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Article
15- BREAST CANCER IN KIRKUK, IRAQ. A REVIEW OF 170 BREAST CANCER FEMALES...

Author: NAHRAIN JOHN AZIZ
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2009 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 86-88
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Iraq as well as other parts of the world. InWestern world, the progress in public education and screening program had led to earlydetection of the disease which led to good prognosis. Appearance of late stages of breastcancer reflects the need for active screening and public education programs. The aim of thisretrospective study is to report the pattern of breast cancer in 170 women in Kirkuk province inrelation to age, stage of disease at first presentation and histopathology during nine yearsperiod (Jan.1994 – Jan.2003).This is a prospective and retrospective study underwent at Breast Clinic, Azadi GeneralHospital, Kirkuk, Iraq.Patients were 170 women with histopathological diagnosis of breast cancer. Out of the 170women with breast cancer (61.7%) presented between ages 20-50 years and (38.1%) betweenages 51-80 years. Regarding stage of disease on first presentation, (62.3%) of the patients hadlate stages of the disease (stage III and stage IV) while only (37.6%) presented at early stages(stage I and stage II). No stage 0 detected in this study. The commonest histopathology wasinfiltrating duct carcinoma (74.1%).In conclusion, breast cancer in Kirkuk is detected in young women and in late stages on firstpresentation. These results highlight the need for increased community awareness about breastcancer and the need for early detection.


Article
IL-2 and IL-4 Serum Levels in Breast Cancer

Author: Batool H. Al-Ghurabi* BSc, MSc, PhD (Clinical Immunology) د. بتول هاشم الغرابي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 3 Pages: 300-303
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary: Background: The role of cytokines in cancer immunity and carcinogenesis in general has been well established, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of many solid cancers.This study aimed to estimate serum levels of IL-2 and IL-4, and to shed light on the correlation of these interleukins with progression of breast cancer. Patients and Methods: The study included 80 women, it comprised of 45 breast cancer patients, 12 patients with benign breast lesions and 23 apparently healthy controls. ELISA method has been used for estimation the level of IL-2 and IL-4 in serum of three studied groups.Results: This study showed elevation of IL-4 level in the sera of breast cancer patients with significant differences between breast cancer and controls (p<0.001), this elevation was correlated with progression of the tumor. In addition, the elevation of serum level of IL-4 was found to be inversely related to ER and PR expression (P=<0.05). On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in the median of serum level of IL-2 in patients as compared with control groups. Conclusions: There was association between elevated serum level of IL-4 and breast cancer and this elevation was correlated with advanced stage of disease. In addition, there was no association between the statistical significant decrease of IL-2 serum level and the advanced stage of breast cancer. Keywords: Breast cancer, Cytokines, ER

Keywords

Breast cancer --- Cytokines --- ER


Article
CAF combination chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with liver metastasis

Author: Khudair J. Al Rawak* MBChB, DMRT د. خضير الرواق
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 3 Pages: 236-238
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:Background: management modalities for liver metastasis from primary breast cancer are evolving steadily but systemic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment.Patients and methods: 30 patients with breast carcinoma and liver metastasis managed at (Baghdad teaching hospital) during the period from Jan. 2005 to Jan. 2007.Results: 16 patients showed response to chemotherapy. 20% complete response was found and 33% showed partial response 57% went into progressive disease. The duration of response lasted for less than six months in 4 patients and more than six months in two patients.Conclusion: chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment of liver metastasis but new modalities of treatment add much for chemotherapy if used in combination.Key words: breast cancer, liver metastasis, chemotherapy


