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Article
Iraqi Children with Acute Bacterial Meningitis... Who May Need Ventilatory Support?

Author: Muhi Kadhem Al-Janabi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 100-105
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is one of the most potentially serious infections occurring in infants and older children. Indications for PICU admission are shock, markedly elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), coma, and refractory seizures (1).METHODS:This cross sectional study enrolled children 2 months-12 years of age presented with (ABM) who were admitted to Children Welfare Teaching Hospital (CWTH) -Medical City- Baghdad, including those who needed Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) admission in CWTH Unit and Surgical Specialty Hospital (SSH) Unit in the period from the 1st of Feb 2004 to the 1st of Feb 2006. The diagnostic inclusion criteria of (ABM) were clinical symptoms and signs of meningitis plus a CSF neutrophilic pleocytosis with a CSF cells count of more than 5 cells/mm3 (1). Data included history, clinical examination, investigations, complications, PICU management, and outcome. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS version 13.0 computer facility, Chi-square test and T test were used when needed and a P.value < 0.05 was considered significant.RESULTS:In the present study (ABM) in children 2 months -12 years constituted 7% of cases admitted to PICUs. The majority of cases (77.2%) were below 2 years of age. The mean age of children with (ABM) was 18.3+6.80 months. The PICU cases of (ABM) differed from the neurological ward cases in their more acute onset, higher body temperature, higher peripheral WBCC, lower CSF glucose, and higher CSF cell count, higher CSF protein, lower serum calcium and longer duration of stay and all these characteristics showed highly significant differences The case fatality rate of children with (ABM) is 13.3%.CONCLUSION:The study concluded the need for PICU admission in children with (ABM) with acute onset, higher body temperature, higher peripheral WBCC, lower CSF glucose, and higher CSF cell count, higher CSF protein, lower serum calcium, and recommended laboratory and PICU service expansion

Keywords

meningitis --- children --- picu --- Iraq.


Article
Compliance of Diabetic patients

Authors: Riyadh K Lafta --- Ula Faiq --- Abdul-Hameed Al-Kaseer
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 17-22
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Diabetes is likely to be the fifth leading cause of death. Global excess mortality attributable to diabetes is estimated at 2.9 million deaths which is equivalent to 5.2% of world all-cause mortality. Compliance with medical advice is essential for controlling the disease; it is affected by many factors related to the patient, the disease, the physician and the family.Objective: To assess the level of diabetic patients’ compliance with diet, drugs and visits, and to assess its effect on the disease control through certain indicators.Methods: A total of 300 diabetic patients from different age categories, both males and females, were included in this study. The patients are usually either self-referral or referred from other hospitals, primary health care centers, governmental general practice clinics or private clinics. A questionnaire form was constructed to collect data about the demographic characteristics of the patients, about diet and medications. Files of the patients were reviewed to have an idea about their compliance.Results: Compliance with diet was medium in half of the patients, while with drugs; it was good in 60.3%, and 38.7% had good compliance to visits. The best compliance with diet (38.2%) was seen in the age group 40-49 year while the least (19.2%) was in the age group (30-39)[ (χ²=2.65, P>0.05), 37.4% of the patients who are using oral hypoglycaemic agents, and 36.7% of those using insulin had good compliance with diet (χ²=7.10, P<0.05). Conclusion: We can conclude from this study that the diabetic patients (represented by the study sample) have poor compliance with diet and visits, the duration of the disease was the most common variable found to predict compliance.

Keywords

Diabetic --- compliance --- Iraq


Article
Analysis of Data Obtained From Chromosomal StudiesPerformed During the Period from 2000-2007A Retrospective Study

