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Article
Effect of stress on arterial blood pressure In dental students

Authors: Maha T Al–Saffar --- Karama MT Al–Nuaimy --- Tahani A Al–Sandook
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 118-121
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To study the effect of stress and fear on blood pressure that are imposed on student beforeattending examination in particular final year examination at the College of Dentistry. Subjects andMethods: Arterial blood pressure (indirect method ) was measured for 99 dental student (21 + 0.6years) before 30 minutes of final examination on a particular subject and immediately afterexamination. Result: The data reflected a significant increase in systolic blood pressure before passingthe final examination, whereas there was no significant increase in the diastolic blood pressure in allstudents. Conclusions: Stress produces a significant elevation in blood pressure that can be controlledby systemic defense mechanisms naturally present.

Keywords

Stress --- blood pressure --- examination


Article
Optimum design of stiffened square plates for longitudinal and square ribs
التصميم الأمثل للصفائح المربعة المقواة بأضلاع طولية ومربعة

Author: Mohammed M. Hasan محمد مدحت حسن
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2007 Volume: 3 Issue: 3 Pages: 13-30
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

For a given loading, the stiffness of a plate or shell structure can be increased significantly by the addition of ribs or stiffeners. Hitherto, the optimization techniques are mainly on the sizing of the ribs. The more important issue of identifying the optimum location of the ribs has received little attention. In this investigation, finite element analysis has been achieved for the determination of the optimum locations of the ribs for a given set of design constraints. In the conclusion, the author underlines the optimum positions of the ribs or stiffeners which give the best results.

إن التراكيب المؤلفة من الصفائح أو الأغشية المعدنية والمعرضة لحالة تحميل معينة من الممكن زيادة صلابتها بشكل ملحوظ عن طريق إضافة أضلاع مقوية. لحد الآن فإن تقنيات الأمثلية تتناول في الدرجة الأولى والى حد بعيد حجم الأضلاع المقوية. إن المسألة الأكثر أهمية هي تحديد الموقع الأمثل للأضلاع المقوية والتي لم تولى إلا اهتماما قليلا. لقد تم استخدام طريقة التحليل بالعناصر المحددة لإيجاد المواقع المثلى للأضلاع المقوية ولحالات تثبيت تصميمية محددة. يحدد الباحث في الاستنتاجات المواقع المثلى للأضلاع المقوية والتي تعطي أفضل النتائج.

Keywords

Optimum --- Stiffeners --- Plate --- Stress --- FEA.


Article
Effective Stress Finite Element Analysis of Pile-Soil Interaction Problems

Authors: Aram M. Raheem --- Mohammed Yousif Fattah --- Yousif J.Al-Shakarchi
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2007 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 1137-1151
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The effective stress method is developed to predict the axial capacity of piles in clay. This method is based on the principle that, at failure, the available shear resistance at the pile soil interface is related to the mean normal effective stress at the pile face and the effective stress friction angle for the soil sliding on the pile material.In this paper, the coupled non-linear finite element method is used to analyze some pile-soil interaction problems. This computer program ( CRISP ) is used for this task. Eight- node isoparametric elements were used for displacements while four- node elements are used for pore pressure. Interface elements are used to simulate the interaction between the pile and the soil. The soil is assumed to follow different models, linear elastic and modified Cam-clay model. A comparison is made between the measured and predicted settlements and excess pore water pressures and good convergence was obtained in which the proposed technique used in this paper, in which the measured excess pore water pressures are considered as initial pore pressures in the computer program ( CRISP ). No load was applied on the pile. The dissipation of excess pore water was studied through carrying out consolidation analysis.

