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Article
Stability Index of the Treated Water from Al-Karkh and Al-Rasheed Water Treatment Plants in Baghdad City

Authors: Mohammed Abdul- Khalek --- Awatif Soaded Alsaqqar
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2009 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 3606-3619
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

An analysis was performed on the treated water from two water treatment plants in Baghdad city. This analysis was used to evaluate the stability of the treated water from these plants and that will flow in the distribution system to consider its corrosivity. The variation in water stability with time and distance from the north to the south of Baghdad was indicated. The analysis showed that the flowing water in the distribution system in Baghdad is corrosive to very corrosive water by calculating Ryznar stability index (RI). In Al- Karkh WTP in the north, RI maximum ranged between 7.958 to 9.403 where RI minimum ranged between 7.03 to 7.915. Where in the south Al-Rasheed WTP, RI maximum ranged between 7.119 to 8.63 and RI minimum ranged 6.679 to 7.994. The corrositivity of water decreased in the water flowing down stream. The water quality parameters affecting RI was discussed which were calcium, alkalinity, total dissolved solids and pH.

في هذا البحث تم تحليل الماء من محطتين لتنقية المياه في مدينة بغداد. والهدف من هذا التحليل هو لايجاد استقرارية هذه المياه التي تجري داخل شبكة توزيع الماء و معرفة مدى تآكلها. وقد بين البحث مدى تغير هذه الاستقرارية مع الزمن و المسافه بين شمال و جنوب مدينة بغداد. تبين من التحليل بأن المياه الخارجة من محطات التنقية و التي تجري في شبكة التوزيع لمدينة بغداد ذات صفة تآكلية وذلك من حساب معامل الاستقرارية. في محطة الكرخ لتنقية الماء في شمال مدينة بغداد تراوح معامل الاستقرارية الاعظم بين 7.956- 9.403 و معامل الاستقرارية الادنى 7.915 - 7.03 وفي جنوب بغداد محطة الرشيد لتنقية المياه كان معامل الاستقرارية الاعظم للماء المعالج 7.119 - 8.63 و تراوح معامل الاستقرارية الادنى بين 6.679-7.994 ومن هذه النتائج نلاحظ بان تآكلية الماء تقل بأتجاه الجريان من الشمال الى جنوب من مدينة بغداد اعتمادا على صفات الماء التي تؤثر على معامل الاستقرارية . ومن هذه الصفات والتي تمت مناقشتها تركيز الكالسيوم, القاعديه, الاملاح الكليه الذائبه و درجة الحامضيه .


Article
Index of orthodontic treatment need of 10-12 years Iraqi pupils.

Author: Dr. Abeer B. mahmoud B.D.S., M.Sc د. عبير محمد
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2009 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 39-43
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Many orthodontic problems arise at the age of 10-12 years therefore the aim of this study was to detect the percentage of pupil at age 10-12 year that need orthodontic treatment and have not done it till now, and the possibility of motivating them. 1500 Iraqi pupil at school age of 10-12 year were examined according to grade designed by Sweden orthodontic board. 57% of the sample required no treatment, 23.3% required mild treatment, and 14% required moderate while 5.3% required great treatment & 0.3% require very great treatment. Majority of pupils that need treatment didn't receive any motivation even from their dentist, There is a great shortage in dental health education programs. About half of pupil examined didn't need treatment although there is a large number of thesample who needs treatment