Author: Bassam Musa Sadik ,
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 2 Pages: 187-193
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background:
Generally, genetic disorders are a leading cause of spontaneous abortion, neonatal
death, increased morbidity and mortality in children and adults as well. They a
significant health care and psychosocial burden for the patient, the family, the
healthcare system and the community as a whole. Chromosomal abnormalities
occur much more frequently than is generally appreciated. It is estimated that
approximately 1 of 200 newborn infants had some form of chromosomal
abnormality. The figure is much higher in fetuses that do not survive to term. It is
estimated that in 50% of first trimester abortions, the fetus has a chromosomal
abnormality.
Aim of the study:
This study aims to shed some light on the results of chromosomal studies
performed during 7 year-period as these represent a sample of the only registered
data available on genetic disorders in Iraq.
Patients and Methods:
For the period extending from Jan. 1st
, 2000 till Jan. 1st
, 2007, among all cases
referred to the Genetic Clinic, Consultation Clinic, Medical City in Baghdad, Iraq,
only those cases indicated for chromosomal study for diagnosis and then genetic
counseling were included in this study; they were grouped and then subgrouped
accordingly.
Results:
During the study period, 1720 cases needed chromosomal study for the sake of
genetic counseling out of around 5000-8000 cases referred to the clinic during the
same period. Mothers having an abnormal child or adverse pregnancy outcome
constituted 30.79% of all cases included, followed by the group of children with
multiple congenital abnormalities (20.14%), and then cases with primary
amenorrhoea (13.97%) and ambiguous genitalia (13.5%). The overall positive
findings in the chromosomal studies were 217/1720 (12.61%).
Conclusions:
Genetic disorders have a great impact on the practice of medicine in all specialties
in Iraq. There is a need for a new policy for indications of karyotyping, especially
at times of stress.


Article
Effects of Climate Changes on Environments & Public Health in Iraq
التغيرات المناخية وآثارها البيئية و الصحية في العراق

Author: Qusay A. Hamdi قصي احمد حمدي
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2008 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 29-35
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The climate changes which the world witnesses now result from the green house effect. It appears in different regions of the earth in the form of, temperature rising, sea tide waves, hurricanes, and others. They have involved Iraq in the latest years represented by increasing in the averages of temperatures and increasing in the averages of radiance, and increasing of frequent dusty storms. They affect the general health and environment negatively.This study aims to show the reality of the climatic change in Iraq, because Iraq is situated in a semi arid region. It focuses on the extent in which Iraq has been influenced by these changes, which have resulted from wars, pollution, dryness, and other harmful environmental influences. The conclusions of this study have shown that there are obvious climatic changes in most elements of the climate. It leads to an increase in the general averages of temperature; also leads to frequent dusty storms, an increase in the daily levels of the total suspend breathable powder, and environmental pollution. These are reflected to affect the increase of death and diseases rate. This study recommends the specialists in the fields of health and environment to be quick in setting fast programs and plans which they are ready enough to face the dangers of these climatic changes and limiting of the human activities, which are harmful on environment.

إن التغيرات المناخية التي يشهدها العالم حالياً و ظاهرة الاحتباس الحراري والتي تظهر في مناطق مختلفة من الأرض على شكل ارتفاع في درجات الحرارة وموجات المد البحري والأعاصير وغيرها , قد شملت العراق في السنوات الأخيرة بارتفاع معدلات درجات الحرارة وزيادة نسب الإشعاع وزيادة في تكرار العواصف الترابية مما أدى إلى تأثيرات سلبية على الصحة العامة والبيئة .تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى عرض واقع التغير المناخي في العراق باعتباره واقعاً ضمن منطقة تتميز بمناخ شبه صحراوي وتسلط الضوء على مدى تأثر العراق بهذه التغيرات بسبب الحروب والتلوث والجفاف والتأثيرات البيئية الضارة الأخرى .لقد أظهرت نتائج هذه الدراسة بأن هناك تغير مناخي واضح في اغلب عناصر المناخ أدى إلى زيادة في المعدلات العامة بدرجات الحرارة وكذلك في تكرار العواصف الترابية , وزيادة المستويات اليومية لمجموعة الدقائق العالقة والقابلة للاستنشاق , إضافة إلى التلوث البيئي , وقد انعكس ذلك ليؤثر زيادة في نسبة الوفيات والإمراض . توصي هذه الدراسة المختصين في مجال الصحة والبيئة إلى الإسراع في وضع البرامج والخطط السريعة والكفيلة بمواجهة أخطار هذه التغيرات المناخية والحد من نشاطات الإنسان الضارة بالبيئة .