إن مبدأ الإجهاد الفعال قد اعتمد لتخمين الاستيعاب المحوري للركائز في الطين.وتعتمد هذه الطريقة على مبدأ، انه عند الفشل، ان مقاومة القص المتوفرة عند منطقة التماس بين الركيزة و التربة تعود إلى معدل الإجهاد العمودي الفعال عند وجه الركيزة و إلى زاوية الاحتكاك الداخلي للإجهاد الفعال للتربة المتزحلقة على مادة الركيزة. في هذا البحث استعملت طريقة التحليل المزدوج بطريقة العناصر المحددة لتحليل بعض مسائل التداخل بين الركيزة والتربة. واستعمل برنامج الحاسبة المسمى (CRISP ) لهذا الغرض وقد مثلت المسالة باستخدام عناصر رباعية ثمانية العقد للازاحات وعناصر رباعية العقد لتمثيل ضغط ماء المسام واستخدمت العناصر الانزلاقية لتمثيل التداخل بين الركيزة والتربة. وقد افترض ان التربة تتبع سلوك نماذج مختلفة منها المرن الخطي ونموذج طين كام المعدل. وقد اجريت مقارنة بين الهبوطات وضغط ماء المسام الاضافي المقاسة والمخمنة بطريقة العناصر المحددة ووجد تقارب جيد بين النتائج. وقد تم التوصل الى نتائج منها ان التقنية المقترحة والمستعملة في هذا البحث والتي من خلالها مثلت ضغوط ماء المسام المقاسة بكونها ضغوط الماء الابتدائية في برنامج الحاسبة ( CRISP ) ولم يتم تسليط حمل على الركيزة في هذه الحالة. ودرس تصريف ضغط ماء المسام الاضافي من خلال اجراء تحليل الانضمام.


Article
Age Related Changes in Cardiovascular Response to Oxidative Stress Induced by

Author: Affan E. Hassen
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 4 Pages: 495-503
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: There are many circulatory changes that occur during exercise in order to supply the tremendous blood flow required by the muscles during the stimulatory effects on circulation by the mass sympathetic discharge, the increased arterial pressure and cardiac output. The metabolic effects and the oxidative stress as a result of the work load on cardiac and skeletal muscles could also show changes. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of aging process on the vascular response during exercise and also in the oxidative stress according to age. Subjects and Methods:Eight healthy Iraqi subjects were enrolled in this study. Divided into three groups according to age, group I (age range 20-29), group II (age range 30-39), and group III (age range 40-49). They were asked to exercise according to modified Bruce protocol. Blood samples were taken from each subject pre and post exercise for biochemical tests. The test included were creatine kinase, uric acid, malonedialdehyde (MDA) , lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein HDL). Low density lipoprotein LDL was calculated. Results: There is a statistical significance increase in heart rate and systolic blood pressure after exercise in all groups however diastolic blood pressure showed a decrease. A positive linear correlation is present. Mean serum levels of uric acid was shown to be elevated after exercise, meanwhile triglycerides levels decreased significantly in all age groups after exercise and also cholesterol. LDL on the other hand showed a decrease in the younger age group. Conclusion: The results obtained set a normative data for the studied parameters for the age group included in the study to be used in the future for the detection and differentiation of any cardiovascular abnormality from age related changes. These data have important clinical implications if we are to prevent the frailty and morbidity associated with old age.


Article
Effect of Some Environmental Conditions on the Oxidative Stress and Transition Metals Status in Iraqi Subjects

Authors: Muhanad Mohammed Nori --- Saad Abdul-Rehman Hussain --- Nada Khadum Al- Tae'e --- Hameed Mahmood Majeed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2007 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 147-151
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It has long been recognized that exposure to various metals is highly toxic, producing a wide variety of illnesses, including cancer. The role of these metals in free radical formation and initiation of lipid peroxidation was extensively studied; where the free form of iron or copper can effectively be involved in a free radical generation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of the some environmental conditions on the levels of the oxidative stress markers, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), and some of the transition metals, iron, copper and zinc, in he serum of Iraqi subjects who exposed to different environmental conditions. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 137 healthy male adults who work in different types of jobs (25 farmers, 25 workers in gasoline, 25 workers in liquid propane gas, 25 workers in casting, 25 workers in paints and 12 workers in plastic and rubber materials). The serum levels of MDA, GSH, iron copper and zinc were estimated and compared in different groups. RESULTS: The result showed that exposure of healthy subjects to different occupational hazards produces significantly different changes in the oxidative stress markers as revealed by excessive production of the lipid peroxidation end product (MDA) and depletion of the soluble antioxidant (GSH); and impairment of the trace element status (copper and zinc). CONCLUSION: The extracellular defense mechanisms were severely affected by the insults of oxidative stress processes due to environmental pollution in some work places in Iraq.