Article
Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in A Hundred Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Sorror Mahdi Latif --- Sorror Mahdi Latif --- Kholod Dhaher Habib
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 375-379
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Breastfeeding has been found to provide a measure of protection against uterine, cervical and ovarian cancers as well as breast cancer. . It's long been known that breast cancer is common in situations where women have few children and breast feed for short periods. Various physiopatholoical mechanisms are involved in the protective effect of breast feeding; anovulation , and cellular differentiation of the mammary cells.OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of breast feeding on breast cancer incidence.METHODS:One hundred married Women with breast cancer were evaluated to find out the impact of breast feeding on breast cancer incidence in these women .Data on risk factors were collected by self-administered questionnaires .The questionnaire included data like woman's age of having breast cancer ,woman's age at menopause , woman's age of first full term pregnancy , number of pregnancies ,lactation period , the age at menarche ,woman's social habit like smoking , type of contraception ,and family history of breast cancer ,the data were collected and analyzed .RESULTS:We studied 100 married women with breast cancer .Their age groups were distributed between 22years and 55 years when they had been discovered to have breast cancer, most of women were house wives (81%).Only three of them were smokers. Seventy nine women had menarche between age of 13-15 years, and only 4 of them had menarche at 16-17 years. Thirteen women had one full term pregnancy, other 48 women had 2- 4 full term pregnancies and only 38women had more than 5full term babies. According to lactation periods we found that 21 women had never lactating their babies, 49 women lactated their children for 7-12 months and only 18 women lactated their children for 19-24 months. Regarding the age of women at first full term baby birth, there were 4 women had their first full term baby at age of 14-17 years ,58 women at age of 18-22 years , 37 women at age of 23-33 years and only one woman at age of 35year.CONCLUSION:There was significant increasing risk of breast cancer with reducing periods of lactation (p value <0.001), with decreasing age at menarche (p value<0.001), early age of marriage (p value <0.001), and early age of having first full term baby (p value<0.001) .We can conclude that lactation for more than 24 months can provides important benefits for the women's health, such as reduced risk of breast cancer. There was no evidence of a statistically significant difference in breast cancer risk between subjects who had ever smoked and those who had not. There was a statistically insignificant relationship between a positive Family history of breast cancer, and increasing risk of breast cancer, (p value >0.05).


Article
Breast Lesions During Pregnancy Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

Authors: Sazan A. M. Al-Atrooshi --- Lubab Fadhil Talal
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 184-190
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The breast functions as a secretory gland during pregnancy due to the interaction of estrogen and progesterone, where the secretory unit is the lobule.OBJECTIVE:Is to highlight breast lesions during pregnancy and to show the importance of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of these breast lesions.PATIENTS AND METHOD:This study was carried out within the Main Referral Training Center for Early Detection of Breast Tumors, Medical City Teaching Hospital, Baghdad (from the beginning of May 2006 till the end of August 2008). Fifty eight pregnant ladies presenting with different breast lesions were included, all were subjected to physical breast examination, ultrasonography of the breast and fine needle aspiration with 10 ml disposable syringe (20-22 gauge), spread on glass slides and fixed in 95% alcohol, stained with Pap stain and examined under light microscope.RESULT:Clinicopathological study of 58 pregnant ladies presented with breast lesions including the age (range between 17-42 years), chief complaint (pain 10(17.2%)cases, mass 30(51.8%) cases, discharge 3(5.2%) cases, painful mass 11(18.9%) cases, axillary mass 3(5.2%) cases and pain and discharge in 1(1.7%) case) , site of the lesion (left side 24(41.4%) cases, right side 27(46.5%) cases and bilateral in 7(12.1%) cases.), the time of presentation during pregnancy (first trimester 19(32.8%) cases, second trimester 26(44.8%) and third trimester 13(22.4%) cases.) Our results show that breast lesions presented during pregnancy were benign in 54 (93.1%) cases, and malignant in 4 (6.9%) cases (all were breast carcinoma), the benign lesions include: fibroadenoma 15(25.9%) cases, inflammatory lesions 13(22.4%) cases, galactocele 8(13.8%) cases, fibrocystic changes 6(10.3%) cases, pregnancy related changes 5(8.6%) cases, lactating adenoma 3(5.2%) cases, 2(3.5%) cases lipoma, and papilloma one (1.7%) case , and one case was diagnosed as accessory axillary breast tissue.CONCLUSION:The majority of breast lesions during pregnancy are benign; however, a small percentage of these lesions prove to be malignant. Aspiration cytology has a place in the work up of abnormal areas found in pregnant breasts but an experienced cytologist with knowledge of the clinical setting is required.


