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Article
Water Quality Indices For Tigris River In Baghdad City

Authors: NAWAR O.A. NASSER --- RAFA H. SH. AL Suhaili
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2008 Volume: 14 Issue: 3 Pages: 2656-2668
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Due to the deterioration of water quality within the last few years because of the increase of water consumption and the waste water production and disposal into the river The water quality in both surface and ground water resources was negatively affected .The concept of water quality index is used as a tool for water quality classification in Tigris River within Baghdad City .Twenty two parameters of pollution were selected to measure the water quality indices of Tigris river within Baghdad city .Those parameters were measured during (2000-2004)as average monthly values ,three water treatment plants were selected out of the eight water treatment plants that exist along the river.Al Kharkh water treatment plant to reflect the water quality north of Baghdad ,Al Wathba water treatment plant to reflect water quality at the center and Al Rasheed water treatment plant located south of Baghdad to reflect the water quality at this area .The estimated water quality indices indicated that the river quality deteriorate south of Baghdad and the geological and hydrological conditions played the prime role relative to the agricultural and industrial activities within the catchments on the quality of Tigris river .Furthermore ,due to the continuous decrease of flow and the simultaneous increase in agricultural and industrial development with time ,the river showed a general deterioration in quality while the worst years were 2002,2003 due to the significant decrease in the amount of flow .

نتيجة لتردي نوعية المياه خلال السنوات الاخيره بسبب زيادة استهلاك الماء وكذلك زيادة تصريف مياه المخلفات الى النهر ادى ذلك الى تردي نوعية المياه السطحيه والجوفيه .لذلك تم استخدام مؤشر نوعية المياه كوسيله لتصنيف نوعية مياه نهر دجله في مدينة بغداد ,فقد تم اختيار اثنين وعشرين عنصر من عناصر التلوث وقياس معدل تراكيزها الشهريه خلال السنوات 2000-2004 فقد تم اختيار ثلاث محطات معالجه من اصل ثمانيه محطات معالجه على امتداد نهر دجله وهم مشروع الكرخ شمال مدينة بغداد ومشروع الوثبه في مركز مدينة بغداد ومشروع الرشيد جنوب مدينة بغداد .مؤشر نوعية المياه الذي تم حسابه اشار الى ان نوعية مياه نهر دجله تتردى جنوب مدينة بغداد بسبب الظروف الجيولوجيه والهيدرولوجيه للمنطقه بالاضافه الى تطورالنشاطات الزراعيه والصناعيه وتناقص تصريف النهر,وخصوصا في السنوات 2002, 2003


Article
Amniotic Fluid Index as a Predictor of Perinatal Outcome in Patients with Prolonged Pregnancy
السائل الميتوتي كمؤشر لنتيجة المريضات بحمل طويل

Author: Maha M. Al-Bayatti د.مها البياتي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2008 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 216-219
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Objective: To determine whether detection of amniotic fluid index is clinically useful in the prediction of perinatal outcome in prolonged pregnancy.Methods: Fifty pregnant women with prolonged pregnancies were subjected for ultrasonic assessment of amniotic fluid index and evaluation of perinatal outcome. The newborn babies were assessed for Apgar score, birth weight, meconium aspiration, intervention in labour for fetal distress, perinatal death, and admission to the neonatal care unit.Results: Prolonged pregnancy with amniotic fluid index < 5 cm was significantly associated with meconium aspiration and caesarean section for fetal distress in labour with a P value of 0.009 and 0.030 respectively. Conclusion: Amniotic fluid index can be considered as a useful technique for fetal surveillance in prolonged pregnancy. Key words: Prolonged pregnancy, Amniotic fluid index, Perinatal outcome


Article
The Modulatory Effect ofIraqi Propolis Extract onMitomycin-C Induced MicroneulcusFormation in Albino Male Mice

