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Article
Rights' and Responsibilities among Hospitalized Patients' in Karbala city

Author: Maytham Salim AL-Nasrawii
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 2756-2763
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: The development of a strategy to promote patients' rights and responsibilities has to be carefully prepared, in order to ensure that the intention is translated into practical action, which commands the support of all parties involved. Such action does not follow automatically, but takes time to become fully effective. National situations vary in respect of legal frameworks, health care systems, economic conditions, and social, cultural and ethical values. Patients’ rights, is recently introduced term in health sciences literature and practice and has become an important part of modern health care practice. Patients now are much more aware of what they expect from health care professionals, when they enter the health care environment. Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the level of awareness of rights and responsibilities among hospitalized patients' in Karbala city. Patients and Methods: Across-sectional study was conducted in Karbala city center of Karbala governorate, the study consists of (200) patient recumbent in public hospitals and data were collected by direct interview with those patients by using a questionnaire form designed by the author based on WHO legislations' this questionnaire consisting of three parts form (some demographics characteristic, patients Rights' and patients Responsibilities).Statistical analysis was done by using Chi-Square (χ2) test.Results: Most patients did not know about the patients’ bill of rights, even though they are spontaneously practicing their rights and responsibilities. Conclusion: - Despite the enjoyment of the patients were lying in government hospitals full rights enshrined internationally, there was a lack of patients' awareness regarding the patients' rights and responsibilities.


Article
Cyber Security, Cultural Security and the Cyber Gap: Lessons from Middle Eastern Policy Makers Cultural Security: Concepts and Applications

Author: Prof. Dr. Brian Brivat
Journal: AL-AMEED JOURNAL مجلة العميد ISSN: 22270345 23119152 Year: 2017 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 58-81
Publisher: Shiite Endowment ديوان الوقف الشيعي

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Abstract

States face ever increasing ethical, legal and rights challengesthrown up by cyber security issues both in terms of national security,the protection of cultural norms and in terms of privacy andcommercial activity. These challenges interface with greater demandsfor online human rights across a broad spectrum from thedefence of IP to the protection of identity and the limits of surveillance.There are significant variations in the level and quality ofpolicy frameworks that respond to increasing economic reliance oninternet based activity. The link between the effective operation ofa national cyber security plan and the promotion and defence ofonline human rights in terms of national, regional or global humanrights norms in what will be an ever more complex and disputedarea, requires a platform for training and sharing of best practice.There have been a range of initiatives from the international donorcommunity to engage with individual countries and to set globalstandards. There has been little specific and sustained focus on theinterface between security and rights because different departmentstend to focus on these issues. In turn, different states havewidely differing conceptions of freedom of expression and culturalnorms that should be allowed.This paper builds on a three year multi-country project that hasestablished a network of cyber policy experts across the MiddleEast. It explores the need to manage the trade-off between publicexpectations of privacy, cultural difference and the need for statesurveillance in cyber space. It presents the preliminary conclusionsof a group of policy makers who took part in a multi-stage Fellowshipprogramme. This group pulled back from considering somekey issues, accepted profound differences of approach on other issuesand devised an agenda of collaboration in spaces that they feltprogress could be made on. The paper concludes on the needs tomore Fellowship style network policy making and presents a broadertheory of change model for developing policy responses to thechallenges of cyber-crime.


Article
POSITIVE SOCIAL VALUES DRAWN FROM THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
القيم الاجتماعية المستنبطة من الاعلان العالمي لحقوق الانسان

Author: Fareed J.Hamood فريد جاسم حمود
Journal: Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences مجلة كلية القانون للعلوم القانونية والسياسية ISSN: 22264582 Year: 2013 Volume: 2 Issue: 5 Pages: 290-327
Publisher: Kirkuk University جامعة كركوك

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Abstract

POSITIVE SOCIAL VALUES DRAWN FROM THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTSDR. FAREED JASSIM HAMOODKIRKUK UNIV. / COLLEGE of law and political sciencesAbstract Positive social values have got an important role in developing the countries, since they have relationship with basic subjects , such as: The social change ,the social development and advancement the duties ,the rights, the law, fairness , and justice . The implementation of these subjects may take part in solving the problems of the human being and the society as a whole.The ambition of the researcher is :-First:- to shed light on limiting the social values which were either written openly or had had hidden meanings in the universal declaration of human rights.Second:- to draw a conclusion about social values from (UDHR),using the conclusive method giving us arecend knowledge reflecting productive concepts prevailing in the society.