Article
Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in breast cancer, its relation to estrogen and progesterone receptors and other prognostic factors

Authors: Kassim S. Ibrahim قاسم سعيد ابراهيم --- Banan B. Mohammed بنان برهان محمد
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2009 Volume: 35 Issue: 2 Pages: 117-123
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Aims of the study: To evaluate the expression of the Bcl-2 oncoprotein in patients with primary breast cancer, to correlate it with estrogen and progesterone receptors and various prognostic parameters.
Patients and methods: Fifty two cases of primary breast cancer in which the estrogen and progesterone receptors statuses were previously tested by immuno-histochemical staining, were included in this retrospective study. The cases were collected from Al- Jamhori Teaching Hospital, Nineveh Private Hospital and Private laboratories. The expression of Bcl-2 oncoprotein was evaluated immunohistochemically; the findings were correlated with the estrogen and progesterone receptors, the age of the patients, size, type and grade of the tumor, lymph node status and vascular invasion.
Results: Bcl-2 oncoprotein was detected in 24 cases of primary breast cancer (46.2%). In this study the majority of estrogen and progesterone receptors positive cases, (87.5%) and (83.3%) respectively, showed positive Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression, (P<0.001) and (P=0.0002) respectively. A significant association was found between Bcl-2 and tumor type (P=0.017). Bcl-2 oncoprotein was directly correlated with the age of the patients (P=0.0047), and inversely with the grade of the tumor and vascular invasion (P value = 0.0092, <0.001) respectively. No significant correlation with tumor size nor with lymph node status could be found, (P=0.078) and (P=0.19) respectively.
Conclusions: Bcl-2 oncoprotein was positive in 46.2% of primary breast cancer. This study revealed a significantly direct correlation between the Bcl-2 and the estrogen and progesterone receptors. A significant association was found between Bcl-2 oncoprotein and tumor type. Bcl-2 was directly related to the age of the patients, and inversely related to the grade of the tumor and vascular invasion.
Keywords: Bcl-2 oncoprotein, breast cancer, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor.

الخلاصةأهداف الدراسة: تهدف هذه الدراسة الى تقيّم تعبير البروتين السرطاني Bcl-2 لمرضى سرطان الثدي الابتدائي، وإيجاد علاقتها بمُستقبِلات الاستروجين والبروجستيرون والمثبتات الانذارية المختلفة.المرضى وطرق العمل: اثنان وخمسون حالة من حالات سرطان الثدي الأبتدائيِ التي فيها حالة مُستقبِلات الاستروجين ومستقبلات البروجستيرون قد أختبرت َبكيمياء النسيج المناعي سابقاً، تم اختبارها في هذه الدراسةِ ذات الأثر الرجعي، وقد جُمِعتْ الحالات من مستشفى الجمهوري التعليمي ومستشفى نينوى الخاص والمختبرات الخاصّة. قُيّم تعبير البروتين السرطاني Bcl-2 بكيمياء النسيج المناعي وتم تحليل النَتائِج وفقآ لعُمر المرضى و حجمِ السرطان، نوعه ، درجته و حالة العُقد اللمفاوية، الغزو الوعائي ووجود مستقبلات الاستروجين والبروجستيرونِ.النتائج: وجد البروتين السرطاني Bcl-2 في ٢٤ حالة من حالات سرطان الثدي (٢,٤٦%) و ان أغلبية الحالات التي فيها مُستقبِلات الاستروجين إيجابية (٥,٨٧%) أظهرت نتيجة ايجابية للبروتين السرطاني Bcl-2 (٠٠١,٠P <) وأيضاً أغلبية الحالات التي كانت فيها مُستقبِلات البروجستيرونِ إيجابيةِ (٣,٨٣ %) كانت ايجابية لتعبير Bcl-2 (٠٠٠٢,٠P=). وقد وجدت علاقة هامة بين Bcl-2 ونوع السرطان (٠١٧,٠ P=) والبروتين السرطاني Bcl-2 كانت له علاقة مباشرة بعُمر المرضى (٠٠٤٧,٠P=) وعلاقة عكسية بدرجة الورم والغزو الوعائي (٠٠٩٢,٠ P =، ٠٠١,٠P< على التوالي). لم يتم الحصول على علاقةَ هامّةَ بين Bcl-2وحجم الورم (٠٧٨,٠ P=). أيضاً لم يظهر البروتين السرطاني Bcl-2علاقةَ هامّةَ مع حالة العُقد اللمفاويةَ (١٩,٠P=). الاستنتاجات: البروتين السرطاني Bcl-2 كَان إيجابي في ٢,٤٦% من حالات سرطان الثدي الأبتدائي. وقد أظهرت هذه الدراسة علاقة مباشرة وهامة بين Bcl-2 ومستقبلات الاستروجين والبروجستيرون كما وجدت علاقة هامة بين نوع السرطان والبروتين السرطاني .Bcl-2 البروتين السرطاني Bcl-2كانت له علاقة مباشرة بعُمر المرضى وعلاقة عكسية بدرجة الورم وغزو الأوعية.