Article
12-INFLUENCE OF BODY MASS INDEX ON THE INCIDENCE OF PRETERM LABOUR

Authors: Khilud Salim Al-Salami --- Zaineb T Alyasin --- Ragad Nasir HussainSAINN
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2009 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 72-77
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Nutritional status of the women has been considered as an important prognostic indicator ofpregnancy outcome and risk of preterm birth. Few studies have evaluated the patterns of bodymass index in developing regions where malnutrition and poor weight gain as well as maternalobesity have significant influences on the pregnancy outcome. This study aims to show theeffect of pregnancy body mass index on the incidence of preterm labour.This is a prospective descriptive study of 200 women attended Basrah Maternity and ChildHospital who were diagnosed with preterm labour were recruited in the study. Patients wereclassified into categories that were based on their body mass index (BMI) according to thenational institute of health guidelines. Rate of spontaneous preterm birth were determined.Women with body mass index <19 kg/m2 had 34.5% of spontaneous preterm labour, with BMI19-24.9 kg/m2 had 28.5% of spontaneous preterm labour, while those with BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2had 21% of spontaneous preterm labour, women with BMI 30-34.9 kg/m2 had 14% ofspontaneous preterm labour and with BMI >/35kg/m2 had 2%of spontaneous preterm labour.Risk of spontaneous preterm labour tend to progressively decrease with increasing body massindex.Thinner women who have preterm delivery tend to deliver at earlier gestational age than womenwho were obese 42.3% of non obese women deliver before 30 weeks of gestation compared to25% of the obese, 44% of non obese deliver at gestational age 30-40 weeks compared to 28.25of the obese.In conclusion, high body mass index is associated with a lower rate of spontaneous pretermbirth.

Keywords

BODY MASS INDEX --- PRETERM --- LABOUR


Article
New Glasses for Optical Fibres and Their Applications (invited contribution)

Author: D.N. Payne
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics Letters الرسائل العراقية في الفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 1999656X Year: 2009 Volume: 2 Issue: 4 Pages: 19-20
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

Glasses with high-refractive index, high acousto-optic merit, low phonon energy and good solubility of the rare-earth are essential for optical waveguides devices of the future. At the ORC, research on advanced materials for multifunction waveguides is driven by device requirements. A more efficient optical fibre amplifier for 1.3um requires new glasses of lower vibrational energies to minimise nonradiative decay. Planar lossless splitters rely on a new waveguide material which allows highincorporation of erbium. Modulators need bulk or fibre optics which interact with acousto-optic power. Other new glasses with very high photosensitivity are being developed for fibre Bragg gratings, and highly non-linear glasses for all-optical switches. It is clear that for functions as diverse as amplification, splitting, modulation, switching or filtering the key to these devices is new glass materials.


Article
Hydrochemistry and Assessment of Ground Water Quality of Al-Shekhan – Bartellah Area (Northern Iraq)
هيدروكيمائية وتقيم نوعية المياه الجوفية في منطقة الشيخان- برطلة ( شمال العراق)

Author: Umar N. Abdul Qader عمر نبهان عبدالقادر
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2009 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 42-50
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The main source of water in the study area is the ground water and rainfall during wet season. Three main aquifers were identified in the study area, PilaSpi aquifer, Al-Fatha aquifer and Injana aquifer. Ten ground water samples were collected during October 2006 from selected wells distributed within Al-Shekhan–Bartellah area. Temperature, pH, and Electrical conductivity were measured in situ, in addition to major soluble ions (Cations and Anions). Total dissolved solids, were analized in laboratory, and total hardness were calculated. Three water types were recognized; Ca-HCO3, Mg-HCO3 and Mg-SO4. The ionic strength of each sample and saturation indices (SI) of calcite, dolomite and gypsum in aquifers were calculated, it was found that all the water samples were undersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite except wells (w4 and w5) which are in equilibrium state, and all water samples were undersaturated with respect to gypsum. Ground water in study area is potable and suitable for irrigation depending on calculated of sodium percentage (Na%), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), permeability index (PI) also by using Wilcox diagram and US salinity diagram .

