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Article
Electrical Properties of Cu2O Films Prepared by Electro-Deposition Method

Authors: M.I. Ali --- S.M. Jasim --- Q.A. Sabbar
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics Letters الرسائل العراقية في الفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 1999656X Year: 2008 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 27-29
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

In this work, the electrical properties of electrodeposited Cu2O in aqueous solutions were investigated. The results explained good stability under illumination conditions at negative potentials. The diffusion length of electrons in the sample was determined to be about 10-100nm. The deposited Cu2O films could be a promising material in electrochemical photovoltaic cells technology.


Article
organizational creativity ,organizational structures,traditional management
دور تطبيق نموذج Senge في التَعَلّم التنظيمي لتحقيق الإبداع في منظمات الأعمال "مدخل إلى دراسة تفكير النظم"

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Abstract

The purpose of this research is to suggest a model which may be used by law enforcement to broaden individual and organizational creativity while providing a more inclusive, holistic view of management within our internal and external organizational structures. This project introduces alternatives to traditional management, leadership styles and problem solving strategies. Law enforcement organizations in the 21st century will face many challenges. Much like community policing impacted the nation in the mid 1980's through the 1990's, the systems thinking approach offers a philosophy for the new millennium.Most organizations will face many challenges in the next decade of the twentieth first century. Just as happened in the mid-1980's to end 1990's of the twentieth century, when influenced policy pursued by some organizations using some modern management methods at that time, and the concept of systems thinking presents new philosophy for the new millennium.By using models such as the concept of theoretical model systems of (Senge 1994), which will address in this research, and therefore can achieve a broader viewpoint and new results in the case of application in business organizations. Of course, the session of systems thinking do not end and will continue. Once collective thinking generated we could say that all individuals are participating in the management process and in all its details. It was summed systems thinking model in this research by using the principles of Organization learning (Senge, 1994) due to its close to the facts of application of individual and organizational creativity. Through personal mastery, shared vision, team learning, and examination of mental models through thinking systems, we can learn new ways of thinking and acting, and collective action, in actual meaning and purpose

إنّ غرض هذا البحث هو تقديم نموذج مقترح قدْ يستخدم من قبل منظمات الأعمال لزيادة الإبداع الفردي والتنظيمي ويقدم وجهة النظر الشمولية للإدارة ضمن هياكل المنظمة. ويقدّم هذا البحث البدائل للإدارة التقليدية، والأساليب القيادية وإستراتيجيات حَلّ المشكلة باستخدام نموذج Senge الذي يخلق بدوره منظمة متعلمة قادرة على الإبداع.
وستواجه معظم المنظمات العديد من التحديات في العقد القادم من القرن الحادي والعشرون. تماماً مثلما حدث في منتصف الثمانينات إلى نهاية التسعينيات من القرن العشرون عندما أثرت سياسة خاصة انتهجتها المنظمات أنذاك باستخدام بعض الأساليب الإدارية الحديثة في وقتها، ويعرض مفهوم تفكير النظم فلسفة جديدة للألفية الجديدة.
وبإستعمال النماذج مثل نموذج مفهوم نظرية النظم للعالم (Senge) لسنة 1994، الذي سوف نتطرق إليه في متن البحث، لذا يمكن تحقيق وجهة نظر أوسع ونَتائِج جديدة في حالة تطبيقه في منظمات الأعمال. وبالطبع، فان دورة تفكير النظم لم تنتهي وستبقى مستمرة. وعندما يتولد التفكير الجماعي فإننا سنقول ان كل الأفراد مساهمين في العملية الإدارية وبكل تفاصيلها.
وتم تلخيص نموذج تفكير النظم في هذا البحث باستخدام مبادئ تعليم المنظمةَ (Senge,1994) لاقترابها من حقائق تطبيقِ الإبداع الفردي والتنظيمي. وذلك من خلال الإجادةِ الشخصية، والرؤية المشتركة، وتَعَلّم الفريقِ، وفَحْص النماذج العقلية من خلال تَفْكير النظم، والذي يُمْكِنُ أَنْ نَتعلّم طرق جديدة في التفكيرَ، والتمثيل، والعَمَل الجماعي، بالمعنى والغرض الحقيقي.


Article
Synthesis of Silicon Nanowires by Selective Etching Process

Author: A.T.S. Yee
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 3 Pages: 15-17
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

In this paper, selective etching process is used to synthesize SiNWs. This method arises from electroless metal deposition on a silicon wafer through selective etching. The electroless plating technique has many advantages such as low temperature processing and simple process with non-expensive deposition facilities. A clean p-type silicon wafer was etched in an aqueous solution containing hydrofluoric acid (HF) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) at 60ºC for 60 minutes. This aqueous solution was prepared by mixing both HF and AgNO3 in a plastic beaker and was heated in hot water bath. Electroless silver deposition will take place on the surface of Si wafer and their growth mechanism are analyzed on the basis of a self assembled localized microscopic electrochemical cell model. The structure of SiNWs is observed by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). It has revealed the formation of SiNWs with diameter ranging from 40 nm to 200 nm with the length of about 20 µm. The unique features of SiNWs have made them potentially applicable in solar cell, chemical sensing devices and basic components for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices.

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