Authors: Rakad M. K. Al-Jumaily --- Ghassam M. Sulaiman --- Mohammed M. F. Al-Halbosiy
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 1 Pages: 77-82
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:
Background:
Propolis (bee glue) is a resinous hive product. It consists of exudate from plants
mixed with beeswax and used be bees as glue in general-purpose as sealer and
draught-exclude for beehives. Propolis, used in folk medicine, has attracted
researchers attention to elucidate its therapeutic properties, as antioxidant and
anticancer. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate the role of propolis in
modulating effects of mitomycin C; MMC.
Methods:
Ethanolic solutions of propolis were prepared and administered to albino male mice
(Mus musculus) through three types of experiments. In the first, the propolis was
tested alone, while in the second and third experiments, propolis was given orally
before and after MMC (pre- and post-treatments, respectively). All experiments
were paralleled by negative and positive controls. The investigated parameters were
total count of leucocytes, mitotic index, micronucleus formation and chromosomal
aberrations.
Fac Med Baghdad
200
Results:
In the first experiment, the results indicated that 10 mg/kg/day of propolis enhanced
the parameters investigated, and a significant increase was observed in the total
count of leucocytes and mitotic index. Also, there was no significant difference in
the rate of micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberrations as compared to
negative controls. In the second (pre-treatment) and third (post-treatment)
experiments, a similar picture was drawn. However, the dose 10 mg/kg/day was
more effective in this respect.
Conclusion:
The results indicate that propolis may act upon the immunological system and has
the potential to inhibit the genotoxic effects of MMC. A further study will be
needed to determine the effects of compounds isolated from propolis and evaluate
the synergistic effects on MI and MN.


Article
The Effect of Body Mass Index of Patients with Post Myocardial Infarction Angina on the Heart Function

Author: Hakemia Sh. Hassan
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 4 Pages: 497-500
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Extreme obesity is recognized to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Itis unclear whether overweight and normal weight also poses a risk.Objective: The study aims to determine the effect of the body mass index on coronaryarteries and left ventricular functions in patients with post myocardial infarction (MI) anginaMethod: The study included 50 patients with the diagnosis of post MI angina consecutivelyadmitted to the medical ward of Iraqi Center for Heart Disease. All patients underwentcoronary artery catheterization and Echocardiography for assessment of coronary artery andleft ventricular functionsResults: The results of the study showed that there is a significant difference in impairedleft ventricular systolic pressure between normal weight and overweight patients with postMI angina .The study also revealed that (16.16%) of the patients with normal weight and(30.76%) of the patients who are over weight had three vessels disease.Conclusion: left ventricular functions reflected by ejection fraction and left ventricular wallmotion and state of coronary artery were better in normal weight patients than in over weightpatients.


Article
Prevalence of Obesity among Adult Population in Karbala

Author: Al-Hilaly K. A*
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2008 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 343-352
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence and type of obesity in adult population in Karbala city and its correlation with age, sex, social class, educational level, occupation, history of chronic medical diseases, and family history of obesity.Design: Population-based observational study.Setting: Al Hussein Hospital in Karbala city.Subjects: A total of 1545 companion of patients attending the outpatient clinic in Al Hussain hospital. They were 844 men and 701 women and aged 20-81 years.Methods: Socio-demographic data collected includes age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational level, type of work, presence of chronic medical diseases, and family history of obesity. Anthropometric indices including weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Individuals with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/ m2 were considered obese. Abdominal obesity was considered when waist circumference ≥102 cm for men and ≥ 88 cm for women. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS program.Results: Of the 1545 individuals who were examined in this study 453 (29.3%) were obese, 485 (31.4%) were overweight, 519 (33.6%) had normal body weight and 88 (5.7%) were underweight. The average BMI was higher in women Abdominal obesity was determined in 51.5% of women and 13.3% of men. Positive correlations were determined between BMI and age, and family history of obesity, and waist circumference. The prevalence of obesity showed a positive correlation with age and it is higher in individuals with low educational level.Conclusion: Obesity affects about 30% of adult population in Karbala, and it is higher in women. Abdominal obesity affect more than 50% of women. This high prevalence of obesity should be described as an epidemic which demands community based multiple strategies to control and to treat affected individuals.