Article
Extrahepatic Biliary Tract Injuries

Author: Gasan Al-Quzweeny
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 13-16
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Extra hepatic biliary tract (EBT) injuries are injuries that involve the gall bladder (GB), the common hepatic (CHD) and the common bile ducts (CBD). They are rarely encountered during external abdominal traumas. They are serious and associated with high morbidity and mortality when the ductal system is involved and because of the associated visceral and vascular injuries and thus they need special care to be diagnosed early, and managed properly.Objectives: To study the incidence, clinical presentation, management, and complications of extrahepatic biliary tract injuries. Methods: Retrospective review was done for all the patients who had laparotomy for their abdominal traumas during a year at Al Yarmouk Teaching Hospital with special emphasis on extrahepatic biliary tract injuries.Results: Nearly 700 people had severe abdominal injuries necessitating an explorative laparotomy for their management. Out of this number only 8 definite extrahepatic biliary tract injuries were discovered. 6 of them had cholecystectomy and 2 had biliary ductal injuries for which drainage was the major step in their management. 4 cases were labeled to have missed EBT injuries.Conclusion: Extrahepatic biliary injuries are rare coincidences on exploring traumatized abdomen. They are serious injuries associated with high morbidity and mortality when the ductal system is involved and are usually accompanied by severe other visceral injuries. Their management should be done by the most senior surgeon and if possible in a well equipped center.

Keywords

extra-hepatic --- biliary --- injuries --- Iraq


Article
MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO SHIGA-LIKE TOXIN PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM MINCED MEAT IN IRAQ
التوصيف الجزيئي لعزلتين من بكتريا Escherichia coli المنتجة للذيفان المشابه للشيكا المعزولة من اللحم المفروم في العراق

Author: عبدالأمير محمد غريب
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 210-217
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Two strains of Escherichia coli O157: H7 were isolated from raw minced meat samples on sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with Cefixme and Tellurite (SMAC-CT) after selective pre-enrichment of the samples in enriched EHEC broth (EEB). The diagnosis was confirmed biochemically and serologically by latex agglutination. Resistance profile to antibiotics was almost similar in the two strains. Both strains were susceptible toward the probiotic Lactobacillus spp. Both contains single large plasmid but varies in their small plasmid content. The two strains contained shiga-like toxins stx1, stx2 as evidenced by amplified (224, 227 bp) DNA fragments. One strain contained eaeA gene 1087 bp amplified fragment. The results indicated that derivatives of E. coli O157:H7 containing stx may circulate in this type of local processed food. Stx genes can be targeted as molecular markers for epidemiological studies in the region.

تم عزل وتشخيص عزلتين مخمرة لسكر السوربيتول على انها تعود للنمط المصلي O157:H7 لبكتريا أشرشيا القولون باستعمال الوسط الانتقائي (TC-SMAC) Tellurite Cefixime -Sorbitol MacConky Agar بعد التنشيط الأولي للنماذج باستعمال وسط التنشيط السائل Enrichment EHEC broth وأعتمدت الاختبارات الكيموحيوية التقليدية والخاصة للتشخيص فضلا" عن الفحص المصلي باستعمال فحص التلازن بحبيبات اللاتكس المغطاة بالأجسام المضادة للمستضدين O157 وH7. لوحظ تماثلاً في نمط المقاومة لأغلب هذه مضادات الحيوية كما أظهرت السلالات المعزولة حساسية تجاه بكتريا. Lactobacillus spp ، و أظهرت السلالتان محتوى بلازميدياً متماثلاً باحتوائهما على بلازميد كبير في حين أظهرت كلا السلالتين تبايناً من حيث احتوائها على بلازميدات صغيرة. وباجراء التفاعلات التضاعفية لسلسلة الدنا (PCR) Polymerase Chain Reaction لكل من السلالتين للتحري عن وجود الجينات stx1، stx2 أظهرت النتائج احتواء كلا السلالتين على جينات stx1 مع/أو stx¬2¬ في حين اظهرت تبايناً من حيث احتوائها على جين eaeA وذلك عند استعمال بادئات نوعية للنمط المصلي O157:H7.إذ تشير النتائج من إمكانية تلوث الاغذية المحلية قيد الدراسة على النمط H7 الذي يحتوي على جينات stx والتي من الممكن عدها مؤشرات جزيئية يستفاد منها في الدراسات الوبائية في منطقة معينة .