Article
The Role of Oxidative Stress in the Pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus (SLE) Among Some Iraqi Patients

Author: Ihab Ibrahim AbdulWahab
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2007 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 286-288
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical and immunological abnormalities, predominantly developed in women of childbearing age, oxidative stress has been postulated in many pathological conditions including atherosclerosis , inflammatory conditions and some autoimmune disease such as multiple sclerosis , rheumatoid arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE).The present study was conducted to support the idea of oxidative stressduring the pathogenesis of (SLE) among some Iraqi patients, comparing it with healthy controls group matched for the same sex and age .PATIENTS AND METHODS:Twenty-three Iraqi Arab patients (21 females and 2 males) with Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus (SLE) admitted to Baghdad Teaching Hospital were included in the present study ,and have been compared with 13 healthy controls .The patients group were diagnosed as having SLE according to the basis of the revised criteria of the American College of Rheumatology ,Analysis of the parameters of oxidative stress , serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathion (GSH) was performed in all patients before starting any type of drug treatment and their levels were compared with those belong to healthy controls.RESULTS:The results presented in this study showed elevated serum MDA concentration in the SLE patients group compared to healthy control ; however , this elevation failed to reach the statistically significant (P<0.05).Significant variation was also demonstrated in serum levels of glutathione between both patients group , in which serum GSH level was significantly lower in the diseased group compared to healthy controls ( P<0.05).CONCLUSION:Oxidative stress mechanism can be proposed as a cause and / or consequence in the pathogenesis of SLE , supporting the theory of free radical –induced tissue damage in this respect.


Article
Oxidative Stress & C – Reactive Protein In

Author: Imad A. Thanoon*Ph.D د. عماد ذوالنون
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 2 Pages: 227-230
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:Back ground: Oxidative damage has been suggested to play a key role in accelerating inflammation and to be involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). Many studies had shown that those patients have low antioxidants level and are at risk of increased oxidative stress. Objective: This study was designed to examine the levels of serum Total Antioxidant Status (TAS). Malondialdehyde (MDA) as index of lipid peroxidation and C–Reactive Protein (CRP) as a marker of oxidative stress in patients with RA and OA and compared them with healthy control. Method: Serum TAS , MDA and CRP levels were measured in 16 RA and 24 OA patients and compare with those obtained from 25 healthy controls. Results: Serum TAS were significantly lower in RA group than in the OA and control groups (P < 0.05). Serum MDA and CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with RA than in those with OA and healthy subjects (P< 0.05). There were significant negative correlations between TAS and MDA, CRP levels (r = -0.850; p < 0.001) and ( r = -0.498; P < 0.05) respectively and a positive correlation between MDA and CRP levels in the RA group (r = 0.686; P < 0.01) . In OA group, the level of CRP was significantly increased (P< 0.05) and there was significant positive correlation between age and MDA level (r = 0.553; P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that levels of lipid peroxidation are increased in patients with RA compared to controls and patients with OA , In addition serum TAS levels were decreased in RA. Serum TAS levels may be used as a routine and rapid test to verify the levels of oxidative stress in RA. Furthermore correlating TAS and MDA levels with a cute phase reactants such as CRP may give some clues about disease activity in RA . Keywords: Oxidative Stress, C – Reactive Protein, arthritis


Article
Effects of Exposure Duration to Liquefied Propane on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Gas Workers

Author: Nada Khadum Al- Tae'e
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2007 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 76-79
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Toxic environmental agents include a host of chemicals and pollutants that may available in tobacco smoke and tar, the atmosphere, drugs, the work place, the food and water supply and from radiation and infectious organisms. These agents may exert multiple types of harmful effects on human body, including lipid peroxidation.OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of duration of exposure on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in liquefied propane gas workers.METHODS:Fifty five adult male gas workers (age mean 36. 6 ± 3.8 years) in liquefied propane gas stations in the District of Baghdad were enrolled in the present study. They were allocated into 3 groups according to the duration of exposure to LPG (1-9, 10-20 and more than 20 years). Twenty five healthy subjects, not exposed to LPG, with age mean comparable to that of workers (37.2 ± 4.0 years) were utilized as controls.RESULTS:The results showed significant differences in the levels of MetHb, lipid peroxidation parameters and antioxidant enzymes activities in LPG workers compared to controls. Meanwhile, workers with different duration of exposure to LPG demonstrated significant differences only in MetHb, MDA and catalase activity.CONCLUSION:Workers with different duration of exposure to LPG demonstrated significant differences only in MetHb, MDA and catalase activity. In conclusion, the changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes may be useful as indicator for the impact of duration of exposure in LPG workers


