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The new American strategy towards middle East administration
استراتيجية الادارة الامريكية الجديدة ازاء الشرق الاوسط


Article
The water problem in the province of Diyala and the rationalization of consumption
مشكلة المياه في محافظة ديالى وترشيد استهلاكها

Author: abdallah hason mohamad عبدالله حسون محمد
Journal: Journal of Research Diyala humanity مجلة ديالى للبحوث الانسانية ISSN: 1998104x Year: 2010 Issue: 46 Pages: 101-163
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

The problems of water are one of the main problems, which will occupy the war in the region in the turbulent times of emergency, actually the twenty one century is the water war .for example, that the per capita share of fresh water in the world declined by one third between 1985 and 2005, and half the population of developing countries are using contaminated water, in addition, 70% of fresh water wasted in some developing countries and 30% consumed in agricultural irrigation, which records waste "at least 55% causing the failure of tactics and techniques.The study analysis and the reality of water resources in the province of Diala, where the size of potential and existing problems of water scarcity, the removal and the relationship of water by various manifestations in the province of Diala. Quantities of rain and snow varies from place to place and from time to time, and tributaries feeding the Diala River was created by the dams, and excessive water use on farms and in factories and homes led to the maturation of water (groundwater) and the rate of discharge of the Diala River to less than (12,5, 3 / sec) and decreased the level of Lake Hamrin during the month of September of 2009 from (89.8m) to (87.8) with about twice this index is alarming, with a drop volume of water in the lake less than (0,15 billion m 3), reaching a cumulative revenue of water of the Diala River in 2008 (0,23 billion 3) and by (21%) of the rate year, the water in Iraq reached (52m3) out of (100m3) which was to take advantage of (48 m 3) only, the high volume of lost water due to the feet of networks and the presence of fractures in most of the pipes and freshwater use in watering gardens, farms and other purposes other than drinking, as well as "on the use of traditional methods of the old irrigation of all these factors led to water scarcity and degradation of the agricultural economy and scarcity of water led to a reduction capita share of water less than 50liters per capita per day, this led to loss of many of the orchards as the total area of the orchard in the Diala province of (120000) thousand sq .m have caused water scarcity doom (25%) of them, an area of farmland and an area of (1,5) million acres, decreased (40%) Because of the scarcity of water and the abolition of the agricultural plan in the province of Diala in 2008 and is spreading in the province deforestation palm groves and fruit under the pretext of scarcity of water and converted into residential units and establish the commercial and industrial. The rising price of electricity in the unit will lead to the recent migration of peasants and the decline of agriculture and the collapse of the irrigation projects. The problems of water are one of the main problems, which will occupy the war in the region in the turbulent times of emergency, actually the twenty one century is the water war .for example, that the per capita share of fresh water in the world declined by one third between 1985 and 2005, and half the population of developing countries are using contaminated water, in addition, 70% of fresh water wasted in some developing countries and 30% consumed in agricultural irrigation, which records waste "at least 55% causing the failure of tactics and techniques.The study analysis and the reality of water resources in the province of Diala, where the size of potential and existing problems of water scarcity, the removal and the relationship of water by various manifestations in the province of Diala. Quantities of rain and snow varies from place to place and from time to time, and tributaries feeding the Diala River was created by the dams, and excessive water use on farms and in factories and homes led to the maturation of water (groundwater) and the rate of discharge of the Diala River to less than (12,5, 3 / sec) and decreased the level of Lake Hamrin during the month of September of 2009 from (89.8m) to (87.8) with about twice this index is alarming, with a drop volume of water in the lake less than (0,15 billion m 3), reaching a cumulative revenue of water of the Diala River in 2008 (0,23 billion 3) and by (21%) of the rate year, the water in Iraq reached (52m3) out of (100m3) which was to take advantage of (48 m 3) only, the high volume of lost water due to the feet of networks and the presence of fractures in most of the pipes and freshwater use in watering gardens, farms and other purposes other than drinking, as well as "on the use of traditional methods of the old irrigation of all these factors led to water scarcity and degradation of the agricultural economy and scarcity of water led to a reduction capita share of water less than 50liters per capita per day, this led to loss of many of the orchards as the total area of the orchard in the Diala province of (120000) thousand sq .m have caused water scarcity doom (25%) of them, an area of farmland and an area of (1,5) million acres, decreased (40%) Because of the scarcity of water and the abolition of the agricultural plan in the province of Diala in 2008 and is spreading in the province deforestation palm groves and fruit under the pretext of scarcity of water and converted into residential units and establish the commercial and industrial. The rising price of electricity in the unit will lead to the recent migration of peasants and the decline of agriculture and the collapse of the irrigation projects.