أن المصدر الرئيس للمياه في منطقة الدراسة هو المياه الجوفية بالإضافة الى الإمطار في الأشهر الرطبة .تم تميز ثلاثة خزانات رئيسية حاملة للمياه في منطقة الدراسة وهي خزان البلاسبي،خزان الفتحة وخزان انجانة. جمعت عشر نماذج مائية خلال شهر تشرين الأول 2006 من أبار مائية موزعة في منطقة الدراسة لتحديد نوعية المياه وتقيم استخداماتها للإغراض المختلفة، حيث تم قياس درجة حرارة ،الدالة الحامضية والتوصيلية الكهربائية للنماذج المائية في الحقل ، بالإضافة الى تحليل العناصر الرئيسية والملوحة في المختبروحساب درجة العسرة للمياه . حيث تم تميز ثلاثة أنواع من المياه وهي: كاربونات الكالسيوم ، كاربونات المغنسيوم وكبريتات المغنسيوم . كذلك تم حساب القوة الأيونية لكل نموذج وحساب معامل التشبع لمعادن ( الكالسايت ، الدولومايت والجبسوم) المذابة في الخزانات المائية لمنطقة الدراسة حيث وجد أن معدن الكالسايت والدولومايت كانا في حالة تحت الاشباع لجميع النماذج باستثناء النماذج( 4 و5 ) فقد وصلا الى حالة التوازن بينما كانت جميع النماذج في حالة تحت الاشباع بالنسبة لمعدن الجبسوم . كما تم تقيم المياه الجوفية في المنطقة حيث ظهرت بأنها صالحة للشرب و للري بالاعتماد على حساب النسبة المئوية للصوديوم، نسبة امتزاز الصوديوم ومعامل النفاذية وكذلك باستخدام مخطط وليكوكس ومختبر الملوحة الأمريكي.


Article
Detection of the Early Cardiac changes of hypertension by Echocardiography

Authors: Ramaq G. Wahbi Al-Kadi, --- Muataz F. Hussein --- Anmar S. Zaki,
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 2 Pages: 123-126
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Hypertension causes changes on the cardiac performance, and this effect is more profound on the LV where systolic high pressure is present. Patients and Methods: We studied 30 patients (14 females and 16 males of average age of 54.8±13.5) with hypertension and 20 normal individuals, the control group (age range 45.6±17.8, 11 females and 9 males). Measurements of early filling velocity E, late filling velocity A at atrial contraction and ejection fraction were taken, also isovolumetric relaxation, and contraction times and ejection times were taken. MPI myocardial performance index was calculated. Results: Results shows a significant increase in the isovolumetric relaxation time IRT (30%),were IRT for the patients group was(105.4±20.8)compared to(73±6.86) for the normal group. The late velocity A (42%), were A for the patients group was (89.28±18) compared to (51.1±18) for the normal group. Ejection time ET (26%), were ET (438.2±88) for the patients group compared to (324±34) for the normal group. And the ratio A/E (41%), were A/E for patients group (1.33) compared to (0.78) for the normal group. While no significant change was observed on ejection fraction (EF %), isovolumetric contraction time (ICT), early velocity E, and myocardial performance index (MPI). Conclusion: Diastolic function impairment was found to occur earlier than systolic function impairment in hypertensive patients.


Article
Temperature-Dependent Birefringence Properties of Be3Al2Si6O18 Crystal

Authors: M.A. Albarazanchy --- I.K. Hama --- G.M. Najeeb
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics Letters الرسائل العراقية في الفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 1999656X Year: 2009 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 12-14
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

The temperature dependence of the refractive indices for ordinary and extraordinary rays of mercury spectrum three lines and laser line independently one from the other were measured in temperature interval 20-600°C. It was obtained that the refractive indices increase along with the temperature growth and this dependence has quasilinear character. Emerald has quite low birefringence values that increases slightly along with the temperature growth and decreases with wavelength growth. The thermooptical coefficients for every wavelength were calculated. They have greater values for the extraordinary beams than for the ordinary ones. The dispersion curve for refractive indices was obtained.


Article
The Ankle- Brachial Pressure Index AS A Predictor of Coronary Artery Disease Severity