Article
Effect of spraying Lactobacilli bacteria and the addition of salts and vinegar to drinking water on the relative weight of carcass yields and its physical dissections of broilers exposed to heat stress
تأثير استعمال الرش ببكتريا العصيات اللبنية (Lactobacilli) وإضافة الأملاح والخل لماء الشرب في الوزن النسبي لقطعيات ذبيحة فروج اللحم وجردها الفيزيائي المعرض للإجهاد الحراري

Author: S. A. Najy سعد عبد الحسين ناجي
Journal: ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES مجلة الأنبار للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: PISSN: 19927479 / EISSN: 26176211 Year: 2007 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 292-304
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted at the animal production farm of the Agriculture Research station (Ministry of Agriculture) from 3/9/2001 to 29/10/2001, 900 one day old broiler chicks (Fawbro) were used and distributed into 6 treatments (3 replicates / treatment, each repl. consist of 50 chicks), the chicks in the first treatment was the control treatment and the second treatment the chicks were exposed to heat stress at 38-43 Celsius for daily 6 hours from 4 to 8 weeks of age, the heat stress were companied with spraying Lactobacilli bacteria on chicks with rate of 0.2 ml per chick for supplying each of them 106 colony forming units (third treatment), while the fourth, fifth and sixth treatments the chicks gave potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate salts at rate of 0.5% and vinegar at rate of 0.1% with drinking water campaigned with heat stress. The results of the study revealed that sprayed chicks at first day of age with Lactobacilli bacteria could increase the ability of birds to face the effect of heat stress on relative weight of carcass yields especially breast yield which the relative weight of it increased significantly in the this treatment, also, using probiotic could help for obtaining more lean tissue from carcass yield with decreasing the other component (bone, skin and fat) comparing with the other treatments.

أجريت هذه التجربة في حقول الهيئة العامة للبحوث الزراعية والتابعة لوزارة الزراعة للمدة من 3/9/2001 ولغاية 29/10/2001 ، استعمل في هذه التجربة 900 فرخ فروج اللحم (فاوبرو) بعمر يوم واحد موزعة على 6 معاملات (3 مكررات لكل معاملة وكل مكرر يحتوي على 50 فرخ) ، إذ كانت المعاملة الاولى هي مجموعة السيطرة غير المعرضة للاجهاد الحراري والمعاملة الثانية كانت مجموعة السيطرة والتي عرضت فيها الطيور للاجهاد الحراري متمثلاً بدرجة حرارة 38-43 مئوي لمدة 6 ساعات ويومياً من الاسبوع الرابع ولغاية الاسبوع الثامن وبشكل متزامن مع رش بكتريا العصيات اللبنية (Lactobacilli) على الافراخ وبواقع 0.2 مل لكل فرخ لتجهز كل فرخ بما لا يقل عن 106 خلية بكتيرية عند اليوم الأول من العمر (المعاملة الثالثة) ، اما المعاملة الرابعة والخامسة والسادسة فقد اعطيت فيها الافراخ املاح كلوريد البوتاسيوم وبيكاربونات الصوديوم والخل بشكل متزامن مع الاجهاد الحراري وبتركيز 0.5% عن طريق ماء الشرب لكل من الاملاح وبتركيز0.1% للخل.يتضح من نتائج التجربة ان رش الافراخ بعمر يوم واحد ببكتريا العصيات اللبنية (Lactobacilli) ساعد على مقاومة تأثير الاجهاد الحراري في الوزن النسبي لقطعيات ذبائح هذه الطيور وخاصة قطعية الصدر التي زاد الوزن النسبي لها معنوياً في هذه المجموعة ، وكذلك ساعد استعمال البروبايوتك على زيادة نسبة اللحم على حساب انخفاض نسبة العظم والجلد والدهن في قطعيات الذبيحة كافة مقارنة بمعاملة السيطرة المعرضة للاجهاد الحراري والسيطرة غير المعرضة للإجهاد الحراري.

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