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Article
17- PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY OF Escherichia coli AND Klebsiella pneumoniae FROM PATIENTS AND ANIMALS IN BASRAH PROVINCE

Author: Roaa A. Sabeeh*, Mazin N. Mousa**, Bassam Y. Khudaier
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 192-208
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

During the period of seven months from October 2016 to May 2017, 299samples were collected, 152(51%) human samples, of which 69 (45.4%) were fromurine and 83 (54.6%) were from children suffering from diarrhea in hospitals in AlBasra governorate. 147 (49.2%) samples were from fecal of animals, of which 82(55.8% ) samples were from buffalo and 65(44.2%) were from cow .A total of 101E. coli serotype O157: isolates out of 299 were suspected E. coli analyzed 52/101(34.2%%) were from human 16 (10.5%) samples were from urine and 36 (23.7%)samples were from stool . and 49/101(33.3%) were from animal 33(22.4%)samples were from buffalo and 16 (10.9%) samples were from cow . On the otherhand 68(22.7%) isolates out of 299 were suspected K. pneumoniae analyzed 41/68(27%)were from human 28/41( 18.4%) isolates were from urine samples and 13/41(8.6%) isolates were from stool samples and 27/68 (18.4%) were from animal 16(10.9%) samples were from buffalo and 11(7.5%) samples were from cow).Allsuspected isolates were subjected to testing biochemical. It was found that 10 out of101 were 4 isolates of animal faeces (2 buffalo and 2 cows).six isolates of 52isolates (4 of the children's stool samples and 2 of the urine samples) 19.5% nonfermented sorbitol (NSFEC).The isolates were tested against 14 different antibiotics

Keywords

Escherichia coli --- patients --- Basrah.


Article
ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF REPTILIAN FAUNA OF BASRAH, SOUTH OF IRAQ
قائمة مرجعية للزواحف في محافظة البصرة, جنوب العراق

Authors: Hind D. Hadi وهند ضياء هادي --- Azhar A. Al-Moussawi أزهار احمد الموسوي --- Saman R. Afrasiab سامان روستم افراسياب
Journal: Bulletin of the Iraq Natural History Museum مجلة متحف التاريخ الطبيعي العراقي ISSN: Print ISSN: 10178678, Online ISSN: 23119799 Year: 2018 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 77-92
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Basrah province is situated at the extreme south of Iraq, it has an interesting reptile fauna (Squamata and Serpentes) and represents a land bridge between three different zoogeographical regions ( Oriental, Palaearctic and Ethiopian). This situation gave Basrah province a topographic specific opportunity for raising its own faunal diversity including reptiles; in this study Basrah province was divided into four main zones: the cities and orchards, marshes and wetlands (sabkha), the true dessert, the seashore and Shat Al-Arab.Forty nine reptile species were recorded including snakes, sea and fresh water turtles, and Lizards; brief notes and descriptions for the rare and important species were provided and supported by Plates.

تقع محافظة البصرة في أقصى جنوب العراق وتمتلك ميزة خاصة في تنوع الزواحف (العضايا والحيات) وهي تشبه جسر بين ثلاثة مناطق حيوانية-جغرافية عالمية ( الشرقية، القطبية القديمة و الاثيوبية)، أعطى هذا الموقع لمحافظة ألبصره خصوصية في التنوع الإحيائي ومن بينها الزواحف. من اجل تسهيل الدراسة قسمت محافظة البصرة إلى أربعة مناطق رئيسة و هي: المدينة والبساتين، الأهوار والمستنقعات، الصحراء الحقيقية و ساحل البحر وشط العرب. استعرضت الدراسة تسجيل 49 نوعاً من الزواحف تتضمن الحيات وسلاحف المياه العذبة و البحرية والعضايا. أعطي الوصف واهم ألملاحظات التصنيفية لبعض الأنواع النادرة معززا بالصور.