تمهيد: إنّ السمنة مشكلة صحية خطيرة تهدد أغلب دول العالم المتقدمة والنامية، وهي في زيادة مستمرة، وأصبحت تشكل وباءً. تعتبر السمنة عامل خطورة لكثير من الأمراض المزمنة، مثل داء السكري وارتفاع ضغط الدم وأمراض الشرايين التاجية وبعض الأمراض السرطانية، مثل سرطان الثدي والرحم وعنق الرحم. تسبب السمنة هدر كثير في ساعات العمل والانفاق في علاج الأمراض المسببة لها.الأهداف: معرفة مدى إنتشار السمنة في مدينة كربلاء وعلاقتها بالعمر والجنس والحالة المادية والمستوى الثقافي ونوع العمل الذي يمارسه والأمراض المزمنة ووجود تاريخ عائلي للسمنة.الطرق: تمت هذه الدراسة في مستشفى الحسين في مدينة كربلاء، وشملت الدراسة الأشخاص المرافقين للمرضى المراجعين للعيادة الاستشارية للأمراض الباطنية، وكان عددهم 1545 شخصاً، منهم 844 ذكراً و701 أنثى، تتراوح أعمارهم بين 20 و 81 سنة. المعلومات التي تم جمعها تشمل العمر والجنس والحالة المادية، والمستوى الثقافي، ونوع العمل الذي يمارسه الشخص، ووجود أمراض مزمنة يعاني منها الشخص، ووجود السمنة في أفراد العائلة. القياسات التي تم أخذها تشمل الوزن والطول ومحيط الخصر. السمنة تعتبر عندما يكون معامل كتلة الجسم 30 كلغم/م2 أو أكثر. والسمنة البطنية عندما يكون محيط الخصر 102 سم أو أكثر للرجال، و 88 سم أو أكثر للنساء. تم استعمال البرنامج الإحصائي الأس بي أس أس لتحليل النتائج.النتائج: معدل السمنة كان 29,3%، وزيادة الوزن 31,4% و33,6% كانوا ضمن الوزن الطبيعي. معامل كتلة الوزن كان أكبر عند النساء. معدل السمنة البطنية كان 51,5% في النساء و13,3% في الرجال. علاقة السمنة كانت إيجابية مع العمر، وكانت أعلى في الأشخاص ذوي المستوى الثقافي المنخفض.الاستنتاجلت: السمنة تصيب حوالي 30% من الأشخاص البالغين في مدينة كربلاء، وهي أكثر في النساء. وهذه النسبة العالية تستدعي إتخاذ إجارءات إجتماعية ورسمية للحد من هذه الظاهرة.


Article
Methods of Determining The Refractive Index of Thin Solid Films (Review Article)

Author: S.K. Al-Ani
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 17-23
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

Thin multilayer graded semiconducting, inorganic, metallic oxides films have wide applications such as optical designs and microelectronics industry. Knowledge of the refractive indices nf(λ) and of such films their dispersion are important. This paper is aimed to present an overview on the different methods that have been devised for the determination of the index of refraction of thin films along with their theoretical basis. Such methods are Abeles, Swanepoel, Kramers-Kronig, Ellipsometer, and others. Some experimental results are also presented. The accuracy of these methods is evaluated.


Article
BREAKTHROUGH INDEX AND SPECIFIC DEPOSIT
مؤشر الاختراق و تراكم العوالق في المرشحات الثنائية

Author: Dr. Awatif Soaded Al-Saqqar Batool Mohammed Al-Bayaty
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2008 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 52-62
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The dual filter was tested in this study to improve the performance of the filtration process in water treatment plants. Porcelanite rocks were selected to be the dual media with sand in the experimental work. The work required installing a pilot filtration unit in the location of the filters in one of the water treatment plants. The pilot filtration consists of three plastic column filters, acting parallel and simultaneously. The first contains 70 cm sand, the second and third were dual filters (porcelanite with sand) of different types. The dual media was tested at different filtration rates (5, 7.5, 10, and 15 m/hr). The results showed that the dual filters had better performance than sand filters and reduced the specific deposit (σ) and the breakthrough index (BI). In the dual filters the specific deposit was about (16 to 65 %) less than in sand filters and the breakthrough index (BI) was specified weak for rates 5 and 7 m/hr, light at 10 m/hr, and medium at 15 m/hr.

