للحياة. ومِمَّا لاشك فيه أنَّ هنالك علاقة تبادل بين أبعاد مفهوم المواطنة وأزمتها الراهنة في المجتمع, على أساس مفهوم الكرامة الإنسانية التي تُمثلها منظومة الحقوق والقانون والمعرفة والقيم إذ تُعَد الكرامة مَدخلاً لهذه المفردات وهي أساس كل القيم الانسانية التي تُشكل منظومة الحقوق الفردية والمجتمعية للإنسان .

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