Article
The Possible Cytoprotective Effects of Antioxidant Drugs (Vitamin E and C) Against the Toxicity of Doxorubicin in Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Anmar H. Kashkool * MSc --- May S. Al-Sabbagh** MSc --- Dawser K. Al-Kashali*** PhD --- Kudair .J.Al-Rawaq**** DMRT خضير الرواق
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 1 Pages: 95-100
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Breast cancer is the culmination of a multi-step process that occurs over a period of severalyears or decades and as a cause of death, is a salient "free radical" disease. Aim: The present study aimson investigating the possible protective role of antioxidant drugs (vitamins E and C) to cardiac cellsagainst the oxidative stress induced damage during doxorubicin chemotherapy in patients with breastcancer.Patients and methods: Thirty two patients with different stages of breast carcinoma attending to BaghdadTeaching Hospital and ten healthy control subjects with age range between (29-61) years, mean(43.6±1.37) were included in this study. The patients were randomized into 3 groups, they were treatedwith either doxorubicin alone 60 mg/M² every 21 days, doxorubicin 60 mg/M² every 21 days +vitamin E800IU/day for 42 days or a combination of vitamins E 800IU/day and vitamin C 1000mg/day for 42 days+ doxorubicin 60 mg/M² every 21days. The oxidative stress and cardiac function parameters wereevaluated before starting treatment and after 21 and 42 days respectively including assessment of serumlevels of MDA, creatine kinase and lactate dehedrogenase activities.Results: Using doxorubicin alone produce an elevation in the markers of oxidative stress and cardiacdamage that can be reduced when antioxidant drugs vitamin E alone or a combination of vitamin E andvitamin C being added.Conclusion: Antioxidant drugs, vitamin E or a combination of vitamins E and C when co-administeredwith the antineoplastic drug doxorubicin reduces its cytotoxicity on cardiac cells in breast cancer patients.Key words: Breast cancer, Doxorubicin, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, MDA, Cardiotoxicity


Article
Non-Metastatic Breast Cancer : Clinical Presentation and Patterns of Surgical Treatment