Author: Hilal B. Al Saffar* MBChB, FRCP, FACC د. هلال بهجت الصفار
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 3 Pages: 254-258
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:Background: Atherosclerosis is a diffuse disease process, being present in one vascular bed predicts its presence in the others. Ankle –brachial pressure index (ABI) is a non invasive test proved to be sensitive and specific in detecting and assessing the severity of peripheral arterial disease.Patients and Methods: One hundred fifty patients (150) were enrolled in this study, from January - June 2007; all were referred to the Iraqi Centre for Heart Diseases (I.C.H.D.) for further evaluation, with request for further assessment of CAD or lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. Clinical data and physical examination were performed; ABI was calculated by measurement of systolic pressure on both ankles over both dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial arteries and on both arms over the brachial arteries by using a Doppler stethoscope. The Ankle –Brachial Pressure Index (ABI) calculation was made by taking the lowest value for the ankle pressure and the highest value for the brachial pressure. The normal value for the ABI range from (1-1.4), a cutoff value of < 0.90 was used to identify low ABI. All patients underwent diagnostic coronary angiography and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) was used to identify the lesion length and severity of stenosis. The severity of CAD was quantified by GENSINI score, the number of diseased vessels and the number of significant lesions. Results: The mean Ankle-Brachial Pressure index (ABI) for the sample was 0.908±0.31 (range 0-1.53), the mean GENSINI score was 44.02±40 (range 0-148), GENSINI score was zero in 30 (20%) patients, 40 (26%) were having no diseased vessel, 41(27%) having single, and 43 (28.7%) double and 26 (17%) triple vessel disease. ABI was inversely related to the extent of CAD assessed by GENSINI (p-value 0.015), number of diseased vessels (p-value 0.009), and number of significant lesions (p-value 0.021). ABI < 0.9 was recorded in 51 patients (34%) and a low ABI was an independent factor for a higher GENSINI scores (p-value 0.043) and a higher number of diseased vessels (p-value 0.0001). Patients who were referred with PAD were found to have significantly lower ABI than the rest of the sample (p=0.0001), and a coexisted CAD was detected in 15 out of 20 (75%) patients.Conclusions: ABI was a useful bedside clinical test that predicts the severity of the CAD in patients who are already suffering from or suspected to have ischemic heart disease.Keywords: IHD, Ankle-Brachial Pressure index, GENSINI score


Article
Estimation of serum leptin in female patients with nodal osteoarthritis

Author: Raid D. Hashim * MBChB د. رائد هاشم
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 4 Pages: 392-394
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:Background: Nodal osteoarthritis is one of the most common arthropathy worldwide, the etiology is uncertain but many biochemical markers are recognized. Many studies have shown that leptin might have a role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, but little is known about the relation between serum leptin and nodal osteoarthritis. Subjects and method: 52 women with nodal osteoarthritis and 40 apparently healthy women as a control were included in the study; serum leptin was measured in all subjects. Student t-test was applied to find out the significance of difference in the mean v Results: There was a significant difference in the mean of serum leptin between patients and control groups.Conclusion: the results of the current study suggest that leptin might have a role in the pathogenesis of nodal osteoarthritisKeywords: leptin, nodal osteoarthritis, pathogenesis, Body Mass Index.


Article
Estimation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Variation for Selected Regions in Iraq for two Years 1990 & 2001
تقدير دليل تغاير الغطاء النباتي المعدّل (NDVI)لمنطقة مختارة من العراق وللعامين 1990 و2001

Author: Ahmed Asaad Najeeb أحمـد أسعـد زعيـن نجيـب
Journal: Journal of university of Anbar for Pure science مجلة جامعة الانبار للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: ISSN: 19918941 Year: 2009 Volume: 3 Issue: 3 Pages: 86-89
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is commonly used as a measure of land surface greenness based on the assumption that NDVI value is positively proportional to the amount of green vegetation in an image pixel area. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data set of Landsat based on the remote sensing information is used to estimate the area of plant cover in region west of Baghdad during 1990-2001. The results show that in the period of 1990 and 2001 the plant area in region of Baghdad increased from (44760.25) hectare to (75410.67) hectare. The vegetation area increased during the period 1990-2001, and decreases the exposed area.

الخلاصة:أن دليل تغاير الغطاء النباتي المعدل يستعمل غالباً كمقياس لكثافة الغطاء النباتي لسطح الارض المبنية على أفتراض أن قيم دليلللقمر الصناعي (pixel) تغاير الغطاء النباتي المعدل تتناسب أيجاباً مع كمية أو كثافة الغطاء النباتي في مساحة عنصر الصورةالامريكي لاندسات من معلومات التحسس النائي التي تستخدم لتقدير مساحة الغطاء النباتي في منطقة غرب بغداد خلال الفترة 1990و 2001 . بينت النتائج أن في الفترة من 1990 الى 2001 انخفضت مساحة الأرض المكشوفة (الجرداء) وازدادت المساحة الخضريةمن ( 44760.25 ) هكتار الى ( 75410.67 ) هكتار

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