في هذه الدراسة تم اختبار المرشح الثنائي لتحسين أداء عملية الترشيح في مشاريع تصفية المياه.اختيرت صخور البورسيلينايت لتكون وسط ثنائي مع الرمل في هذه الدراسة لتحسين أداء عملية الترشيح في مشاريع تصفية المياه. تطلب العمل إنشاء منظومة ترشيح في موقع المرشحات لإحدى محطات التصفية. تتكون المنظومة من ثلاث أعمدة ترشيح تعمل بشكل متوازٍ وفي آن واحد بحيث احتوى الأول على 70 سم من الرمل والثاني والثالث على مرشح ثنائي من البورسيلينيايت والرمل وبأعماق مختلفة. فحصت أنواع مختلفة من المرشحات ة الثنائية لمختلف معدلات الترشيح (5,7.5,10و16)م/ساعة. أظهرت النتائج بان المرشحات الثنائية كفوءة في تقليل تراكم العوالق(σ) و مؤشر الاختراق (BI) من المرشحات الرملية. تراكم العوالق في المرشحات الثنائية كان حوالي (16 إلى 65 %) اقل من مرشحات الرمل . ومؤشر الاختراق صنف ضعيف لمعدلات ترشيح (5 و 7.5 م/ساعة), خفيف لمعدل ترشيح 10 م/ساعة, ووسط لمعدل ترشيح 15 م/ساعة.


Article
Natural fluoride Content of Drinking Water in Two District Areas in Iraq and Yemen (A comparative study).

Authors: May Gh Al–Ajrab --- Faraed D Salman
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2008 Volume: 8 Issue: 11 Pages: 90-103
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine and compare the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in two district areas: Iraq and Yemen, in relation to age and sex for students aged 13–16 years old. Materials and methods: the study was conducted among 904 students of both countries. Five hundred and seventy two students from Iraq (Sinjar province): 334 males and 238 females. Three hundred and thirty two students: 173 males and 159 females, from Yemen (Thamar province); aged 13–16 years old were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary schools who had lived since birth in two different areas with concentration of fluoride in drinking water. Sinjar with high concentration (2.05–2.22 ppm), Thamar with moderate concentration (1.8–2.2 ppm) by the use of Dean index (1934) to assess dental fluorosis. Results: the study had shown that the prevalence of dental flourosis in Sinjar province was 52.1%, 63.53% within students and teeth respectively was much higher than Thamar province which was 16.99%, 30.23% within students and teeth respectively; ranging from questionable, very mild forms for all age groups, while for Thamar it was ranging from very mild to moderate with significant sex difference for individuals (females reported less prevalence than males) for both provinces for the first three degrees of flourosis at P<0.001, P< 0.05. The percent age of severity for Sinjar was much higher than Thamar province which increased significantly with increasing age at P<0.001, P<0.01,and P< 0.05. Also the distribution of severity of frequency was much higher in Sinjar than Thamar with highest percentage in upper and lower posterior teeth (75%, 72%) at P<0.001. The community flourosis index for Sinjar was 1.62 (moderate) while for Thamar province was 3.05 for these age groups (very marked). Conclusions: prevalence of dental flourosis increased infrequently with age in Sinjar while systematically in Thamar with sex difference (females reported less percentage than males).


Article
Structure of temperature time series at Mosul
مكونات السلسلة الزمنية لدرجات الحرارة في مدينة الموصل

Authors: Ysra Taha يسرى طه --- Shatha Hazim Dawood شذى حازم داؤد --- Basil Khether Dawood د. باسل خضر داؤد
Journal: AL Rafdain Engineering Journal مجلة هندسة الرافدين ISSN: 18130526 Year: 2008 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 30-43
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Abstract The four components of temperature (max., min.) phenomena , seasonal (S),Trend(T), cyclical(C) , and Irrigular (I) for Mosul city have been studied . Four different methods are used to deduct the (S) components and seasonal index for each method is determined .The statistical inferences pointed that the third method can be used in the prediction of temperature . for the year 2001 depending on a historical record (1950-2000) . The result of this deduction showed that the temperature is a cyclical phenomena . The known statistical test like Auto correlation coefficient , Spectrum analysis ,cumulative probability , Standard deviation and mean have been done which showed a good correlation between the predicted and historical data .The predicted record of (10) years long are well done by this method. Key words : predicted , temperature , Seasonal component , seasonal index