Keywords

eaeA --- stx genes --- O157 --- Iraq


Article
Analysis of Data Obtained From Chromosomal StudiesPerformed During the Period from 2000-2007A Retrospective Study

Authors: Eman M. Saleh ايمان مهدي صالح --- nidhal abdul mohymen نضال عبد المهيمن
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 1 Pages: 56-62
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract


Article
PREVALENCE OF HAEMOGLOBINOPATHIES IN SULAIMANI – IRAQ
درجة انتشار اضطرابات الهيموغلوبين في السليمانية / العراق

Authors: NAJMALDIN H. AHMED نجم الدين احمد --- AZAD H. FARAJ زيد فرج --- NASIR A. AL-ALLAWI نصير علاوي --- SANA D. JALAL
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2008 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 71-79
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

Background Thalassaemia major is an important health problem in Sulaimani, a large province at Northeastern Iraq, and the need to initiate a preventive program for this potentially fatal disorder is paramount. As a prerequisite to such program this study was initiated to map the province for hemoglobinopathies. Material and Methods A total of 1472 subjects (736 couples) attending Sulaimani premarital Health centre were screened using red cell indices and sickling test. For those who had MCV<80 fl and/or MCH < 27 pg or had a positive sickling test, this was followed by Hemoglobin HPLC and iron studies Results Based on above investigations, 61 individuals (4.14%) were found to have ß- thalassaemia minor, 4 (0.27%) sickle cell trait, 2 (0.14%) Hb C trait, and 2 (0.14%) δßthalassaemia minor, and one (0.07%) had Hereditary Hemoglobin F Persistence (HPFH) homozygous state. Moreover, 49 individuals (3.3%) had α- thalassaemia, including one with Hb H disease (0.07 %). The study also revealed a consanguinity rate of 24.3% among the screened couples. Conclusions The high prevalence rate of ß- thalassaemia carrier state and consanguinity, among premarital couples should further strengthen the need for initiating a preventive program for hemoglobinopathies in this region.

خلفية البحث: يعد مرض فقر دم البحر الابيض المتوسط مشكلة صحية مهمة في محافظة السليمانية التي هي احدى المحافظات الكردية شمال شرق العراق .الهدف من الدراسة :للحاجة الشديدة لبدأ برنامج وقاية من هذا المرض الخطر اجريت هذه الدراسة لمسح الاقليم للوقوف عند مدى انتشار هذه الاضطرابات في الهيموكلوبين .مواد وطرق البحث: شملت هذه الدراسه فحص 1472 شخص (736رجل و أمرأة) من المراجعين لمركز فحوصات ماقبل الزواج في السليمانية اعتمادا على اسس كريات الدم الحمراء (معدل حجم الكرية الحمراء، معدل الهيموكلوبين في الكرية الحمراء ) مع فحص الكشف عن فقر الدم المنجلي متبوعة بترحيل الدم بجهازHPLC وقياس نسبة الحديد في الجسم للازواج الذين كانت قرائات معدل حجم الكرية الحمراء اقل من 80 فيمولتر مع او بدون انخفاض معدل الهيموكلوبين في الكدرية الحمراء اقل من 27 بيكوكرام او اذا كان فحض الكشف عن فقر الدم المنجلي ايجابيالنتائج: اعتمادا على الفحوصات اعلاه ، وجد ان 61 شخصا (4,14% ) هم حاملين لصفة فقر دم البحر الابيض المتوسط (النوعβ) 4 اشخاص (27% ) حاملين لصفة فقر الدم المنجلي ، شخصان (14%) حاملين لصفة هيموكلوبين C، شخصان لصفة فقر الدم البحر الابيض المتوسط (نوعδβ) مع وجود شخص حامل لمرض الاستمرار الوراثي لوجود الهيموكلوبين الجنيني (0.07%) بالاضافة الى 49 شخص (3.3%) حاملين لصفة فقر دم البحر الابيض المتوسط نوع (α ) متضمنا حالة واحدة لمرض هيموكلوبين H (0.07%) . هذه الدراسة بينت ايضا ان نسبة زواج الاقارب كانت (24,3%) الاستنتاجات: ان الانتشار العالي لحاملي صفة فقر دم البحر الابيض المتوسط (نوعβ) مع انتشار زواج الاقارب اكد ضرورة انشاء برنامج وقائي للحد من انتشار اظطرابات الهيموكلوبين في المنطقة.