Article
Patterns of Documenting Patients' Medical Records and Antibiotic Use for Cases with Acute Respiratory Infection in Basrah hospitals
نمط التوثيق الطبي واستخدام المضادات الحيوية لمرضى التهاب الرئوي الحاد في مستشفيات البصرة

Author: Riyadh AA Hussein د. رياض عبدالامير حسين الحلفي
Journal: Thi-Qar Medical Journal مجلة ذي قار الطبية ISSN: 19929218 Year: 2018 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

The present study was carried out to evaluate the process of documenting patients' medical records in addition to the pattern of antibiotic use in Basrah general hospitals. A retrospective type of study was conducted for antibiotic prescription in 562 inpatients' medical records of those who were admitted to paediatric wards in five hospitals in Basrah governorate because of acute respiratory infections. The study shows that 86% of the patients stayed for less than 5 days at the hospital with 13% of them stayed between 5-10 days. All of the 562 patients' records were reviewed for documentation of the investigations taken during hospitalization, use of antibiotics and follow up while in hospital. Around two thirds (65.5%) of the records were found to have no documentation for any investigation during hospitalization. In addition, antibiotic therapy was found to be used in 83.3% of the cases. By comparing the WHO indications for using antibiotic therapy in acute respiratory infections cases, it was found that antibiotics were prescribed without justifiable indications in 44.7% of patients.The study recommended re-enforcing the adoption of updated drugs use protocols and guidelines especially on the use of antibiotics in hospitals and specifically in inpatient pediatric age groups. Furthermore, assigning clinical pharmacists in the clinical inpatients setting is one of the study recommendations in order to monitor the clinical use of these medications.


Article
GIS Approach for Spatial Distribution Analysis of Groundwater Quality at South-West Part of Basrah
منهج نظم المعلومات الجغرافية لتحليل التوزيع المكاني لجودة المياه الجوفية في الجزء الجنوبي الغربي من البصرة

Author: Ammar Salman Dawood عمار سلمان داود
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 8 Pages: 81-95
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Water is necessary for sustainable development and healthy society. Groundwater, often, is not sufficient and protected for direct human consumption. Due to increase in the density of population the requirement of water is increasing. In this work, the assessment of groundwater quality was conducted in the south-west part of Basrah province. Spatial variations in the quality of groundwater in the study area have been analyzed utilizing GIS technique. The geochemical parameters of groundwater samples including pH, EC, TDS, Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, HCO3, SO4, and NO3 were assessed in this study. Information maps of the study area have been actually prepared to make use of the GIS spatial interpolation approach for all the parameters. The current study reveals that most of the parameters are observed to be beyond permissible limit as per WHO and Iraqi standards. Thus, it is concluded from this work that results acquired in this research and the spatial database founded in GIS will be useful to monitor and manage the groundwater pollution in the study area.

ان المياه ضرورة لنمو وصحة المجتمع. فالمياه الجوفية غالبا ما تكون غير كافية وغير صالحة للاستهلاك البشري المباشر وذلك بسبب الزيادة المستمرة بالتلوث. رغم ان الحاجة الى هذه المياه اخذة بالازدياد. قد تم في هذه الدراسة تقييم جودة المياه الجوفية في الجزء الجنوبي الغربي من محافظة البصرة ولهذا تم تحليل الاختلافات المكانية في نوعية المياه الجوفية في منطقة الدراسة باستخدام تقنية نظم المعلومات الجغرافية. حيث تم فحص عينات المياه الجوفية بالنسبة الى مجموعة من المعلمات الفيزيائية والكيميائية مثل الاس الهيدروجيني والموصلية الكهربائية والاملاح الكلية المذابة وايون الكالسيوم وايون المغنيسيوم وايون الصوديوم وايونات الكلوريدات وايونات البيكاربونات وايونات الكبريتات وايونات النترات. وقد أعدت خرائط المعلومات لمنطقة الدراسة للاستفادة من نهج الاستيفاء المكاني لنظام المعلومات الجغرافية لجميع المعلمات. وتكشف الدراسة الحالية أن معظم المعلمات قد لوحظ أنها تجاوزت الحدود المسموح بها وفقا لمنظمة الصحة العالمية والمعايير العراقية. وهكذا، يستنتج من هذا العمل أن النتائج المكتسبة في هذا البحث و قاعدة البيانات المكانية التي تأسست من تطبيق نظم المعلومات الجغرافية ستكون مفيدة لرصد وإدارة تلوث المياه الجوفية في منطقة الدراسة.