الملخص القيم الاجتماعية الايجابية لها دور مهم في تنمية المجتمعات , كونها ترتبط بمواضيع اساسية , منها: التغير الاجتماعي , التنمية الاجتماعية , الواجبات , المهام, القانون والعدالة والمساواة , . ان تنفيذ هذه الامور المهمة ممكن ان تساهم في حل مشاكل الافراد والمجتمع بشكل عام .ان طموح الباحث يتمثل بما يلي :-اولاً :- تسليط الضوء على القيم الاجتماعية التي كتبت او جاءت بشكل واضح ومكشوف واخرى في ثنايا الاعلان العالمي لحقوق الانسان.ثانياً:- استنباط القيم الاجتماعية من الاعلان باستخدام المنهج الاستنباطي للمفاهيم الحديثة ذات المعاني البنائية الانتاجية للمجتمع.


Article
A Contrastive Critical Discourse Analysis of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Treatise on Rights 'Risalat Al-Huquq' of Imam Al- Sajjad (p.b.u.h.)

Author: Noor Othman Adday and Asst. Prof. Firas Abdul-Munim Jawad
Journal: AL-AMEED JOURNAL مجلة العميد ISSN: 22270345 23119152 Year: 2017 Volume: 6 Issue: 5 Pages: 16
Publisher: Shiite Endowment ديوان الوقف الشيعي

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Abstract

Due to the dominating non-human actions in the world, appealingto rights has become a central concern of all humans. As such,to bridge the gap between the idea, cultivation, and conventionsof human rights on the one hand and their realistic application onthe other has been of an extreme importance. Therefore, the studyaims at analysing two texts which are highly concerned with theissue of rights, namely, the Universal Declaration of Human Rightswhich was adopted and proclaimed in 1948 by the General Assemblyof the United Nations and Treatise on Rights 'Risalat Al-Huquq'written by Imam Ali Al-Sajjad (p.b.u.h.) a principal figure in Islamand the fourth imam of Shias in the 7th century. The analysis willbe carried out using an analytical framework of Critical DiscourseAnalysis. Specifically speaking, the aims of the study are: investigatingthe linguistic structure of the texts selected, exploring themwith respect to four interpretative procedures, and explicating theirideologies. Consequently, it is hypothesised that the texts selectedalthough differ as to their linguistic structure, the texts that intertextuallythey accord with, the speech acts they employ, and theirideologies. Such an analysis reveals the linguistic as well as ideologicalperspectives in which rights are presented in these two texts.This, consequently, leads to the identification of power in thesetexts which can be mainly achieved by the "ideological workings oflanguage", as proposed by Fairclough (1989: 2).

نظرا للأفعال غير الإنسانية المهيمنة في العالم، اصبحت الدعوى للحقوقوالمناشدة بها مسألة اساسية لكل انسان. وأصبح التجسير بين فكرة حقوقالانسان والدعوى لرعايتها و معاهداتها من جهة والتطبيق الحقيقي لهذامن جهة اخرى ذا اهمية قصوى؛ لذا تهدف الدراسة الى تحليل نصين يعنيانبمسألة الحقوق، هما الاعلان العالمي لحقوق الانسان الذي تبنته وأُعلنته فيعام ١٩٤٨ م الجمعية العامة للأمم المتحدة ، ورسالة الحقوق للإمام عليالسجاد )عليه السلام( وهو شخصية بارزة في الاسلام ورابع أئمة الشيعةفي القرن السابع الميلادي. وسوف ينفّذ التحليل باستخدام نموذج تحليلتابع لحقل تحليل الخطاب النقدي. تحديدا. وهدف هذه الدراسة هو التحققفي التركيب اللغوي للنصين المختارين واستكشاف النصين فيما يخصاربعة اساليب تفسيرية و شرح ايديولوجياتهما. وتبعًا افترض ان النصينالمختارين يختلفان بالنسبة لتركيبهما اللغوي والنصوص التي يتفقان معهماتناصيا والافعال الكلامية التي يوظفانها وايديولوجياتهما. وهذا يقود الىتحديد سلطة هذين النصين التي يمكن احرازها من خلال "استعمال اللغة.) ايديولوجيا" كما هو مقترح من فيركلوف ) ٢:١٩٨٩