تعد مشكلة المياه في منطقة الشرق الأوسط من المشاكل التي ستشعل الحرب في ظل الظروف والأوضاع الطارئة وان القرن الحالي القرن الحادي والعشريين قرن حرب المياه.وان العديد من الحوادث الحدودية المرتبطة بالمياه فد تتحول الي حروب مفتوحة بسبب النقص المتزايد من هذه الثروة الطبيعية الحيوية.
ان حصة الفرد من المياه العذبة في العالم انخفض أكثر من الثلث , وان نصف سكان الدول النامية يستخدمون مياه ملوثة وان 70% من المياه العذبة تهدر في بعض الدول النامية و30% تستهلك في الري الزراعي والذي يسجل هدرا لا تقل عن 55% بسبب تخلف الأساليب والطرق . وان واردات نهر النيل من المياه 1660 مليار متر مكعب تضيع 95% منها في المستنقعات والصراع على 5% منها فقط.
وفي هذا البحث تناولت واقع الموارد المائية في محافظة ديالى من حيث حجم الإمكانات والمشاكل الناجمة عن شحة المياه وأزماته وعلاقة المياه بواقع مظاهر مختلفة في محافظة ديالى,فكميات الإمطار والثلوج تتباين من مكان لأخر ومن وقت الي أخر , والروافد المغذية لنهر ديالى أنشئت عليها السدود , والإسراف والهدر في استخدام المياه في المزارع والمصانع والمنازل أدت الي نضوب المياه الجوفية وانخفض معدل تصريف نهر ديالى الي اقل من (12.5م3 في الثانية ) وانخفض منسوب بحيرة حمريين خلال شهر أيلول من عام 2009 م من (89.8) الي (87.8) أي بحدود متريين وهذا مؤشر ينذر بالخطر , وعلى اثر ذالك انخفض الحجم المائي في البحيرة الي اقل من (0.15)مليارم3, وبلغ متراكم الإيرادات المائية لنهر ديالى لعام 2008م (0.23مليار م3 )وبنسبة (21% )من المعدل العام , وان الضائعات المائية بلغت (52م3) من أصل (100م3) . وان ارتفاع حجم الضائعات يعزى الي فدم الشبكات ووجود كسور فيها , واستخدام المياه العذبة في سقي الحدائق ولإغراض أخرى غير الشرب فضلا عن استخدام الطرق القديمة في الري كل هذه العوامل أدت إلى شحة المياه وتدهور الاقتصاد الزراعي , وان شحت المياه أدت إلى انخفاض حصة الفرد من المياه الى اقل من 50 لتر للفرد الواحد وأدت إلى هلاك الكثير من البساتين إذ إن المساحة الكلية للبساتين في المحافظة تبلغ (120000)دونم وقد تسببت شحة المياه بهلاك (25%)منها وتقلصت مساحة الأراضي الزراعية والبالغة مساحتها (1.5)مليون دونم بنسبة (40%) وبسبب شحة المياه وندرتها تنتشر ظاهرة إزالة البساتين وتحويلها الى وحدات سكنية,وأقامت المنشات الصناعية والتجارية على الأراضي الزراعية

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