Article
Morphological Deformities in fresh and marine water fishes, Basrah, Iraq
التشوهات المظهرية في اسماك المياه العذبة والبحرية, البصرة العراق

Authors: Falah M. Mutlak and Mustafa A. Almukhtar --- Abdul amer R. Jassim عبدالامير رحيم جاسم
Journal: Marsh Bulletin مجلة الاهوار ISSN: 18169848 Year: 2018 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 100-114
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Samples of fishes (116 species) were collected during April 2015 to Jun 2016 from East Hammar marsh and Khor Abdullah to detect morphological deformities. Nine types of deformities were recorded belongs to three main types of deformities (Vertebral deformity, Fins deformity and malformed mouth). Higher level of deformities were recorded in Carassius gibelio (7 type), Tenualosa ilisha (3 type), Pampus argenteus (3 type) and Planiliza abu (2 type)while in Carasobarbus luteus, Alburnus mossulensis, Acanthobra mamarmid, Planiliza subviridis and Acanthopagrus arabicus were one type for each species. All types of deformities were described and supported by photos. Malformed Mouth recorded in seven species of fish as first time in Iraq. Tail loss and partial or total loss of dorsal Fin recorded in fresh water and marine water fishes (C. gibelio and P. argenatus) as first time in Iraq. Split fine and Anal Fin Deformity considered as the first cases in Iraq in C. luteus and C. gibelio consequently. Undulation of caudal fin was recorded in two species, one of these from fresh water (C. gibelio) and anther from marine water (P. argenteus), the recording of this case in this species is considered as first in Iraq while skeletal anomalies recorded as the first case in C. gibelio in Iraq. By This study, we try to focus on the relationship between environmental change and some indicators like deformities, which possible give us imaginations about effects of this change on fish health.

تم جمع عينات من الأسماك (118 نوعًا) خلال الفترة من أبريل 2015 إلى يونيو 2016 من أهوار شرق الحمار وخور عبد الله للكشف عن التشوهات المظهرية. تم تسجيل تسعة أنواع من التشوهات تنتمي إلى ثلاثة أنواع رئيسية من التشوهات (تشوه العمود الفقري وتشوه الزعانف والفم المشوه). تم تسجيل أعلى مستوى من التشوهات في اسماك الكرسين Carassius gibelio (سبعة انواع) وثلاثة انواع من التشوهات في كل من اسماك الصبور Tenualosa ilisha واسماك الزبيدي Pampus argenteus ونوعين في اسماك الخشني Planiliza abu بينما سجل نوع واحد من التشوهات في الأنواع: الحمري Carasobarbus luteus والسمنان الطويل Alburnus mossulensis والسمنان العريض Acanthobra mamarmid و البياح الاخضر Planiliza subviridis والشانك Acanthopagrus arabicus. تم وصف جميع أنواع التشوهات ودعمها بواسطة الصور. سجل خلال الدراسة تشوه الفم في سبعة أنواع من الأسماك لأول مرة في العراق. سجل فقدان الذيل والفقدان الجزئي والكلي للزعنفة الظهرية في نوع واحد من أسماك المياه العذبة(C. gibelio) والمياه البحرية (P. argenatus) لأول مرة في العراق. اعتبرت حالات انشقاق الزعنفة الظهرية وتشوه الزعنفة المخرجية أول حالة في العراق في اسماك C. luteus و C. gibelio. تم تسجيل تموج الزعنفة الذيلية في نوعين ، أحدهما من المياه العذبة (C. gibelio) وآخر من المياه البحرية (P. argenteus) واعتبر تسجيل هذه الحالة في هذا النوع هو الأول في العراق بينما سجلت التشوهات الهيكلية لاول مرة في اسماك C. gibelio. من خلال هذه الدراسة حاولنا التركيز على العلاقة بين التغير البيئي وبعض المؤشرات مثل التشوهات والتي من شأنها أن تقدم لنا تصورات حول آثار هذا التغيير على صحة الأسماك.