Author: Abdulhadi J. Tlefih عبد الجليل طليفح
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2009 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 40-46
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background : Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women. When breast cancer is detected and treated early, the chances for survival are better. Surgery is the most important treatment for non-metastatic breast cancer.Al-Kindy Col Med J 2008 Vol.5(1) 40 Original ArticleObjectives : The aim of this study is to review different clinical presentation and to evaluate types of surgical procedures and complications in treatment of non-metastatic breast cancer.Method : During the period from Jun 1998 to May 2005,93 patients with non-metastatic breast cancer werediagnosed and treated surgically in 2 hospitals in Baghdad (Hammad Shihab military hospital and Al-Kindy teachinghospital).Results : Women constituted ( 98.93% ), while menconstituted (1.07%), with male to female ratio of (0.01:1).The peak incidence of non-metastatic breast cancer (25.8%)was at age group 51-60 years, while (60.2 % ) of caseshappened in women over 50 years of age. The right breastwas the most common side affected, and the upper outerquadrant of the breast was the most common locationaffected by cancer. Painless lump (91.4%) was the mostcommon symptom, and the hard lump was the mostcommon sign (100%).The highest frequency of cases was diagnosed in stage IIfollowed by stage III, and invasive ductal cancer was themost common histopathologic type.(87.1 %) of patients underwent modified radical mastectomy, while (12.9%) underwent breast-conservation surgery. Breast-conservation surgery carried higher incidence of recurrent disease than modified radical mastectomy (33.3% vs.13.6%).Conclusion : The majority of patients with non-metastatic breast cancer were over 50 years of age, and the preponderance were diagnosed in stage II. Modified radical mastectomy may be preferable method for treatment as it carries a lower rate of local or distant recurrence than conventional breast-conservation surgery procedures.Key words: Non-metastatic breast cancer,


Article
GENOTYPING OF HLA-CLASS-I BY PCR-SSP OF IRAQI BREAST CANCER PATIENTS
التنميط الوراثي لمستضدات الخلايا البيض البشرية-الصنف الأول بواسطة تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل – بتقنية الباديء المعين لسلسلة جينية معينة لمريضات سرطان الثدي العراقيات

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Background: The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial, in which genetic predisposition; environmental factors, hormones and even the infectious agents are thought to interact in the manifestation of disease. In this regard, alleles of HLA are important immunogenetic risk factors, but their associations show different frequencies in different populations.Objectives: This study was established to shed light on the possible association of HLA class I alleles with BC in Iraqi female patients.Subjects and Methods: The study included 60 subjects: 30 breast cancer patients, 12 patients with benign breast lesions as first control and 18 apparently healthy subjects as second control. Polymerase chain reaction-specific sequence primers (PCR- SSP) assay was conducted to assess HLA- typing.Results: Out of 95 HLA class I alleles (A= 24; B= 48; C= 23), one allele (HLA- A*03010101-07, 09-11N, 13-16 allele) showed a significant variation between breast cancer patients and control groups (healthy and disease controls) (50% vs. 16.6%, OR=5, EF= 0.40, P= 0.041), (50% vs. 8.3%, OR=11, EF=O.45, P=0.024) respectively.Conclusions: The results demonstrated that HLA- A*03010101-07, 09-11N, 13-16 allele may played a role in the etiology of the disease. Keywords: Breast cancer, HLA, PCR.

خلفية الدراسة : إن مسببات سرطان الثدي متعددة, فالمهيئات الوراثية ,العوامل البيئية والهرمونية وحتى الخمجية يعتقد بأنها تتداخل لإظهار المرض. في هذا الخصوص, أليلات مستضدات خلايا الدم البيض البشرية تعتبر مهمة كعوامل وراثية مناعية خطرة لكن مصاحبتها للمرض تظهر تكرارية مختلفة باختلاف الشعوب .هدف الدراسة: نظمت هذه الدراسة لتسلط الضوء على احتمالية وجود مصاحبة بين أليلات مستضدات خلايا الدم البيض البشرية )الصنف الأول( مع سرطان الثدي في المريضات العراقيات.الأشخاص وطرائق العمل: تضمنت الدراسة 60 شخص: 30 مريضة مصابة بسرطان الثدي, 12 مريضة مصابة باورام الثدي الحميدة كمجموعة ضابطه أولى و 18 امرأة سليمة ظاهريا كمجموعة ضابطه ثانية. استخدم فحص تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل – بتقنية الباديء المعين لسلسلة جينية معينة لتقييم تنميط أليلات مستضدات الخلايا البيض البشرية.النتائــج: من 95 أليل لمستضدات خلايا الدم البيض البشرية الصنف الأول, أليل واحد (A*03010101-07,09-11N,13-16) اظهر تباين معنوي بين المريضات والمجموعتين الضابطتين (مجموعة النساء السويات ومجموعة مريضات أورام الثدي الحميدة) (50% vs. 16.6%, OR=5, EF= 0.40, P= 0.041), (50% vs. 8.3%, OR=11, EF=O.45, P=0.024) نسبة إلى كل منهما.الاستنتاجات: النتائج أظهرت بان الاليل: (A*03010101-07,09-11N,13-16) ربما لعب دور في أحداث المرض. مفتاح الكلمات: سرطان الثدي،مستضدات الخلايا البيض البشرية ، تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل.


