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The Rhetorical Purposes of Tense Shift in Qur'anic Verses with Reference to English

Author: Mahmood Abbas Dawood
Journal: Journal of Tikrit University for the Humanities مجلة جامعة تكريت للعلوم الإنسانية ISSN: 18176798 Year: 2008 Volume: 15 Issue: 11 Pages: 560-575
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

ABSTRACTThe Glorious Qur’an maintains the highest possible standard of rhetoric in its speech, to the extent that it is impossible to find its parallel in human works. Muslims consider the Qur'an as miraculous and inimitable in that the Qur'anic text cannot be reproduced in another language or form. Furthermore, an Arabic word may have a range of meanings depending on the context, to the extent that not a single word in the Qur'an can be exchanged for another without affecting the depth of meaning conveyed by the original word. This paper deals with one of these miraculous characters, that lies in the different forms of verbs that shift from a tense to another within the same verse.The paper is presented in three main sections, an introduction and conclusions. The introduction summarizes the views of Muslim writers and exegeses on such linguistic phenomenon, which they call Iltifat.The first section discusses the tense shift in English preceded by definitions of some basic terms. The second section deals with the occurrence of the present verb after the past tense in the same verse, giving sufficient examples from the glorious Qur'an and shedding light on the rhetorical purposes behind such uses. The third section discusses the reversing of the present –future tense, where the past tense is used to express present or future. The purposes and the contexts of such uses are clarified in this section.At the end of the paper, there are the major findings that the researcher has reached at.

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Article
The Miraculous Eloquence in Using Passive Voice in theGlorious Qur'an with Reference to English

Authors: Hasan Sha'ban Ali --- Mahmood Abbas Dawood
Journal: Journal of Surra Man Raa مجلة سر من رأى ISSN: 18136798 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 11 Pages: 173-188
Publisher: University of Samarra جامعة سامراء

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Abstract

There are innumerable aspects of the Qur’anic revelation. The revelation explicitly or implicitly brings out the miraculous character of the Qur’an.

This research discusses one of these miraculous aspects which is the structure of the passive verb in the glorious Quran. It has been presented in four sections, an introduction and a conclusion. The introduction summarizes the uses of passive voice in Arabic which have been divided into the following: summarization, knowing the subject, glorifying the subject, the humiliation of the subject when the subject is already unknown, and other purposes like parallel sentences. There is also a summary of passive in English and the purposes behind employing the passive voice. Various examples are given to illustrate these purposes.
The fourth sections discuss some rhetorical aspects of using passive in the glorious Qur'an as follows.
The first section negotiates how the passive verb plays a great role in describing both transcendental and unseen events to help the reader to get the deep sense of the context. The second section deals with passive verbs in the glorious Quran in terms of the meaning of generalization with special attention to the object. The third section discusses the passive verb in the context of denial and faith. The last section concentrates on the objectives of the structure of the passive verb in the glorious Quran which have the sense of glorifying the subject. At the end of this paper there are the major conclusions that the researcher arrive.
1. Introduction

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Article
Relative Clauses Reduction in English and Arabic

Authors: Mahmood Abbas Dawood --- Dr. Nawfal Saeed Majeed
Journal: Journal of Tikrit University for the Humanities مجلة جامعة تكريت للعلوم الإنسانية ISSN: 18176798 Year: 2008 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 549-563
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

ABSTRACTReduction is used by native speakers to avoid redundancy and achieve cohesive style in both spoken and written forms. Non-native learners are required to develop the skill of employing deletion in speech and writing if they want to show a complete mastery of the language.The study undertaken here contrast English and Arabic relative clauses reduction in order to describe and explain, as far as the available data permits, what similarities and differences these clauses show. The data analyzed for comparison are derived from adequate description of the languages under investigation. The comparative analysis based its techniques on syntactic criteria. Two kinds of reduction are presented in this study: optional and obligatory. Obligatory deletion refers to the removal of an item or items from a structure or else the sentence will be ungrammatical. The second kind is optional which must be known where to apply since its application in some structures may result in ambiguous sentences. The two languages are compared, as far as relative clauses reduction is concerned, as an attempt to get the major points of similarities and differences. Some of the problems of second language learning are ascribed to the phenomenon of transference of the native language structure to the foreign language. It is assumed that the transference often causes difficulty or ease in learning the structure of the foreign language. The findings arrived at can be utilized by classroom teachers, linguists, textbook writers and students of English and Arabic.

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