Article
EFFECT AND EVALUATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER DISPOSAL FOR BASRAH PLANTS BY DIRECT INJECTION

Author: Ayman A. Hassan
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2018 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 234-245
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Wastewater effluent of plants is frequently disposed via injection wells or drain fields into the geological substrate near surface water streams. In this study, we evaluated and specified the relationships between the plants wastewater disposal flow, concentrations, and the disposal injection wells distances from surface water stream for minimum harmful pollutants transport to the stream. The study area was Basrah fertilizes plant near Shatt-Al-Basrah stream. A completed representation for the study area parameters data were done to simulate the aquifer, surface water, pollutants disposal, and flow-transport system for the current state and the proposed injection wells systems. The simulation and evaluation study showed that the current disposal system is harmful to the stream and the best disposal system for the wastewater plant was the injection wells. The study also revealed that the best distance for the proposed fertilizes plant disposal wells must be located not less than 480 m from the river with an injection rate not more than 3600 m3/day.


Article
THE PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH NON-VARICEAL UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT BLEEDING IN BASRAH TEACHING HOSPITAL

Authors: Jawad R Fadhl --- Musaab A Alayoob
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 39-45
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Abstract Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding is a common emergency and life threatening condition. During the last three decades, many factors have been evolved that might change the incidence, age of presentation, site of bleeding and the outcome of patients with non variceal upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. This study aimed to assess the profile and the mode of presentation of the patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding and to assess the etiology and the effect of different factors (demographic, mode of presentation and the treatment options) on the patient's outcome. This observational prospective study was carried out from May 2008 to October 2014 in Basrah Teaching Hospital. All adult patients who were presented with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding were included. All the demographic, clinical and treatment modalities in addition to the mortality rate and complications data were collected and analyzed. A total of 238 patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding were included in this study, 161 (67.6 %) patients were males and 77 (32.3 %) were females. The mean age was 50.62±17.06. Hematemesis was the commonest presentation in 125 (52.5%) followed by melena in 81 (34.03%). Duodenal ulcer was the commonest cause in 99 (41.59%) patients followed by erosive gastritis in 37 (15.5%) patients. The most common treatment modality was the medical treatment used in 186 (78.15%) patients which was successful in 179 (96.23%) with relatively low complications and rebleeding rates. Interventional endoscopy was used for 40 (16.8%) and was successful in 38 (95%) with 2 (5%) patients developed rebleeding. Surgery was done for 12 (5.04%) patients and was successful in 8(66.6%) and it was associated with highest rate of mortality (33.3%). Concerning the factors that might affect the outcome, there was a statistically significant effect of mode of treatment (odd ratio 6.42, p=0.03) and smoking (odd ratio 5.86, p=0.047) on the rate of development of complications. The mode of treatment had a statistically significant effect on mortality rate (odd ratio 20.24 p=0.001). The use of aspirin and/or NSAID affects significantly the rebleeding rate (odd ratio 7.4 p=0.025). In conclusion, the profile of our patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding was not greatly different from that of surrounding Middle East countries. We found that peptic ulcer disease was the commonest cause for which medical treatment was the most successful mode of treatment. Among many known risk factors, the mode of treatment and smoking were the factors that increase the complication rate. The mode of treatment was the only factor that affects the mortality rate. Use of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs influenced the rebleeding rate.


Article
On the occurrence of the short-nosed tripod fish Triacanthus biaculeatus (Bloch, 1786) in the North of Basrah, Southern Iraq
ظهور الأسماك ذات الأنف القصير Triacanthus biaculeatus (Bloch, 1786) في شمال محافظة البصرة، جنوبي العراق

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Abstract

In this article, we report on the occurrence of the short-nosed tripod fish Triacanthus biaculeatus (Bloch, 1786) in the North of Basrah, West of Al-Dair district which was not reported in this region before. Two specimens were obtained in November 2018 and identified as, T biaculeatus. They have a total length ranged from 69.0 to 137.0 mm. The first dorsal fin has 5 spines, the second spine is much less than half the length of the first one. The ventral surface of the pelvis is slightly tapered to words the posterior end.