Article
A Rapid Graphical Solution for Determining the Presence of Remnant Magnetization in the Basement Rocks of Western Iraq
مخططات حلول سريعة للتعرف على وجود المغناطيسية المتبقية في صخور القاعدة في الجزء الغربي من العراق

Author: Abdaladeem M. Al Mashhadani
Journal: Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science المجلة العراقية الوطنية لعلوم الارض ISSN: 16823222 Year: 2008 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-10
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

A graphical method of determining the possible presence of a remanent component of magnetization in two dimensional igneous masses within the basement is described. It is required to assume that the same source produces well defined gravity and magnetic anomalies. The method involves taking the ratios of distance between peaks of maximum values of gravity and magnetic for various angles of field inclinations. Ratio of maximum positive and maximum negative values for various angles of field inclinations are also used. These ratios are plotted against field inclinations. Examples of anomalies are taken from the western desert area of the stable shelf in Iraq.

الملخصيهدف البحث إلى إيجاد مخططات قياسية لمعرفة مدى إمكانية وجود المغناطيسية المتبقية في الأجسام النارية لصخور القاعدة بالاعتماد على قياس الشذوذ المغناطيسي والجذبي للجسم الناري المسبب لتلك الشواذ. حيث تم إعداد المخططات القياسية بأخذ نسب المسافات بين القيم العليا للشواذ الجذبية والمغناطيسية عند مختلف زوايا الميل المغناطيسي وكذلك النسبة بين القيم الموجبة العليا والقيم السالبة العليا للشواذ المغناطيسية عند مختلف زوايا الميل المغناطيسي. ألنسب المذكورة أعلاه رسمت مع زوايا الميل المغناطيسي.طبقت هذه الدراسة في الصحراء الغربية الواقعة ضمن الجرف المستقر في العراق.


Article
The neotectonic map of Iraq
الخارطة النيوتكتونية للعراق

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Abstract

A neotectonic map of Iraq was constructed according partly to the work of Soviet team during eighties of the last century. The lower surfaces of Upper Miocene are chosen to be a datum for the construction. This is because the mentioned datum was considered to be surfaces or phase of tectonic stability leading one to calculate the intensities of down warping and up warping movements with their associated rates. The mentioned intensities and rates are represented by isoclines on the constructed map.The constructed map depended on relatively recent available data from oil wells and surface geological surveying Four supplementary maps established surrounding the constructed map for the purpose of comparison.

أعدت الخارطة النيوتكتونية للعراق نسبة لعمل الفريق السوفيتي خلال عقد الثمانينات من القرن الماضي.كان السطح الأسفل للمايوسين الأعلى مرجعا لهذا العمل لأنه اعتبر سطحا أو طورا تكتونيا مستقرا مما سهل عملية حساب سعة الصعود والهبوط وما تلازمهما من معدلات. وقد تم رسم ذالك على الخارطة بواسطة الخطوط الكنتوريه. اعتمدت الخارطة على أفضل البيانات الجيولوجية من الآبار المحفورة والمسح الجيولوجي السطحي. إن الخارطة الرئيسية أحيطت بأربعة خرائط ساندة وهي : خارطة العراق البنيوية وخارطة بؤر الهزات الارضيه وخارطة الأعمار الجيولوجية وخارطة معدل الحركات.

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