الخلاصة تمت دراسة المركبات الاربعة لظاهرة درجة الحرارة (الصغرى والعظمى) وهي الفصلية(S) و النزعة او الاتجاه العام(T) والدورية (C) والعشوائية (I) لمدينة الموصل .استعملت اربعة طرق مختلفة في طرح المركبة الفصلية ومنها تم تحديد الدليل الموسمي .بين الاستنتاج الاحصائي بان الطريقة الثالثة يمكن استعمالها في التنبؤ بدرجة الحرارة لسنة 2001 اعتمادا على السجل التاريخي للفترة (1950-2000) .كما انه بعد طرح مركبات النزعة العشوائية ظهرت مركبة الدورية واضحة في هذه الظاهرة . ثم تم تطبيق بعض الفحوصات الاحصائية المعروفة مثل معامل الارتباط الذاتي ، تحليل كثافة الطيف ، الاحتمالية المتجمعة وكذلك المعدل والانحراف المعياري والتي بينت وجود تطابق ما بين القيم التاريخية والمتنبؤ بها. تبين من البحث الحالي انه بهذه الطريقة يمكن الاعتماد على القيم المتنبؤ بها وبسجل طوله(10) سنة . الكلمات الدالة : التنبؤ ، درجات الحرارة ، المركبة الموسمية ، الدليل الموسمي .


Article
Evaluation of Hydrated Lime Filler in Asphalt Mixtures
تقييم الجير المطفأ كمبدة مبلئت في الخلطبث الاسفلتيت

Author: Mohammed Abbas Hasan Al-Jumaily محمد عباس حسن الجميلي
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 68-79
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Mineral filler is one of important materials and affecting on properties and quality of asphalt mixtures .There are different types of mineral filler depended on cost and quality , the matter encourages us to achieve this study to evaluate hydrated lime filler effects on properties of asphalt mixes related with strength and durability. Conventional asphaltic concrete mixtures with Portland cement and soft sandstone fillers and mixtures modified with hydrated lime were evaluated for their fundamental engineering properties as defined by Marshall properties , index of retained strength , indirect tensile strength , permanent deformation characteristics , and fatigue resistance .A typical dense graded mixture employed in construction of surface course pavement in Iraq in accordance with SCRB specifications was used .The materials used in this study included mineral aggregate materials (coarse and fine sizes) were originally obtained from Najaf Sea quarries and two grades of asphalt cements produced from Daurah refinery which are D47 and D66 . The physical properties , stiffness modulus and chemical composition are evaluated for the recovered asphalt cement from prepared asphalt mixes containing various filler types .The paper results indicated that the addition of hydrated lime as mineral filler improved the permanent deformation characteristics and fatigue life and the use of hydrated lime will decrease the moisture susceptibility of the asphalt mixtures.

المادة المالئة المعدنية هي احد المواد المهمة والمؤثرة على خواص ونوعية الخلطات الإسفلتية, وتوجد هناك أنواع مختلفة من المواد المالئة متباينة فيما بينها من ناحية الكلفة والنوعية، الامر الذي شجع على إجراء هذه الدراسة لتقييم تأثيرات الجير المطفأ على خواص الخلطات الإسفلتية من حيث مقاومة الأحمال و متانة . تم تحضير الخلطات الإسفلتية التقليدية باستخدام اسمنت بورتلاند و حجر رملي مطحون كمادة المالئة و أخرى معدلة الجير المطفأ لتقيم خواصها الهندسية الأساسيةِ كما هي مُعَرَّفة من قبل خواص مارشال، دليل المقاومة المسترجعة، مقاومة الشدّ الغير مباشر، خصائص التشوه دائمي، ومقاومة الكلل.تم استخدام التدرج الكثيف المثالي لتحضير الخلطة و المستخدم في انشاء الطبقة السطحية في العراق بموجب مواصفات(SCRB) . المواد ألمستعملة في هذه الدراسة تضمنت مواد ركام معدنية (مقاسات خشنة وناعمة) تم الحصول عليها من مقالع بحر نجف و نوعان من الإسفلت المنتج من مصفى الدورة وهما D66, D47. تم تقييم الخواص الفيزيائية ومعامل الصلادة و التركيب الكيمياوي للإسفلت المستعادة من الخلطات الإسفلتية المحضرة و التي تحتوي على المواد المالئة المختلفة . أظهرت نتائج البحث بأنّ إضافةَ الجير المطفأ كمادة مالئة حَسّنَ خصائص التشوهِ الدائمي وعمر الكلل وكذلك استعمال الجير المطفأ يقلل من حساسية الرطوبة للخلطات الإسفلتية.

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