Article
GENOTYPING OF HLA-CLASS-II BY PCR-SSP OF IRAQI BREAST CANCER PATIENTS
التنميط الوراثي لمستضدات الخلايا البيض البشرية-الصنف الثاني بواسطة تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل – بتقنية الباديء المعين لسلسلة جينية معينة لمريضات سرطان الثدي العراقيات

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Background: Breast cancer incidence differs among women of different racial/ethnic groups. Several HLA alleles are associated with susceptibility or protection in Breast cancer, the particular allele varies depending on the racial groups.Objectives: This study was established to shed light on the possible association of HLA class II alleles with BC in Iraqi female patients.Subjects and Methods: The study included 60 subjects: 30 breast cancer patients, 12 patients with benign breast lesions as first control and 18 apparently healthy subjects as second control. Polymerase chain reaction-specific sequence primers (PCR- SSP) assay was conducted to assess HLA- typing.Results : A survey of the distribution of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ alleles frequencies yielded no evident of positive association between class II alleles and BC as compared with both control groups, but there was appreciable significant decrease in the frequency of DR*010101,0102,0201-0204,04-13 and DQB1*0401,02 alleles in BC patients as compared with healthy control (P=0.031).Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that HLA– DR*010101, 0102, 0201-0204, 04-13 and DQB1*0401, 02 alleles may confer protective effects against BC. Keywords: Breast cancer, HLA allele, PCR.

خلفية الدراسة : إن نسبة حدوث سرطان الثدي في النساء يختلف باختلاف العرق او القومية. العديد من اليلات مستضدات الخلايا البيض البشرية لها علاقة بالاستعداد او الحماية من سرطان الثدي, خصوصية الاليل تختلف حسب العرق.هدف الدراسة : نظمت هذه الدراسه لتسلط الضوء على احتمالية وجود مصاحبة بين اليلات مستضدات خلايا الدم البيض البشرية )الصنف الثاني( مع سرطان الثدي في المريضات العراقيات.الاشخاص وطرق العمل : تضمنت الدراسة 60 شخص: 30 مريضة مصابة بسرطان الثدي, 12 مريضة مصابة باورام الثدي الحميدة كمجموعة ضابطه اولى و 18 امراة سليمة ظاهريا كمجموعة ضابطه ثانية. استخدم فحص تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل – بتقنية الباديء المعين لسلسلة جينية معينة لتقييم تنميط اليلات مستضدات الخلايا البيض البشرية. النتائــج : أظهرت معاينة التوزيع التكراري لاليلات مستضدات الخلايا البيض البشرية-الصنف الثاني عدم وجود مصاحبة موجبة بين هذه الاليلات ومرض سرطان الثدي عند المقارنة مع مجموعتي السيطرة, لكن هناك نقصان مهم معنويا في تكرارية الاليلين:DR*010101, 0102, 0201-0204, 04-13 and DQB1*0401, 02 في مرضى سرطان الثدي مقارنة بالسيطرة الاصحاءالاستنتاجات: أظهرت النتائج بان الاليلين: DR*010101,0102,0201-0204,04-13 and DQB1*0401,02ربما تمنح الحماية من المرض.مفتاح الكلمات: سرطان الثدي، مستضدات الخلايا البيض البشرية ، تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل.

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