سجل في البحث الظهور الأول للأسماك قصيرة الأنف Triacanthus biaculeatus Bloch, 1786 في شمال محافظة البصرة، غرب ناحية الدير. وتم وصف وتوضيح نموذجين لهذه الأسماك، اذ بلغ معدل الطول الكلي 69.0 – 137.0 ملم. احتوت الزعنفة الظهرية الأولى على 5 أشواك، وتميزت الشوكة الثانية بكونها اقصر من نصف طول الشوكة الأولى، السطح البطني للحوض مستدق قليلاً في الطرف الخلفي.


Article
Environmental Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil of West Quarna -2 Oil field at Basrah-Southern Iraq
دراسة الاثر البيئي للعناصر الثقيلة في ترب حقل نفط غرب القرنة-2 في البصرة-جنوب العراق

Authors: Hamid T. Al-Saad د. حامد طالب السعد --- Duha S. Karem
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2018 Issue: 19 Pages: E106-E121
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

In this study, concentrations of eight heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Co, Cd and Fe) were investigated during 2016 in ten stations at West Qurna-2 oil field in Basra city Southern of Iraq. These metals were analyzed by using Atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean values of the metals in the soil range for : pb (18.23 -39.15), Ni (28.34-46.35), Cu (10.12-18.22), Cr (50.64-59.23), Zn (25.23-40.48), Co (5.34-11.27), Cd (5.99-10.23) and Fe (1150.12-2185.83) ug/g dry weight. Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment factor (EF) and Geo accumulation index (I-geo) were computed and compared in different stations of the soil oil field. Total concentration of metals in soil samples found to be in this order: Fe>Cr> Ni >Zn> Pb>Cu> Co>Cd. The main reason for different in concentration could be due to the effects of contamination caused by various activities in the oil field and the urban .Total organic carbons and grain size analysis were also determined, and there is a good correlation between TOC and Heavy metals. These data are a first of its kind in this important area and could be used as a baseline for coming study in the futures.The purpose of this study were to determine the spatial distribution of trace metals in the soil of the West Qurna-2 oil field, and to quantify potentially ecological risk of trace metal pollution.

تناولت الدراسة الحالية قياس تراكيز العناصر الثقيلة (الرصاص, النيكل, النحاس, الكروم, الزنك,الكوبلت, الكادميوم والحديد) بإستخدام جهاز مطياف الإمتصاص الذري اللهبي للترب المأخوذه من عشر محطات موزعة في حقل نفط غرب القرنة-2 في مدينة البصرة جنوب العراق.كانت معدلات قيم التراكيز في الترب pb (18.23 -39.15)، Ni (28.34-46.35)، Cu (10.12-18.22)، Cr (50.64-59.23)، Zn (25.23-40.48)، Co (5.34-11.27)، Cd (5.99-10.23) و Fe (1150.12-2185.83). تم حساب معامل التلوث (CF)، معامل الأغناء (EF) ومعامل التجمع الجيوكيميائي (I-geo) ومقارنته في المحطات المختلفة لتربة الحقل. توزعت تركيز المعادن في عينات التربة على هذا النمط: Fe>Cr> Ni >Zn> Pb>Cu> Co>Cd, يمكن أن يكون السبب الرئيسي للأختلاف في التراكيز هو التلوث الناجم عن الأنشطة المختلفة في حقل النفط والانشطة الحضرية. كما تم قياس الكربون العضوي الكلي والتحليل الحجمي الحبيبي، وقد وجد ان هنالك علاقة جيدة بين الكربون العضوي الكلي والعناصر الثقيلة. هذه البيانات هي الأولى من نوعها في هذة المنطقة ويمكن استخدامها كدراسة مرجعية للدراسات المستقبلية.والغرض من هذه الدراسة هو تحديد التوزيع المكاني للمعادن الثقيلة في تربة حقل غرب القرنة -2 النفطي، وتحديد المخاطر البيئية المحتملة للتلوث بالعناصر الثقيلة.

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