Article
VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN IN IRAQ: THE INTERPLAY OF LEGAL RIGHTS AND REALITIES
العنف ضد الأطفال في العراق: تفعيل الحقوق وتطبيق الحقوق القانونية

Author: Mohammed.M.Qader محمد مصطفى قادر
Journal: Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences مجلة كلية القانون للعلوم القانونية والسياسية ISSN: 22264582 Year: 2018 Volume: 7 Issue: 27 /part 1 Pages: 309-334
Publisher: Kirkuk University جامعة كركوك

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Abstract

Recently, the republic of Iraq continue to experience a surge of sectarianism and violent confrontation between armed groups a leading to sharp increase in the overrunning and takeover of several major cities in the country, which has invariably generated lots of negative consequences and government troops the country’s quest for national development. Four decades of conflict, sanctions, violence, insecurity and economic stagnation have brought development in the country to its knees. One area in which the persistent incidences of conflict negatively affect the country’s progress is the gross violation of children rights. Iraq is now one of the most dangerous places in the world for children. The intensification of conflict since 2014 has had a catastrophic impact on children in the country. Toward the end of 2015, Iraq had missed all, bar one, of its eight Millennium Development Goals including focuses for expanding school enrolment, decreasing children mortality rate and enhancing access to safe drinking water. In 2014 UNICEF evaluates that 4.7 million children in the country need aid that is around 33% of all children in the nation. Since the war started in Syria in 2011, Iraq has additionally been facilitating in excess of 245,000 Syrian displaced people, about a fourth of who are children. Very nearly 66% of Iraqi children in need of assistance are situated in regions that were formally under the control of ISIS. This paper therefore tries to explore the intersection between the rights and welfare of the Iraqi children and the ugly reality of sectarian clash and violent confrontation that have epitomized both social and political life in the country. The paper adopts a qualitative research approach with heavy reliance on secondary data which were contently analyzed.

المــــلخــــص:في السنوات الأخيرة شهد العراق وقوع العديد من مدنه الكبرى تحت سطوة وحكم التنظيمات الإرهابية، فضلاً عن الزيادة الحادة في العنف الطائفي منذ سنة 2003، ذلك اوجد الكثير من العواقب السلبية أمام سعي الحكومة العراقية لتحقيق التنمية الوطنية، لقد أدت أربعة عقود من الصراع والعقوبات الدولية المشكوك في قانونيتها، العنف، انعدام الأمن، والركود الاقتصادي إلى إيقاف عجلة تحقيق التنمية في العراق، ومن المجالات التي تؤثر فيها حالات النزاع المستمرة تأثيرا سلبيا على تقدم البلد هو الانتهاك الصارخ لحقوق الأطفال.إن العراق الآن يعد من أخطر الأماكن للعيش في العالم بالنسبة للأطفال، وكان لتفاقم النزاعات منذ سنة 2014 أثر كارثي على الأطفال فيه، وفي نهاية سنة 2015، كان العراق قد غاب عن جميع أهدافه الإنمائية، بما في ذلك أهداف زيادة التحاق الاطفال بالمدارس، والحد من وفيات الأطفال قبل بلوغهم سن الخامسة، وتحسين فرص الحصول على مياه الشرب المأمونة، ففي سنة 2014، تشير تقديرات اليونيسف إلى أن4,7 مليون طفل في أنحاء العراق هم بحاجة إلى المساعدة، هذه النسبة تمثل حوالي ثلث عدد الأطفال في العراق، من جهة أخرى، منذ اندلاع الحرب في سوريا في سنة 2011، استضاف العراق أيضا أكثر من 24,000 لاجئ سوري، ما يقرب من 15% منهم من الأطفال، حيث كان قد تأكد وجود ما قارب من ثلثي الأطفال العراقيين المحتاجين في المناطق التي كانت خارجة عن سيطرة حكومة العراقية، ولذلك تحاول هذه الورقة استكشاف التقاطع بين حقوق الأطفال العراقيين ورفاههم والحقيقة البشعة للصراع الطائفي والنزاعات المسلحة التي جسدت واقع الحياة الاجتماعية والسياسية في البلاد، ويعتمد البحث المنهج النوعي مع الاعتماد المباشر على البيانات الثانوية بمصادرها المختلفة حيث تم تحليلها بشكل معمق بغية ملامسة الواقع.

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